Study Of Bhagavad Gita  Dr. Shriniwas J. Kashalikar
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  • 1. STUDY OF GITA 1 DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 2. STUDY OF GITA 2 STUDY OF GITA Dr. Shriniwas Kashalikar DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 3. STUDY OF GITA 3 November 4, 2009, 10:30 am GURURBRAHMA GURURVISHNUH GURURDEVO MAHESHVARAH GURUH SAKSHAT PARABRAHMA TASMAISHRI GURAVE NAMAH I salute my Guru, who is Brahma, Vishnu and Mahesh called Gunamaya i.e. the penultimate truth; and the Parabrahma; i.e. the ultimate truth. Apparently I wanted to study something world famous and ultimate in every sense; and hence I began the study of Gita. But now it appears that there was much more to it than this. Whether I studied Gita or Gita herself made me study her, is a moot question and I feel; the latter may be truer. When I seriously began to study Gita; about twenty years ago, I found many contradictions in her. For example, in 4th chapter, Lord Krishna says in the same verse, (Chaturvarnayam maya srustam…) that he created four VARNAs and also he did not create them. Also, even as Lord Krishna advocates the war (tasmat uttishtha Kaunteya yuddhaya kruta DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 4. STUDY OF GITA 4 nishchaya…2nd chapter, nirashi nirmamo bhootva yuddhaya kruta nishchaya… 3rd chapter), he also upholds nonviolence and control of mind in most of the chapters e.g. (ahinsa satyamakrodham.. 16th chapter, moodhagrahenamatnoyat …17th chapter, ) as a virtue. Similarly, Lord Krishna disapproves Arjuna’s arguments in 1st chapter about VARNA SANKAR, which means indisciplined and unrestricted marriages directed by mere attraction; in different groups, (ashochyana aiva shochastvam prajnya vadanscha bhashase.. 2nd chapter.. ) he uses the same argument (yadi hyaham na varteyam …and utside yurime lokam… 3rd chapter). In 2nd chapter his argument (akirtim cha pi bhutani….and bhayat ranat uparatam… etc) about “what people would say”, appears to be too superficial and not enlightening or philosophical. One can quote many such contradictions, but that is not the purpose of this writing. The purpose of this writing is; to share my experiences and perceptions as I went on studying Gita. DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 5. STUDY OF GITA 5 Apparently; the reason why I kept on studying and by hearting inspite of contradictions was; I realized the need to contemplate on the vast canvas of all 700 verses at any given point of time and possibly resolve the contradictions; even while traveling or walking and without having to refer a book! But frankly speaking, I had not quite understood why I kept on reciting and by hearting Gita, inspite of the contradictions! It appears now, that Gita herself consumed my consciousness, without me being aware of it and kept on absorbing my being in her! The persistence; inspite of pains and agony of disagreement; being beyond my desire or voluntary will, may be because of the roots it has in my previous birth. This study may be a continuation of what I had to leave half way in my last birth. But life actually encompasses the births and deaths and hence called ANUBANDHA and NITYAGA i.e. linked up and continuous! The continuity is evident in such phenomena. You may believe and appreciate this or discard as a flight of imagination! I leave it to your own perceptions and experiences! DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 6. STUDY OF GITA 6 I had tried to write on Gita about ten to twelve years back, but later I stopped as I was not quite satisfied and was not at ease; with my own interpretations. Not that now I can claim to have understood Gita completely, but I am convinced that Gita enlightens us for the journey that begins from ignorance, individuality; and timed and mortal existence and heads towards the self realization; universality and trans-temporal immortal consciousness respectively! At this juncture I see; that Gita deals with various physical, instinctual, emotional and intellectual activities at individual level, the relationship of these with the universe and the relationship of all these with past, present and future; and the all encompassing nature of our cosmic being. Gita deals with the principles involved in what happens in an individual, society, and in universe, from all eternity to all eternity, which may be termed cosmic dynamics or cosmic orchestra; including the role of an individual blossoming in it! I have realized that I may not understand Gita, I may misunderstand Gita or I may partially DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 7. STUDY OF GITA 7 understand Gita. In any case it is useful; because; that kick starts the exciting voyage of enlightenment and blossoming! Complete understanding of Gita is impossible, because it is trans-intellectual i.e. beyond the three levels of consciousness (SWPANA, SUSHUPTI and JAGRUTI, i.e. dream, sleep and wakefulness respectively) and four modes of communication (VAACHA) viz. PARA, PASHYANTI, MADHYAMA and VAIKHARI, i.e. communication from the root of one’s existence without articulation, communication from the primitive instincts, communication from autonomic nervous system and communication as articulated and spoken respectively. It is appropriate here; to indicate that these modes of communication seem to express the deeper and deeper aspects and with greater and greater genuinity. However, even if I don’t understand I have the freedom and opportunity to keep on studying Gita and merge with cosmic consciousness and be empowered enough to relinquish; “my” then redundant; intellectual, instinctual, emotional and instinctual realms and material possessions and body, at appropriate time; with fulfillment and victoriously, akin to a blossoming flower; that emanates its DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 8. STUDY OF GITA 8 pleasant fragrance (without reservations and any kind of pain or discomfort whatsoever)! Now before I go ahead, I must state here, that NAMASMARAN enabled the much necessary paradigm shift for “understanding” Gita and Gita made it possible to adhere to apparently meaningless and unglamorous activity such as NAMASMARAN! But most importantly it is the cosmic consciousness (Guru) that has made all this possible and which is benefiting millions! I am planning to write on individual chapters as and when it becomes feasible. But in as much as I don’t want to keep any copyrights; so that anybody in the world; could utilize these shared perceptions freely, I would also like to clarify that; just as well meaning use of these would aid in universal blossoming; the plagiarism of this material in any form with vested interests and mercenary motives; would prove detrimental to the plagiarists and their readers; and hence to everyone. November 4, 2009, 4:30 pm. Amidst the cacophony of needs, wants, passions, infatuations, goals, dreams and aspirations, which I DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 9. STUDY OF GITA 9 was conscious of, there was inexplicable and subconscious undercurrent that seemed to give sometimes incomprehensible twists and turns to my life; beyond my tolerance and forbearance. These twists and turns seemed to shake and stir me from deep within! Added to all this was; study of Gita. Even as it appeared to create turmoil within my intellectual and emotional framework; I could not get rid of it, till today! This is why, I feel it has link to my past life! The cosmic consciousness (guru) i.e. the field; guides us throughout our different contingent lives! It is just in recent times that I have started appreciating that Gita has the nectar of immortality that is beyond individual consciousness. But I must share with you that Gita kills one’s subjectivity, which is like a dying experience! This is why at earlier stages I felt it was brutally frightening to study and internalize Gita! But even then, Gita immersed me in herself, which is why I feel my study has link with my past life! In the past, I used to sometimes worship Gita and sometimes contradict her; without seriously DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 10. STUDY OF GITA 10 studying! I often merely used some quotations from Gita for proving my point and to impress the audience and feel good with myself. But now I know that it was getting enamored or repulsed by experiencing the periphery like enjoying or hating the fruit by merely eating the skin of the fruit! During my study in college and medical college I used get enamored by unusual terminology and bombastic uncommon words and feel elated. In that frame of mind; the words of Gita appeared too simple to covey much content! I never quite understood then, how and why Gita could enjoy such a coveted position and reign supremacy in world literature; inspite of simplicity! In India, Gita is recited, chanted, by hearted by many. Earlier I thought this was stupidity or slavish mentality. At times I thought this was blind belief. But today I confess frankly that I was immature at that time, than what I am today! Today I feel that Gita can especially benefit all the children in the world to develop and tone up their central nervous system (including the speech areas) and enhance their evolution during this life! This is true not merely for a child but for any and every person of any age in the world. This is true even if Gita is by DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 11. STUDY OF GITA 11 hearted without understanding the intricacies, which one can appreciate at a later stage of development! As a student of physiology, I am sure that; by hearting of certain facts, meaningful hymns, philosophical or scientific sutras (e.g. those from Ayurveda, Gita, and Arithmetic), without questioning; lets the child build; the edifice of knowledge and then work on it. Up to a certain age there is no capacity in us to analyze and comprehend certain aspects of life and hence insistence of clarification should not be encouraged as it can be hindrance in learning. In fact by hearting even if the child did not understand the meaning is as essential; as feeding the baby, even if it did not understand the nutritive principles in that food! While studying Gita I realized that questions should not be discouraged. In fact they should be encouraged, but it must also be clear that all questions may not be answered and if answered, the answers may not be understood. Hence insistence on clarification should not be encouraged. Humility and patience are very important. Besides, hidden meanings are not DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 12. STUDY OF GITA 12 understood by casual reading and/or egocentric approach under the spell of egalitarian, utopian or any such philosophical thought. Moreover; Gita can not be appreciated by individualistic trends or socialistic dogmas; hidden under the guise of analytical fervor and/or scientific temper. Patience (which is born from honesty, commitment and readiness to go beyond individual subjectivity and paradigms of every kind) opens the doors to enlightenment and blossoming at individual and global levels! Now I realize that study of Gita can empower a serious student of Gita to live with unconditioned acceptance, love and respect for every moment and situation, and work in consonance with nature; to one’s complete fulfillment and greatest satisfaction. Gita enables one to blossom in such a way, that subjectivity gets shed off smoothly; while global unity and harmony begin to pulsate in one’s heart! It is worthwhile to share with you here; that today I feel that; opportunity to study Gita is a one of the greatest treasure in my life for me. DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 13. STUDY OF GITA 13 November 4, 2009 9:45 pm. During my first few years of study of Namasmaran, Vishnusahasranama and Gita, I was instinctively or intuitively convinced that the essence of the teachings of saints and philosophical literature was not in opposition to the idea of social justice and material abundance; explicit in socialistic and leftist way of thinking. I felt that inequality and exploitation were aberrations; and in no way; teachings of saints and Hindu philosophy. During those days equality meant a lot to me; because inequality seemed to symbolize exploitation. But gradually it became clear that being not equal can mean merely being different and complementary (and not necessarily unequal in the sense of constituting antagonistic relationship of exploiter and exploited)! Hence I was possessed by only one question: How to show that Hindu philosophy, which was and is acceptable in the mainstream society; is in favor of the essence of socialism and communism in terms of welfare of all? I was obsessed by only one concern: Showing that the philosophy of Hindu DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 14. STUDY OF GITA 14 dharma and teachings of saints advocated more appropriate, more humane and more progressive complementarity and so I wrote my comments or interpretations on Gita and Vishnusahasranam and Namasmaran; with this conviction in mind. But as the time passed, I started realizing that even though my efforts were honest, they were subjective, incomplete. They did not convey absolute or objective truth. But having not realized this enigma; I was really frustrated because I didn’t quite understand the subtle difference between subjective and objective perspectives. I was unable to see how my efforts; admired by most readers; could apparently make no impact (in terms of socio cultural and politico economic conditions) on the society! In spite of my frustration, I still felt quite strongly that spiritualism; if it is real; then must blossom the universe in every possible way. Gradually I began to realize that, even as my conviction was correct according to me, it was useless or counterproductive to simply despise both; my own short comings as well those of the DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 15. STUDY OF GITA 15 others. Thus, I stopped despising what ever was being marketed under the guise of spiritualism; constituting mainly devotional songs, dances and eating good food! I realized that there was no sense in getting frustrated, feeling guilty, accepting defeat or blaming the “spiritual” activities going on, irrespective of their tarnished image in the society! I realized that, what is required, is blossoming together and empowering one another; through the study and practice of NAMASMARAN and Gita. Everyone would then (at appropriate time) realize that calling oneself “spiritual” in absence of global blossoming (in every possible way) is actually being escapist and/or schizophrenic and through this realization; grow from within; rather than remaining in fool’s paradise of so called spiritualism! This would lead to intellectual, emotional, instinctual and physical actions; in terms of globally nurturing policy making, planning, administration and implementation and engender individual and global blossoming! November5, 2009, 10:00 am DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 16. STUDY OF GITA 16 Initially when I began to read Gita, I felt that I am reading a story of war. I was rather put off by the list if names and the description of conches they blew. Later I read about the repulsion of Arjuna about the idea of war and violence and his arguments about the disastrous effects of war. I felt that there was nothing intellectual and it all seemed to be too obvious to be stated. But I kept on by hearting it apparently; as a kind of exercise of memory and probably also to fill the void in me; and actually because Gita “swallowed” me as I have mentioned earlier! I did not quite understand the exact meaning MOHA for long time. Some said that Arjuna was afraid and some said that it was his love for the family members. Some felt Arjuna was right and some said he was wrong. But I never seem to understand how this was related to the day to day problems in life of a common man and me; and why Gita was acclaimed as the greatest exposition of philosophy! DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 17. STUDY OF GITA 17 Some said that the description of war was symbolic and actually Gita relates to the higher self in an individual with his lower self. This seemed impressive but could not explain the relevance of Arjuna’s arguments about VARNA SANKAR i.e. haphazard and lawless marriages amongst different strata and groups in society and their ill effects. At this juncture it seems; that Gita actually deals with the individual, existence, universe, the time and cosmic consciousness. She also deals with different stages of human development from SADHAKA i.e. seeker and SIDDHA i.e. enlightened individual and the various ways and techniques to attain the ultimate state of liberation. Initially I used to feel that Gita relates to individual emancipation and hence felt that there was nothing in terms of solution for the welfare of world. This was because of the repeated description of STHITAPRAJNA (a person beyond the influence of painful and pleasurable influences in life) and absence of the dream society! This could be because of my ego (not necessarily unjustified or condemnable, but not accurate either), which DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 18. STUDY OF GITA 18 prevented me from seeing my unity with the universe and how the STHITAPRAJNA state was related to social welfare. Hence I could not see how Gita could help in social emancipation! My obsession and yearning that “I have to change the world for better” could not get satisfactory solution from Gita! Moreover; I was expecting some kind of a blue print for the universal welfare; and since I did not find it; I used to feel that Gita is individualistic and hence of no consequences for the global welfare. Naturally I was not quite in love with Gita. In fact I read and studied it with reluctance and as if because; somebody was pushing me from within to study it persistently. Due to my honest (though subjective) concern; I was obsessed by global welfare, of which I had faint sketch in mind. But I was neither finding any reflections of the sketch in reality; nor I was completely convinced by it. I was probably looking for clearer blueprint in Gita. But since Gita does not give any such blueprint, I was rather getting depressed by reading Gita. This was a kind inviting trouble! DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 19. STUDY OF GITA 19 However gradually; in this turmoil began to subside when I started to realize that the role of Gita is not to provide any blueprint; but to inspire the student to create a universal blueprint conducive to blossoming (in a most democratic) way of everyone in the world! Sometimes I thought Gita was produced on battlefield, sometimes I felt that it was not a creation of one individual. Sometimes I felt that many people have added different verses out of context and relevance. But these feelings did not deter me from studying Gita because; because these feelings had nothing to do with what I was looking for in Gita! I was really not concerned and bothered whether Gita was created by one or many and whether on battlefield or elsewhere! Some people said that it was not proper to read Gita at home as it leads to conflicts in home and some people said that it was inauspicious to read it because it was read after some one’s demise. Although these views sometimes disturbed me temporarily; while studying Gita; they could not deter me from studying her! DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 20. STUDY OF GITA 20 I however felt that Gita was not very pleasant like a romantic poetry and did not generate elation or ecstasy. She seemed to ruthlessly remind unwanted, unnecessary and unrelated questions and problems such as those of war and death! Arguments that Gita preaches violence and the opinion that she promotes inequality and exploitation appeared too superficial and based on casual reading with preformed notions and prejudices; though I was not decided over these issues. Many people in the world alleged then and do so even today; that; Hindu scriptures such as VEDAs, SMRUTIs (Compilations of rules, regulations and practical techniques for social stability, growth and harmony) advocate inequality (and hence exploitation). This was because of the labor division that continued through generations, in a structured form. It is true that various influences such as military invasions and religious persecutions tore apart the fabric of holistic Hindu philosophy and way of life, into arbitrary, coercive and at times absurd traditions and conventions, but it does not render the Hindu philosophy as such; exploitative, outdated and counterproductive. I DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 21. STUDY OF GITA 21 began to understand Gita philosophy (the cosmic dynamics) reveals to us our position and role in the eternal orchestra and guides us to live to our fullest satisfaction; while simultaneously aiding the blossoming of the universe. Those studying it superficially could not see this potential in the Hindu scriptures, which could rejuvenate, regenerate and even revive the chaotic and turbulent human civilization all over the world. I realized this sooner or latter and felt greater and greater need to explore the heart of Gita. I started getting as if haunted by a beautiful and barely seen blurred light in the core of Gita. The Gita begins with the description of legions of Kauravas and Pandavas on the Kurukshetra. Thus Gita directly begins with the most crucial dilemma or tricky situation one can have in life viz. the question of life and death! All conflicts in life are concentrated in this situation! This makes Gita the ultimate counselor! I now feel that; Gita deals with war of higher self with the lower self in an individual, where the lower self is attached to many likes and dislikes! This attachment is depicted in terms of attachment DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 22. STUDY OF GITA 22 (like that for suicidal and destructive addiction) for the relatives even if they were social psychopaths. This attachment leads to despondent retreat to lower self and passive acceptance of and involvement in degeneration and decay of one’s own true self (and that of the universe). This is surrender of higher self to lower self, or surrender of higher self of the society to the lower self of the society, that is called MOHA of Arjuna, which I guess is common to most people in the world (which is why Gita is universal). Gita simultaneously deals with the actual war also; because she looks at the individual and society in a holistic way. She conceives and teaches to appreciate that the condition of war within and our response to that war; naturally manifest in family and social life. If our response is of surrender, MOHA then it is detrimental to an individual as well as the society. I think, I can appreciate this previously unwanted and irrelevant and hence unpleasant but unavoidable and eternal war within and out! In fact knowledge of Gita makes it clear that presence of this war and its comprehension is a golden DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 23. STUDY OF GITA 23 opportunity to live in SWADHARMA and achieve individual and global blossoming! Strange though it may appear, it is true that this internal and external war is a product of evolution! Animals have no choice! They neither can glorify their instincts nor can they condemn it! Neither are they endowed with the freedom to choose indulgence nor are they free to opt for abstinence! Arjuna’s response of MOHA is a response to inner war (that invariably manifests in the society)! Such despondent response to the lower self of an individual is invariably reflected in the form of a retreat to the lower self of the society i.e. psychopathic and detrimental elements in the society! Gita not only depicts the individual and global despondency; but it also depicts; an intellectual explanation and justification of such despondency in the form of apparently sublime values and concerns; as advanced by Arjuna. Thus Arjuna is dismissing the idea of killing teachers, brothers and other loved ones by forecasting the social holocaust in terms of the DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 24. STUDY OF GITA 24 ruining of families and the exploitation of widows and mutilation of social discipline and harmony leading to ill effects on the departed souls and the abyss thereof! Arjuna represents erudite but erroneous arguments! Thus Gita creates a strong case for individual and social mediocrity, individualism, pettiness, gullibility, defeatism, and despondency with intellectual explanations and justifications, which span from individual and social life; to even life after death! It is at this point that I realized that Gita is unique in NOT providing an arbitrary blue print that upholds individualism or socialism; but enlightens the root of our being and provides freedom and blossoming of individuals and the universe simultaneously. This understanding has wiped out my previous reservations about Gita (of being individualistic or addressing merely personal needs or problems) and made me far more comfortable with Gita than I used to be earlier. I now understand that Gita is more personal and more social in true sense because she takes us to the core of both! This makes her really absolutely accurate, just and totally democratic in true sense, which the individualistic and socialistic philosophical frameworks are not! I felt very happy for having DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 25. STUDY OF GITA 25 persisted on the study of Gita and having come out of the limitations and inadequacies of individualistic and socialistic philosophies. Through depicting the individual and social despondence (represented by ARJUNA VISHADA) Gita creates a ground for an eternal discourse to shun the individual, social and universal tendencies to sink and decay! Gita enters into 2nd chapter and then offers the omnipotent and omniscient panacea to such despondence and decay that surfaces repeatedly in the human civilization throughout history; from millennia to millennia and time and again; from the very source of eternally provident and rejuvenating cosmic consciousness! November 5, 2009; 10:00 pm After creating a strong case for the despondence; like a devil’s advocate; in 1st chapter; the propounder of Gita straight a way proclaims the aphorism that you don’t die; in 2nd chapter! This aphorism can cause a massive shock for any serious reader and I was no exception. Isn’t it DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 26. STUDY OF GITA 26 natural that normally our mindset cannot understand, agree, believe or realize the concept of immortality of soul? I however; kept on reading it, but without really understanding, agreeing, believing and of course realizing! In fact this discussion in 2nd chapter made me feel miserably torn in two conceptual premises! Neither could I agree with the claim of immortality, which was beyond my comprehension and even imagination; nor could I felt that I was a complete mortal with no traces of life after the death of my body! I could never imagine myself discarding my body like “old clothes” or in; living in absence of the body, but I could not dismiss the claim of immortality also; because I “knew” (though I had not personally realized) that a) nothing is destroyed b) consciousness; thoughts, feelings, time, space, energy etc do not have the same kind of “existence”, “birth” or “death” and c) ‘beginning and end’ are human concepts; derived from the limitations of physiological state, consciousness, perceptions, thinking, feelings and the information processing in the neurons and their network! Now I realize that such tearing off; of my conceptual premises lead to dialectical process DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 27. STUDY OF GITA 27 breaking down the sectarian ideas and promoted evolution of the holistic perspective. Arjuna has indicated his disgust for a war that involves killing of near and dear ones. He is selfless and has no interest in any gains from such a war that involves shading of blood of his teachers, brothers and other close ones. So Arjuna is NOT afraid of war like a timid creature, but his conscience has paralyzed him! Arjuna like any sensitive, honest, brave and conscientious individual despised the killing of his brothers. I am sure that any sensitive and conscientious individual would relate with the plight of Arjuna; because it results from information processing through neuroendocrine, autonomic and central nervous systems; and hence is universal! But having said that; as I went on studying Gita, it started becoming clearer, that human beings are not merely physiological; they are potentially much more than that! November 6, 08:20 pm After listening to Arjuna’s plight, Lord Krishna, who is cosmic consciousness, personified; (and hence can see; what others don’t; and is conscious DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 28. STUDY OF GITA 28 of what others are not); sees that Arjuna is not able to see the truth beyond the physiologically restricted sensory perceptions, like most people in the world! This inability to see beyond physiological boundaries, leads to either arrogance or despondence. Lord Krishna notes that Arjuna has been paralyzed (inappropriate conation or response) due to inappropriate feelings (affect) resulting from this erroneous perception (cognition). This syndrome (actually universal) is called MOHA. Lord Krishna therefore sets out to explore and salvage the human potential of Arjuna (and mankind) that has been paralyzed and wake him to his immortal self, (and thereby rectify cognition, affect and conation) from the despondent slumber of physiological confinements. Lord Krishna does this in a step by step manner, with different explanations. As a friend, philosopher and guide; he disapproves Arjuna’s response as totally unbecoming for Arjuna. He declares it as totally inappropriate and impotent! DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 29. STUDY OF GITA 29 He explains to Arjuna that love and attachment to the bodies of all the warriors representing sociopathic elements; (and lower elements in us which cloud our perceptions, vulgarize our feelings and deteriorate our actions) is inappropriate. Such wars keep repeating in the societies (between socially benevolent elements and sociopathic elements) and also in the individuals (between the lower self and the higher self). Lord Krishna shows that waking up and rising to one’s immortal existence engenders the appropriate actions and one should not get deterred by any considerations born out of MOHA. Lord Krishna further clarifies, that the warring factions and the war (which also goes on in the individual as well as in the universe); had beginning and end but its core (cosmic consciousness) is immortal. Arjuna (and we all) should realize it (by evolving through the various means described in scriptures such as NAMASMARAN), and express ourselves enthusiastically with all might, in such a wars (outside and inside)! These outer and inner wars are actually considered as golden opportunity, because, DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 30. STUDY OF GITA 30 animals do NOT have such a choice to fight against the forces of darkness (within and outside). This is called DHARMYA YDDHA because it is in tune with and to reach the cosmic consciousness. This is similar to clinically accurate surgical treatment; which can be required for the health of the whole body (and society) and is totally different from indiscriminate violence or indiscriminate nonviolence, born out of ignorant and subjective premises. It has to be remembered that through out hereafter; Lord Krishna keeps describing how one can conquer the physiological (individualistic and petty) elements in body (which mar the consciousness and cause MOHA). He further also shows that uninterrupted (conscious) union with immortal soul is called YOGA; and the actions born through it are accurate, precise and appropriate; and in tune with the infallible cosmic principles! He enlightens Arjuna (and the world) that such state of being (in union with immortal consciousness) and actions springing therefrom; is called SWADHARMA. DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 31. STUDY OF GITA 31 Lord Krishna guides Arjuna about this state and assures him that this state brings peace (for that individual and the universe) even in the face of bodily death. Since Lord Krishna talked so much about this state of union with immortality, which makes us desireless; the next question would be “Why not remain united with the immortal and be peaceful, instead of warring?” Arjuna asks this question in the 3rd chapter. But before I go ahead to 3rd chapter; and share my understanding (?) about Gita, I must make it clear, that study of Gita, Vishnusahasranama and NAMSMARAN probably compliment each other tremendously. I have a feeling that NAMASMARAN; which I call a mega-fusion, a mega-process; or a mega- fountainhead; is sure to absorb the whole universe in itself i.e. immortal cosmic consciousness and in turn, as and when consciousness adequately blossoms in an individual through NAMASMARAN, the concepts of immortality in DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 32. STUDY OF GITA 32 Gita would become tangible! The vice versa could also be true! It is this awakening to one’s immortality; that I think; Arjuna (and the people of world) could gain from Gita; and that is more precious than anything else in the world; and even the world itself! November 7, 2009; 12:10 pm In 2nd chapter Lord Krishna declares the aphorism of immortality of the core of universe and individual; and human potential to realize this core that embodies cosmic consciousness. But Arjuna (and student of Gita) cannot experience the immortality right away! Lord Krishna therefore (apart from explaining the ways to rise and conquer the obstacles in the way of reaching the cosmic consciousness) gives other supportive arguments to emphasize the importance of SWADHARMA i.e. behavior born from the state of union with cosmic consciousness. Thus Lord Krishna indicates to Arjuna that the greatest value in life is SWADHARMA and hence DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 33. STUDY OF GITA 33 any person who goes astray (due to his subjective; whether individualistic or socialistic; paradigm) from this SWADHARMA; is bound to be ridiculed as coward! This essence of value system is the eternal glory of Gita that has been revitalizing mankind from millennia to millennia! Further, Lord Krishna reiterates that all the efforts of human civilization viz. VEDAs are essentially born from and culminate into cosmic consciousness; and get expressed through individuals according to their constitutions. Those who know this; are always connected with the cosmic consciousness (YOGA); and do not get distracted by the illusive results and those who do not know this; get cut off from the cosmic consciousness and their perceptions, feelings and the quality, methodology and the elegance of their actions get marred. They develop the illusion that their limited existence is the doer of everything; (treating the subordinate as master); and vacillate between pride and pain from the changing results of their inappropriate actions. The 2nd and 3rd chapters begin with Arjuna’s reluctance to participate in the war, and be DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 34. STUDY OF GITA 34 contented without bothering about the gains of a bloody war! But Lord Krishna identifies the subtle nihilism, cynicism or pessimism hidden in this attitude. He identifies this darkness and drives the point; that such “ascetic” extremism is suicidal for the individual and the society and not conducive to liberation! Lord Krishna guides Arjuna that it is impossible to live without action. (Isn’t it true that irrespective of whether we want or not, billions of biophysical and biochemical activities go on in our body and mind?). He clarifies that any one who tries to live in inaction, deceives himself or herself. The only way to liberation is to practice SWADHARMA. Lord Krishna says, whether the cosmic consciousness expresses itself in actions or the actions reach you to the cosmic consciousness; both are essentially not different. The first is called JNANAYOGA, where apparently consciousness is predominant and latter is called KARMAYOGA, where apparently; the actions are predominant. Thus the actions which spring from the cosmic consciousness (e.g. as a result of the practice of DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 35. STUDY OF GITA 35 NAMASMARAN), are the ones which lead to realization of cosmic consciousness and hence are called liberating or freeing actions! Lord Krishna then highlights the cycle of nature in which universe manifests from and again dissolves into the consciousness and suggests that when the society and the individual conform to the innate principle of nature, they blossom together. He also points out that those who don’t conform to these principles, never blossom themselves and also become obstacles in the blossoming of others. This happens because of their being overwhelmed by their own subjectivity (individualistic or socialistic whims and compulsions). This can happen also because of the superiority or inferiority complex developed about their environment, conditions and apparently unglamorous or despised nature of their SWADHARMA. Lord Krishna elaborates that since everybody is not exactly the replica of another person and the constitutions are different; the nature of SWADHARMA varies. He reiterates; that even in such a situation; it is important not to get bogged down by the deceptive external and internal DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 36. STUDY OF GITA 36 influences and persist on one’s SWADHARMA, even if one has to die in return! Initially this appeared a bit harsh. But when I keenly thought over, I realized that living devoid of SWADHARMA is itself like death! Hence SWADHARMA is preferable even in the face of death, because it is the (only?) express highway of individual and global blossoming! November 7, 2009, 3:30 pm. In the 4th chapter, Lord Krishna expands this concept of SWADHARMA and informs Arjuna that this is the knowledge that has run through generations and millennia. Like any physiological individual, Arjuna also doubts Lord Krishna’s statement and then Lord Krishna reveals to him His immortal and true nature and that it is he (cosmic consciousness) that keeps reincarnating and re-manifesting; as and when the universe becomes oblivious of Him. (I feel that this is true in an individual, society as well as universe!). DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 37. STUDY OF GITA 37 Lord Krishna asserts; that he manifests (probably through rising consciousness in an individual as well as society) and annihilates the demonic and devilish forces of darkness, which obstruct the blossoming of individuals, society and the whole universe and one, who realizes this, (either is united or) unites with the immortal consciousness! After revealing His cosmic nature, Lord Krishna elucidates how from the consciousness; different VARNAs i.e. four main characteristic personalities manifest (though the consciousness does not produce them; in the physical sense of that word) and how they function! This is like involvement of space which is essential for world activities, but does not directly participate in them. He also states that people work according to their stage of evolution; through different yajnas, pranayamas, and humble dialogue with a guide and reach enlightenment. Lord Krishna points out how the conflicts between upper and lower nature can sabotage one’s progress and assures that SWADHARMA or YOGA liberate the individual (and society and the universe) and hence appeals Arjuna; to get rid of any doubt DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 38. STUDY OF GITA 38 whatsoever and tread the path of SWADHARMA single mindedly. November 8, 2009 11:30 am In 5th chapter the discussion begins with a doubt; about the choice between SANYASA and YOGA. I think the word SANYASA here, pertains to renunciation or asceticism; i.e. departure from all the day to day activities required for the normal social life and YOGA pertains to participation in these activities; by following SWADHARMA. Gita has reconciled that both culminate in cosmic consciousness; and constitute two ways suitable for two varieties of individuals. Why should Arjuna repeat this question? The answer is; understanding supremacy of SWADHARMA is not adequate. Because, in spite of understanding; the inertia keeps on surfacing and prompting an individual; to escape from the worldly responsibilities; giving one excuse or another. In India; there were tides of ideologies glorifying irresponsible “asceticism” from time to time. Even today, there are various breeds of DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 39. STUDY OF GITA 39 “spiritualism” and “SANYASA” spreading like pandemics in the world causing masses to move into irresponsible inaction, indolence and parasitism (probably as a reaction to harrowingly and violently stressful petty pursuits intermingled with fanatic ideologies of so called “individualism” or “socialism”)! Arjuna’s repetition of the question underlines the importance, span and sway of such irresponsible “asceticism” and petty pursuits. Lord Krishna reiterates the vital or shall we say life saving importance of SWADHARMA; for individual, social and global growth and blossoming. He confirms that SWADHARMA is more meritorious than “asceticism” in which one may conquer one’s petty selfishness; but can succumb to the escapist, defeatist and irresponsible indolence and inertia, which drags the individuals, society and the world into abyss of misery! Lord Krishna makes it clear that SANYASA i.e. external renunciation (due to incidental cause) is usually impulsive and not true renunciation. Such renunciation is because of repulsion (for day to day activities SWADHARMA; which appear mediocre DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 40. STUDY OF GITA 40 and unattractive; but can serve the purpose of blossoming one and all) that engenders misery. It is true that some individuals are born more evolved than the rest and hence neither get interested nor get involved in the day to day transactions of family and society. They renounce the world and accept SANYASA just as ripe fruit falls from the tree. Some other individuals understand and realize the true nature of the world through SANKHYA philosophy without going through the experiences a common man. Being aware of this, Lord Krishna clarifies that we should not get enamored by the SANYASA and SANKHYA philosophy but stick to our SWADHARMA, because even as the SANYASA, SANKHYA and YOGA (SWADHARMA) look different; ultimately culminate into the same pedestal of cosmic consciousness! Having said this; Lord Krishna elaborates the sublime characteristics of practitioner of SWADHARMA, which elevates the individual in a blissful state that is beyond physiological boundaries and beyond all petty and subjective considerations of life! DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 41. STUDY OF GITA 41 November 8, 2009, 4:30 pm In 3rd chapter it is stated that one who cooks and eats merely for his petty pleasures (which are actually detrimental to his blossoming) is a thief. This is a very important aspect of Gita. Gita encourages individuals to be active physically, instinctually, emotionally and intellectually and according to one’s capabilities and skills, but with the goal of getting freed from the subjectivity and merging with the cosmic consciousness. Gita states that; one should never dissuade (which is referred to as BUDDHIBHEDA) any other person from his or her activities of livelihood such as crafts, arts and other skilled and productive activities. One should in fact; encourage these and try to do oneself; all such activities in life; but with the sole aim of conforming to the absolute truth. Lord Krishna reiterates this even in 5th chapter. DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 42. STUDY OF GITA 42 In the 6th chapter Lord Krishna reinforces this point and describes certain ways by which man can merge with the objective reality. He therefore makes it clear right in the beginning that any one who works without attachment to the results, is a SANYASI and also a YOGI and not the one who does not do his duties (as prescribed by the scriptures with the intention of individual and global blossoming), out of escapism and inertia. Just as He imparts the insight in SANYASA by pointing out the dangers of inaction and indolence and importance of getting rid from the results, He also espouses and elucidates the nature of YOGA. YOGA in true sense means all activities done to merge with the absolute. This YOGA is impossible in presence of SANKALPA i.e. subjective (erroneous) projections or utopia! You can imagine that SANKALPA or individual or subjective goals; act as leakages and hinder the merger of individual consciousness with the absolute consciousness! It is exactly like leakages in the pipes through which you cannot pump water to higher floors. Even though these concepts pertain to individual and global blossoming, they also make sense in day DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 43. STUDY OF GITA 43 to day activities. Thus if you don’t depend on results; you can avoid self destructive responses (out of excitation or depression) to results of your activities; and live life buoyantly! But it has to be appreciated; that in everyday life action is usually associated with results. Thus some understanding and anticipation of results is bound to be and has to be there, so that you can perform the action elegantly and diligently. Gita upholds such continued improvement in technique by anticipation of results; from which your feelings and responses are not marred. November 8, 2009 7:pm There are many postures, mudras, pranayamas etc apart from proper nutrition, sleep etc. which are important aspects of life, which ought to be cultivated right from childhood, so that YOGA becomes possible. Lord Krishna does not elaborate in details on this, but suffice it to say that once the goal viz. self realization is identified and given topmost priority and importance, then one can adopt suitable DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 44. STUDY OF GITA 44 techniques; according to one’s physical and social environment, conducive to reach the goal! Lord Krishna reassures Arjuna (and everyone) that dedication and consistent study and practice make YOGA possible. Lord Krishna also maintains that even if an individual loses his body before reaching the goal, his efforts are never wasted and realizes the YOGA i.e. self realization in the next birth, adorned with the necessary qualities. Lord Krishna also clarifies the importance of YOGA in terms of actual practice (which seems to beneficially evolve the physiology) rather than mere reading and understanding and further emphasizes the importance the focus on the goal viz. self realization i.e. complete submission of the subjectivity to Lord Krishna i.e. objective or cosmic consciousness. 6th chapter; (like the 16th,17th and 18th chapters) is important for any educationist, education policy maker, educational administrator, teacher or trainer in the world, so as to work holistically because it outlines the actual factors which contribute to the process of blossoming, including diet and nutrition in brief! DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 45. STUDY OF GITA 45 10:00 pm It is easy to understand how this would have far reaching and beneficial impact on the world in terms of perspective, policies, plans and implementation; for individual and global blossoming, which is imperative today, because; no individual nation can grow or perish in isolation, without beneficial or adverse impact on the other nations; for long period. The practical relevance of this is on policy making. For example, global reduction in the production of two wheelers and small cars; in preference to mass transport vehicles such as buses, has impact on global environment, fuel consumption, traffic jams, accidents, pollution, wearing out of roads, crowding of local trains (in metros) and so on. If principles of Gita (the essential nutrients for individual and global blossoming) are imbibed and digested by decision makers of the world, then such globally beneficial policies can emerge in all the fields of life. DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 46. STUDY OF GITA 46 In 7th chapter Lord Krishna narrates his omnipresent nature to Arjuna and indicates how only few realize this nature and how others do not realize this! He explains that he is the light beyond the physical light and remains unseen by eyes!! November 9, 2009 11:30 am In 1st chapter, there is depiction of subjective; and hence (inspite of being very conscientious); erroneous perception, feelings and response of Arjuna. In 2nd chapter there is elaborate explanation of cosmic consciousness and contingent nature of physical existence of the nonliving and living world! There is also a detailed account of the characteristics of the individual who realizes this immortality and expresses accurate cognition, affect and conation. It is obvious that; even as reading per se; is not enough to bring about the transformation in an individual and the world; the role of reading and understanding the “road map of blossoming” in the process of conscious evolutionary transformation of DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 47. STUDY OF GITA 47 an individual and thereby the world; can not be denied. The 3rd, 4th, 5th and 6th chapters describe the concept SWADHARMA and some of the relevant techniques in brief; but which can vary according to geographical, historical, social, religious and other circumstances. 7th chapter is meant for reinforcing these ideas by pointing out how people in, crisis, need, greed or intellectual and emotional yearning may get attracted to the absolute truth. In 7th chapter Lord Krishna reveals His omnipresent nature and indicates how he i.e. cosmic consciousness; is present in every visible and invisible aspect of the universe and how only few realize this nature and how rest others; do not realize this! This can become clear to a discerning student; when he would appreciate the stanza elucidating how Lord Krishna is a light beyond the physical light and remains inaccessible to most! Throughout 6 chapters; one finds the common idea of the rising of consciousness in an individual and the world; and thereby getting freedom from petty, DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 48. STUDY OF GITA 48 mean and trivial but strong bondages. In 7th chapter there is endorsement of this and also further buttressing of this point by indicating how the cosmic consciousness encompasses every living and nonliving matter, energy, space and time; and how awareness of this enables one to reunite with immortal self. Naturally Arjuna would ask about the nature of the universe and relevance of it to human life. Thus cosmic dynamics is described by Lord Krishna in 8th chapter. Lord Krishna assures Arjuna that a person blossoms to get freed from the shackles of subjectivity and reunites with one’s true self, through the knowledge of inseparable bond between the cosmic panorama and the individual and their relationship! But before we discuss this further, I think it is important to talk about nonviolence. AHIMSA i.e. nonviolence; appears in chapters such as 16th. In my view this AHIMSA refers to negation or disapproval of indiscriminate violence committed under the influence of utter darkness of DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 49. STUDY OF GITA 49 ignorance (a variety of activities destructive to self, society and the universe). Unqualified and indiscriminate nonviolence is NOT advocated in Gita, which is clear from the repeated appeal by Lord Krishna to Arjuna (and every one) to participate tin the war against darkness and destruction (outside and inside). It is important to realize this to avoid perennial schizophrenic state of upholding indiscriminate nonviolence, (without being completely convinced) and practicing violence with petty selfish motives (again without being fully convinced). In our society often indiscriminate violence is legitimately practiced by killing animals to eat, killing people of other countries for the so called national interest, pride and profit, killing alleged criminals by death sentence and implementing a variety of deterrent punishments; and most importantly unleashing policies (in all the fields) detrimental to the blossoming of individuals and the universe. If we understand that AHIMSA means NOT indiscriminate nonviolence; but; protection of DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 50. STUDY OF GITA 50 everything conducive to individual and global blossoming and destruction of everything that jeopardizes the blossoming of individuals and universe, then it would resolve the conflicts in the minds of all young and old and everywhere in the world and promote practice of SWADHARMA and blossoming of individuals and universe. If we keep on trying to uphold AHINSA as indiscriminate nonviolence, then it creates value crisis and semblance of schizophrenia (contrasting, conflicting and contradictory thoughts/feelings and actions); in everyone and everywhere. 2:00 pm I found that the prescription of blossoming and merging with the absolute consciousness through various techniques and through comprehension of the nature and interactions between the cosmos and the individual; and practicing SWADHARMA; in 7 chapters; are not as simple as they appear! In daily routine we tend to get overwhelmed and confused or bewildered (and cut off from our true self) by the deceptive influences coming from our body, family, society, world and the products of all DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 51. STUDY OF GITA 51 these in terms of literature, art, media, education etc. This makes the self realization (dissolving the subjectivity in objective truth) and self expression (i.e. SWADHARMA), which are mutually nurturing and promoting; very difficult. The inappropriate perception generates agony and urgency to respond. But since the response is usually ineffective (because of not being in conformity or harmony with the nature) one becomes agitated and/depressed. Actually in such a situation the prescriptions in Gita, or the simplest means such as NAMASMARAN advocated by saints and seers from all over the world, must be practiced with greater conviction! But one can not “see” how it would rectify the perceived pathos in personal or global life (even if it be erroneous); and hence tends to enter in a vicious cycle of increasing distress. It is at this point that your SHRADDHA (which means unconditioned devotion and dedication without any petty motive) can rescue you from the vicious cycle of distress and help you enter in wellness cycle. DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 52. STUDY OF GITA 52 In 6th chapter therefore it is reiterated by Lord Krishna that mind is fickle and likely to fluctuate and vacillate, but one should keep on trying; with victorious attitude! Sometimes I find that no one seems to see; how holistic perspective can create the difference in different fields and hence become nervous. This is because of getting hurt by the agonizing plight of people in the world due to a variety of factors, but mainly lack of holistic perspective and spirit of Gita, amongst ht policy makers. But I keep convincing myself that the SADHANA of any suitable nature; or NAMASMARAN according to one’s tradition; must never be stopped. To convey this strongly; Lord Krishna has assured in 6th and 7th chapters and latter in 9th and 16th and 18th chapters; that one would never fail if marches on this path! I have begun to realize; which I did not realize before; that all activities (especially NAMASMARAN) to reach the truth, have their impact, though it may not be perceived immediately due to one’s subjectivity. DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 53. STUDY OF GITA 53 The lesson from the 7 chapters therefore is to keep trying to reach the absolute and keep working in its light to the extent it is possible at any given time and in a victorious manner. That is exactly the reason why I am writing this; and making available for free download for sharing with any one and everyone in the world without any precondition! Trying to keep yourself connected with cosmic consciousness; keeps you reassured on the one hand and active participation in an appropriate manner (SWADHARMA); buoyantly charged; on the other. 4:30 pm . The idea of arbitrary suppression or unabated indulgence do not find place in Gita. Similarly regimentalized stereotypes procedures also do not find place in Gita. That makes Gita somewhat ambiguous initially, but as you go on internalizing it you find that she is basically universal in nature. In 3rd chapter, 4th chapter and also 6th chapters this is evident. Gita is universal because she shows the light to any one and every one; irrespective of the state of DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 54. STUDY OF GITA 54 evolution, region in the world, his/her tradition; and without being judgmental about anyone’s life style; in any way! In 8th chapter Lord Krishna clarifies that a person engaged in SWADHARMA through intellectual, emotional, instinctual activities actually is connected with the absolute and objective reality and hence does not get entangled and shackled in the repetitive basal cycles through different births. There is also a declaration applicable to bright and dark external and internal environments, which lead to the fate of an individual. Thus individual is influenced by adverse external physical, chemical and psychological activities and inner hormonal, autonomic and central nervous activities. But it is also assured that any one who keeps trying; reaches the summit of union with cosmic consciousness. Nov 10, 2009, 11:15 am I write on day to day basis rather than sticking serially and sequentially to chapters and verses. This has the advantages of being natural in expression rather than formal. It is also beneficial because of repetition and/additional emphasis on DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 55. STUDY OF GITA 55 more important points; which reverberate in my mind with reference to some verses. Sometimes it also happens; that I skip many verses, at a given point in time because I have nothing to say about them at that time, but latter additional perspective and insights develop in the flow writing; and deserve expression even if it may appear out of context. In the 2nd chapter YOGA is defined as (ultimate) elegance or perfection in skill; but other way round; it also implies that the greatest skill or perfection in life is to realize YOGA! There is elaborate discussion in 2nd chapter; on how physical senses should be controlled. But if one takes into account the reference in 3rd chapter, then it becomes clear that the human life and experiences there in; have (and must be appreciated by us that they have) one goal or destination; and that is SELF REALIZATION and there is one way to achieve it i.e. SWADHARMA, rather than getting trapped in arbitrary suppression or indulgence. DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 56. STUDY OF GITA 56 Gita is unique in the sense that she shows your ultimate goal, shows you the path and guides you in the method to tread it. Gita therefore does not advocate suppression or indulgence in an arbitrary manner, but inspires SWADHARMA; in which while enjoying the core or essence of all material pleasures you channellize them to blossoming of and all. This is really universal thought; in view of the different physiological and other needs of people in the world from different regions and cultures. Once the goal of individual and global blossoming and the way of SWADHARMA is identified and adhered to; rest of the dos and don’ts (which need not be regimentalized) follow the suit, in appropriate manner. In this context, one can appreciate the perspective born out Gita study abut sex education. In light of Gita; we should learn and teach the father and mother principles and parental care; so that we don’t develop disgust for sex and succumb to sexual aberrations or perversions on the one hand; and don’t develop carnal sexual obsession and don’t get trapped in unending and DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 57. STUDY OF GITA 57 unsatisfactory indulgence in sex. Such holistic corrections can be made in all walks education. It is nice to share here that I found study of Gita different from study of many other books. The study of Gita elevates you from subjectivity to objectivity, i.e. getting in alignment with the nature. Gita gradually but surely changes your status of being effectual to being causative! This is certainly difficult to agree intellectually, but can only be experienced. Another point that struck me is: Gita teaches and trains us to enter the center of universe! Thus from the world of visible appearances she trains us to see and merge with the core, rather than getting rapped in the superficial and shackling aspects or running away to fall in escapist trap! Thus Gita does not advocate renunciation of the world on the one hand and does not justify or glorify the unending and unsatisfactory retrogressive shackling in petty pursuits as well! This is very useful in day to day life. If you experience the core of your spouse’s heart, then the fear of loss of your spouse (or any loved one) DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 58. STUDY OF GITA 58 gradually disappears to a large extent and the romance (and love in general) become superromance and super love! Thus Gita trains you in supreme romance and super love. Rather than getting worried about past and future, you learn to live every moment in love! Another interesting aspect of Gita is; you begin to refer to Gita as “she” and not it. Because Gita becomes even more valuable than “living” and “loving” mother! In 5th chapter; Lord Krishna assures that you would not be born again if you realize the self. But in 4th chapter; he also assures that he would manifest or reincarnate as and when appropriate/necessary. The explanations to these contradictory statements are: 1. Lord Krishna’s reincarnation is represented by the awakening of consciousness in every individual from time to time. 2. The reincarnation is progressive sojourn of life of an individual (who is either already enlightened or gets enlightened) for guiding the mankind and is different from rebirth, which is full of shackles of ignorance. DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 59. STUDY OF GITA 59 Hence reincarnation and freedom from rebirth are not incompatible! Gita guides us to develop the conceptual framework or blue print of our life and NAMSMARAN rejuvenates us from moment to moment to proceed. The other way round also may be true! It is like anatomy and physiology. Anatomical structure is essential and complementary to physiological function and vice versa. But when you go deeper; both seem to be indistinguishable! One of the most important things I learnt probably as a by product of studying Gita; is practice of the essence of Gita is immensely important. Repeated reading or recitation of Gita consolidates the convictions about the essence of Gita and thereby rejuvenates the enthusiasm to practice that essence (NAMASMARAN). The practice of NAMASMARAN in turn; endorses and reinforces the conviction about the essence of Gita and makes the repeated recitation of Gita a sublimely empowering experience! DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 60. STUDY OF GITA 60 It is like reading about bath, which develops conviction about the advantages of bath and actual practice of bath that endorses the convictions about bath. Thus both are perfectly complementary. One can compare it also; with the reading about the advantages of exercise and actual practice of exercise. I also learnt in the course of time that we come across a number of situations in life, (due to internal and external environment) which shroud our consciousness, and we tend to forget our true self i.e. the essence of Gita and this is a really a shattering and weakening experience. Hence in 6th chapter; the importance of consistent practice is emphasized. In my view, even somewhat arbitrary and formal recitation, reading or chanting of Gita; proves very useful (by acting at subconscious and conscious levels); in strengthening and expediting the process of blossoming. The repetition is important for another reason also, which has physiological basis. Thus repetition of Gita or NAMASMARAN is a central nervous system activity and probably leads to development DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 61. STUDY OF GITA 61 of stronger connections between cerebral cortex and the limbic system, (which are otherwise very weak). This underlines the difference between a well read individual and a self realized individual. Thus one’s happiness or sadness depends on the involuntary interactions amongst the cerebral cortical, limbic, autonomic, neuroendocrine, endocrine and other systems of the body. The perceptions, feelings and actions are usually impulsive (and hence chaotic, conflicting and counter posed) because of weak input to; and weak output from cerebral cortex to the remaining systems. Repeated study and practice of Gita and NAMASMARAN probably enhance the integration of all systems, including right and left brain; bring it under higher controls such as cerebral cortex, conscience and cosmic consciousness and effectively lead to harmonious behavior; blossoming one and all. One can study the changes in the brain from this point of view, in a control group and the one involved in NAMASMARAN, to verify the anatomical and physiological substrate (which may not be accessible to crude technology though,) of the essence of global culture. DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 62. STUDY OF GITA 62 One of the greatest lessons of Gita to the world is; whatever we eat, drink, see, listen, talk, write, learn, perform, use, relish and so on; should get culminated into the goal of individual and global blossoming. This makes our life itself the most meritorious activity i.e. YAJNA! This is a true and qualitative revolution in individual and global life. Nov 11, 2009, 10:00 am One of the most interesting things I learnt and also got thoroughly convinced in the course of time from the practice of NAMASMARAN and Gita; is the fact that everyone is moving towards the same goal and the same destination. This fact usually remains concealed and one gets impatient to teach others “for their welfare”. This impatience though natural can create condescending attitude and develop subtle expectations such as publicity and growth of your (otherwise selfless) mission! This can take away your peace and mar the quality of your behavior. When we appreciate this fact; that we all are going in the same direction and towards the same goal, DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 63. STUDY OF GITA 63 then true love (probably million times more than that evident amongst the pilgrims) emerges and blossoms. That is the greatest hallmark of world culture. Once I get convinced and clear about this fact, then the acts of impatience and ignorance (whether committed by me or others) do not disturb me any more to a significant extent. It is matter of great privilege for us to realize (deep experience) this love especially amongst family members, relatives, colleagues, coworkers and latter; even the enemies! Even as this revelation of love is magnificent; it may not manifest at all times an in all persons. It is natural (and hence need not be despised) that; at various stages of development we frantically advise, admonish, preach and also expect the results; from ourselves; and more so from outside! It is also true that study of Gita can develop a doubt; “Why truth has to be shown by some one else?” or “Why should I follow the ancestors when I am ‘more evolved’?” As the study proceeds, you gradually realize that “truth” or “self” is beyond DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 64. STUDY OF GITA 64 time. You develop superiority and inferiority complex; turn by turn; because of your petty identity, making me superior to posterity and inferior to ancestors! If “I” learn Gita it is neither a matter of pride nor a matter of pity. It is matter of being happy to blossom together! In Gita, there is a reference to virtues in many places including 16th and 18th chapters. One of them is “truth”. In everyday practice, there is always a conflict between loyal description of facts (which can prove stupid and invite difficulties; or wise at other times) and concealing or misrepresenting the facts, (which can engender punishment or bring loads of profits). Hence there is ongoing conflict in every mind about the virtue viz. truth and Gita provides the answer to it. I began to appreciate the ‘true’ meaning of ‘truth’ gradually and distinguish it from “mere narration of apparent facts; even if done with 100%; loyalty and fidelity”. DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 65. STUDY OF GITA 65 I began to understand that realization of “truth”; is a process and it leads to expression of appropriate behavior, conducive to blossoming of everyone and realization of truth! For this (rising above the criminal lies and gullible truths and living effectively to reach the truth) to happen; there are many precepts which ought to be followed from childhood, but the most important and universally practicable in every condition and situation is NAMASMARAN. In 6th chapter there is a verse; which is very famous. UDDHARET ATMANATMANAM NATMANAM AVASADAYET ATMAIVA HYATMANO BANDHUH ATMAIVA RIPURATMANA Lord Krishna elucidates the nature of real self to Arjuna in the 2nd and 3rd chapters. He then advises Arjuna in 6th chapter, to rescue and uplift the other part of his consciousness (we can call it lower or actually physical consciousness; without being derogatory) that has been trapped in body systems; DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 66. STUDY OF GITA 66 and prevent its further bondage. He further states that If you do this you would realize that your lower consciousness is friend of your higher consciousness and if you don’t, then your lower consciousness is verily the enemy of your higher consciousness. It used appear strange that in 2nd chapter Lord Krishna has referred the war as great opportunity. I used to find this strange and not acceptable, because of my feelings about the violence. I used to think that war is avoidable and should be avoided. Later, I used to think that Lord Krishna was justifies because; he had tried to avert the war through negotiations; sufficiently. But now I realize that this opportunity refers to the option to emancipate the lower consciousness by participating in the war of all physiological and social conflicts and contradictions. In my view this war of rescuing and emancipating the consciousness trapped in senses is described in HATHAYOGA texts as KUDALINI JAGRUTI. Hence HATHAYOGA practices (described in 6th chapter of Gita and Dnyaneshavari or Jnaneshvari) and intellectual exploration as through the DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 67. STUDY OF GITA 67 SANKHY YOGA (also described in 2nd chapter of Gita and Jnaneshvari) are perfectly complementary and reach you to the same destination, viz. individual and global blossoming! The heavenly beauty and bounty of Gita is that she takes you beyond petty “love and hate” relationships. She reveals to you; how the love and hatred; in as much as the sense of fear and animosity; are born in your consciousness trapped in your senses and how rescuing the same would free you from all subjectivity and all pettiness. I seem to understand that this if realized by us can make our personal relationships far more pleasant than one can ever imagine! They can go beyond any distance, any time and even death! This is what makes Gita a super romantic cosmic poetry. Every single step in this direction is more precious than the entire world, even if mountains of drawbacks and oceans of adversities within or outside us; try to drag us back! I have written an article entitled “Worshiping Sex” and unknowingly or not being fully aware, I have highlighted this process of rescuing your consciousness from the physiological bastions DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 68. STUDY OF GITA 68 rather than destroying the bastions themselves. I am glad that now I can appreciate this delicate, subtle and adorable feeling of sexual attraction in the universe, which is inseparable from true self and bound to be free and merge with the true self; when appropriate. Nov 12, 2009 12:10 pm While studying Gita one doubt used nag me from time to time. Why could not Gita create an ideal society? If we carefully understand the purport of Gita we begin to realize that an individual with a vision of “ideal society” is also a creation of the absolute consciousness and the people opposing this are also, creation of the same cosmic consciousness. Thus an individual develops intense motivation to change the society for better and make it just, as a result of several biochemical reactions in his/her body, which in turn are result of causes hidden in further past. These activities keep going on irrespective of one’s volition. This means, the objectives or aims of an individual are themselves not his or hers. So if the aims or ideals do not DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 69. STUDY OF GITA 69 belong to you, what sense does it make to wait for Gita to fulfill those aims or ideals as per your time frame? Secondly the universe, if we observe, is never static. It keeps changing. Thus every molecule and atom is undergoing change. Every organism and individual, in terms of body and mind; also is undergoing change. Every society also in terms of its inhabitants; its life style; and its nature; is undergoing change. So how can anybody expect Gita to create “unchangeable ideal society”? In fact, Gita enlightens us with this wisdom and hence acts like sun, illumining the inner space of individuals for millennia. Gita is like infinite source enlightenment (beyond space and time). From time to time and through ages this enlightenment manifests in appropriate individuals and through that person the consciousness of the masses. But as the individual and the society are replaced, by next generation, the void is created and the spirit of Gita has to reappear, re-manifest! This cycle goes on. It is therefore important to realize that Gita blossoms us individually and globally; but not DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 70. STUDY OF GITA 70 coercively and arbitrarily or in regimentalized fashion. Also, Gita spirit keeps reincarnating as and when there is a need because there can not be anything like permanently ideal state of a society. So Gita teaches us to perform SWADHARMA with full involvement and ecstasy; without expecting anything. The absolute consciousness or the spirit of Gita is bound to take care of the future! Another point is, the reason we are advised not to expect with deep sense of attachment, is; the world keeps on changing; beyond our subjective concepts and even if it were to change exactly according to our expectation precisely, still we would never be permanently happy because we ourselves are changing individuals! Whatever we expect is also changeable and hence can never give us lasting satisfaction. This is exactly why Gita assures that the enlightenment is bound to re-express itself again and again whenever there is need. So Gita teaches us to not merely enjoy the struggle of life, but she teaches us to enjoy it like a sport, in which we pass on the mantle to the next partner! DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 71. STUDY OF GITA 71 Even as this is true, sometimes you tend to get depressed (because of the attachment you have for your body and the environment), by the thought of quitting the pleasant surroundings around and inside you! But even if you tend to get depressed; not participating in the life struggle (war!) won’t be possible for you, because of being in; inescapable physiological environment, in which a variety of biochemical and biophysical activities are bound to take place; whether you wish or not! Escape is impossible and involvement in them is inevitable! Hence in 2nd chapter Lord Krishna and latter in 18th chapter, Lord Krishna asks Arjuna to follow SWADHARMA, which incorporates the goal of merging with the absolute! Hence it is also said that don’t worry about tomorrow. Just follow your SWADHARMA and for getting to exactly identify and realize your SWADHARMA; you can take the help of (16th chapter) scriptures and/or practice NAMASMARAN and get the guidance from your inner voice. DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 72. STUDY OF GITA 72 That makes study of Gita and sharing it with others a matter of great opportunity and ecstatic privilege. Even as our bodies are bound to perish and our society to metamorphose, we have the opportunity to practice SWADHARMA and share our convictions with others. With reference to verses in some chapters, such as 3rd, 7th, 9th, 14th, 16th, I used to wonder, how inspite of reputation of Gita as the propounder of ultimate truth, there could be people not following the precepts of Gita, go through the fate described in Gita? Why are they not changed? The answer to this question also is not very different. The individuals all over the world; though belong to the same specie Homo sapiens; are different in terms of their constitutions and their environments. Just as sunlight can be troublesome to photophobic individual, Gita can be discomforting and disagreeable to some individuals; due to their peculiarities. Hence just as there can not be a permanently satisfactory ideal society, there cannot be DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 73. STUDY OF GITA 73 permanent and universal agreement on Gita. I learnt that even if there is absolute truth in Gita, it can not manifest in every heart, though one can keep sharing it as a part of one’s SWADHARMA. Having said this; it is important to realize that the vision and mission of global blossoming (a gift of the cosmic consciousness); that is one’s SWADHARMA; must be enjoyed thoroughly and with zeal and zest for one’s own blossoming! As and when the time ripens it would materialize though may not be permanently; and in exactly the same manner as you anticipated! The sharing of Gita dispassionately but with all the victorious goodwill would give us ecstatic experience of SWADHARMA and would give billions of the people the opportunity to choose and follow SWADHARMA! This in turn, would bring about the change appropriate for our time, though not permanent and though not exactly as per our anticipation! Sharing the spirit of Gita; even while studying; has the advantage that those who are beginners get the advantage of senior student’s experience! Those who don’t know Gita get introduced to her. Thus DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 74. STUDY OF GITA 74 the percentage of students of Gita multiplies. This blossoms the individuals and the society; for a that age or period! At the end of 7th chapter and beginning of 8th there is mention about (KSHARA) ADHIBHOOT, (PURUSHA) ADHIDAIVA, and (SWABHAVA) ADHYATMA, (AKSHARA) BRAHMA, ADHIYAJNA, (VISARGA) KARMA Since the semantics vary from different schools of thought, it is fair enough to say that one, who learns about his trans-temporal essence; and relationship with the fleeting body, society and universe, blossoms to culminate in absolute light. But for some clarification, I may add the following explanation. ADHIBHOOT is a perishable aspect of universe including human beings. Individual consciousness or the unchanging vitality is called PURUSHA (In Ayurveda this is called CHIKITSA PURUSHA). DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 75. STUDY OF GITA 75 The intricate relationships and mechanisms are called SWABHAVA or ADHYATMA. It is physiology of nature! Actually physiology means study of nature if one refers to the word in Greek. ADHIYAJNA is Lord Krishna i.e. cosmic consciousness as illumines everything and everybody. VISARGA is also called KARMA which is nothing else but the appearance of and dissolution of universe in the consciousness. This concept is somewhat similar to manifestation and dissolution of our subjective world according to the evolution of our consciousness! AAKSHARA is called BRAHMA. The substratum of or backdrop of eternal consciousness that encompasses from in and out the whole universe, space and time is called AKSHARA (BRAHMA). Thus to him or her, whose consciousness merges with absolute consciousness, the whole universe appears to be but a reflection! A variety of physical, chemical and psychobiological factors constitute our DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 76. STUDY OF GITA 76 environment and a part of our consciousness gets trapped in them. Gita teaches us to “free this self” of ours through SWADHARMA. In turn, this helps others to attain the same freedom. One of the greatest dangers for the student of Gita (though Study of Gita protects you from all dangers) is your tendency to teach others, due over enthusiasm. This is usually met with adverse remarks and discouragement. I have experienced this! Hence it is said in Gita (18th chapter) that do not teach Gita (out of your obsession, ego, whims, fancies, even if they be otherwise selfless; or with any other petty purpose); to disinterested and dubious individuals. Though many authors like Adya Shankaracharya and Dnyaneshvar wrote their invaluable commentaries on Gita for the benefit of world, they did so in full concurrence with cosmic consciousness ((not out of obsession, ego, whims, fancies, even if they be otherwise selfless; or any other petty purpose) and not for any specific individual or section. Hence their contribution is (and should be) adored world over. DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 77. STUDY OF GITA 77 In 9th chapter Lord Krishna briefly explains how he (his cosmic consciousness) manifested and absorbed the universe from time to time. He further clarifies that those whose constitutions and especially neuroendocrine systems are NOT integrated, have no inclination to devote themselves with innate feelings to Lord Krishna (cosmic consciousness). They are handicapped in this sense. They can not enjoy the invigorating charm of deepest and selfless love! They may pursue petty goals and may achieve them successfully if time is favorable; and lose in such pursuits; when time is unfavorable but suffer in both cases due to pettiness. However, those who get the taste of Lord Krishna (cosmic consciousness) fall in His love. They live in full consonance and care of the absolute truth. They do not get harassed or entangled by petty problems. In 9th chapter Lord Krishna explains to Arjuna that all those who worship different deities (out of ignorance and for personal gains) also reach him, in the course of time. DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 78. STUDY OF GITA 78 He asks Arjuna therefore to get emotionally attached to his higher consciousness i.e. Lord Krishna (cosmic consciousness); rather than getting dragged into petty pursuits. The verse towards the end; in 9th chapter referring to women, VAISHYA and SHUDRA may give impression that it is derogatory to these groups. But that is not so. There are subtle physiological differences amongst different people and males and females; due to variations in hormones, sex hormones, neuro hormones, predominance of right or left brain, other aspects neurological development, influences of conditioning (causing differences in memory, linguistic skills, mathematical skills, capacity to visualize, capacity to discern notes of music, ability to read in between the lines, thinking non sequentially, aggressiveness, submissiveness, calculative capacity, skills in handicrafts, analysis and so on). These differences do not indicate inequality (in exploitative spirit) but merely differences. Lord Krishna says these qualities indicate aptitude and proficiency in a particular field; but every possible quality has access to the spirit and benevolence of Gita. It is also probable DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 79. STUDY OF GITA 79 that Lord Krishna hints that those under greater hormonal, autonomic or limbic influence may find it little more difficult to comprehend Gita as compared to an erudite individual like Arjuna. While writing this, I came across sudden financial difficulties. The recovery agents from bank came home and discussed the matter. All the philosophy seemed to be redundant and useless. Everything seemed to revolve around money. I seemed to be a helpless creature, worse than any one else; who would know nothing about Gita. I developed pity for myself. But within few minutes, the grace of Lord Krishna engulfed my consciousness and made me realize that this incident itself (and such innumerable incidents) is “a miniaturized version of war in Gita” and has to be negotiated amicably and conquered! I realized that writing on Gita; has to be coupled with actual mastery over and detachment from self respect, reputation, self esteem and even life! That is the spirit of Gita! I got back overcame my disturbance and decided to write; come what may! DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 80. STUDY OF GITA 80 Being unshakable in NAMASMARAN i.e. in the essence of Gita; irrespective of anything and everything is the crux of the matter. That is SWADHARMA for me (and possibly for everyone). Thus I am beginning to learn and follow SWADHARMA; every new moment! I have also begun to realize that this quality of being firmly positioned in NAMASMARAN i.e. in the precise purport of Gita; is extremely useful for blossoming individual and universe especially if acquired by people involved in leadership of different types and management in different fields. Nov 12, 2009, 8:45 pm At the end of 9th chapter, and in the beginning of 10th chapter Lord Krishna assures Arjuna that irrespective of any vices and/or sins the individual gets freed by working to unite with Him. He also says this in 18th chapter. How to reconcile this assurance with the notion that good deeds yield good results and bad deeds yield bad results? Is it not contradictory? Does it not contradict the expectation of justice in society? DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 81. STUDY OF GITA 81 I used really get perplexed by such statements in many other hymns also. But now it appears, that what ever is visible; is only superficial and hence partial truth and not necessarily a complete one. Similarly the connection with Lord Krishna i.e. cosmic consciousness is never apparent. Hence even if an individual appears to be a sinner or a criminal, he could get emancipated instantly through his connection (which may not be apparent); with cosmic consciousness. If we appreciate this, then it would actually help our legal system to evolve; to much greater perfection, closer to truth, and by becoming less judgmental! It is necessary however to also appreciate that Gita certainly does not undermine the role of ethics and decency required in healthy social harmony and dynamics and hence advices to follow scriptures (or inner voice of NAMASMARAN). At the end of 9th chapter; Arjuna (and we) probably becomes conversant with the life struggle and how DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 82. STUDY OF GITA 82 we have to focus on the absolute truth common to our existence and the universe. But since Lord Krishna has described SWADHARMA through 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th chapters; and one’s position in cosmic dynamics and the cosmic consciousness in 7th and 8th chapters, and since in 9th chapter, Lord Krishna asks Arjuna to devote to him (cosmic consciousness); Arjuna has a question about Lord Krishna’s cosmic nature; and how to worship or devote this cosmic nature of Lord Krishna. 10th and 11th chapters depict of this cosmic nature of Lord Krishna. The first point here is Lord Krishna elaborates how he is the root cause or seed of the seen, unseen, and conscious, subconscious and unconscious universe and assures that He enlightens the seekers of truth; who are completely consumed and hence keep interacting intensely about the truth i.e. Lord Krishna; in ecstasy! Lord Krishna then describes various components of universe, so that one could broaden and expand DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 83. STUDY OF GITA 83 one’s vision, paradigm and perspective to become as objective as possible. In 11th chapter, there is actually VISHVARUPADARSHANA. This means Arjuna is given special eyesight on the basis of his preparation in 10th chapter, and actually shown the infinite nature of Lord Krishna. This “seeing” is actually not seeing by visual system, but through opening of the consciousness of Arjuna. This is why Arjuna “sees” the future fate of warriors. This is mind boggling. Arjuna is afraid of this sight because this requires disappearance of the subjectivity which is like death itself! Arjuna therefore requests Lord Krishna to appear in front of him as a human body. This is a very important point of transition from focusing and worshipping the cosmic formless reality to focusing on the human form of the Lord, which is relatively easier because you can allow the subjectivity to gradually disappear. DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 84. STUDY OF GITA 84 This is the reason and basis; of why most of the saints and scriptures like Shrimad Bhagavatam advice common men to worship God in form and practice NAMASMARAN, which is the subtlest non visual, non olfactory, non gustatory (in short non sensory) form of the Lord! NAMAMSMARAN when practiced by an individual can at best be barely “heard” by his inner sense of hearing, which is quite unlike the “hearing” of sounds produced outside. Nov 13, 2009, 10:00 am How one is enemy of oneself? With reference to the famous verses towards the beginning of the 6th chapter, now it appears that, the consciousness trapped in body, mind, ego and/or subjectivity is the enemy if not properly negotiated with and mastered or conquered. This consciousness becomes our friend, close friend once negotiated with and conquered, or shall we say brought in harmony with ourselves. This activity of winning part of our own consciousness, without being repulsive or escapist is YOGA. It is said (by those who have achieved this DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 85. STUDY OF GITA 85 MAHAYOGA), that NAMASMARAN makes this possible. In 11th chapter Lord Krishna endows Arjuna with “objective vision” or extrasensory vision; by lifting him from his subjective realm. Arjuna “sees” or actually experiences the cosmic consciousness. This “vision” or actual experience of objective reality is unfathomable in every sense, because of the yet undissolved subjective existence! For the same reason it is frightening. It is like moving with supersonic or superphotic (faster than the speed of light) speed. Arjuna experienced something similar to (but more complex than) high speed centrifugation or high speed revolutions creating destabilizing vertigo upsetting all body and mind systems. Arjuna went beyond time and sense of time seemed to have lost. He actually “saw” the panorama spread over ages and millennia. He saw generations after generations getting dissolved in that consciousness. He “saw” the seekers of truth worshipping that consciousness and the ignorant or oblivious; being afraid and running from it! DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 86. STUDY OF GITA 86 Arjuna realized that Lord Krishna; the human form in front of him is actually cosmic consciousness pervading him and his consciousness in and out and from all sides. He felt stunned by this unparallel experience of omniscient, omnipresent and omnipotent God. He was overwhelmed by the experience of what is implied by the terms unborn, immortal and infinite! He realized what is meant by the origin of universe and the destination of the universe. He sensed what consciousness beyond consciousness is; and what is the origin and culmination of all spiritual, intellectual and emotional endeavors in literature, art and science; practiced by human civilizations, knowingly and unknowingly in the pursuit of the “truth”! Since this experience is similar to that of getting burst or exploded from within; it is destabilizing and shattering, even though it is thrilling and exciting in ultimate sense! Arjuna therefore while getting saturated and suffocated, urged Lord Krishna to reappear in human form! This is precisely the point of idol worship; actually this word idol worship is very superficial and DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 87. STUDY OF GITA 87 narrow and does not convey the spirit. It is aptly called MURTIPOOJA. The cosmic consciousness is brought in human or other form and then worshipped. This aspect being realistic and practical has been welcomed by billions of people for millennia. The saints; as alluded to earlier; have further made it simple by practicing NAMASMARAN and preaching it and thereby made the enlightenment accessible to billions of people for generations gone and generations to come! Lord Krishna reappears in His human form (still as a murti of a deity with four hands, so as to distinguish Him as different from ordinary human being) and explains to Arjuna that it is possible to not merely, know and reach Him, but actually merge with Him; through devout love with absolute fidelity and loyalty. In my view Lord Krishna implies here; that this unconditioned and devout love is the culmination and pinnacle of all penance and efforts (such as PRANAYAM, ASANA and others). This is YOGA of YOGA or YOGA attained through YOGA or MAHAYOGA! DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 88. STUDY OF GITA 88 At the end of 11th chapter; Lord Krishna asserts that SWADHARMA i.e. every moment lived in His consciousness or remembrance; characterized by inimitable and sublime love for everyone in the universe; which signifies supreme form of universal unity; certainly takes an individual and hence billions of individuals to His supreme abode! In 12th chapter, Arjuna, like any genius (after “seeing” “cosmic formless form” and “deity form” of Lord Krishna); probably realizes the necessity to confirm (for the benefit of billions) the Lord’s opinion about the nature of worship, and hence requests Lord Krishna to explain which type of devout love; amongst the two viz. that for formless cosmic consciousness and that for a specific form (idol, murti or NAMA); is preferable and conducive to individual and global blossoming! Lord Krishna explains that it is quite difficult to remain focused on “formless cosmic consciousness”, (though those who can do this; and have supreme love for everyone in the universe; reach Him); hence worshipping Him in some form, by doing every activity in His remembrance as if to offer Him is desirable. He further advises Arjuna (and every one in the universe) that even if this also DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 89. STUDY OF GITA 89 may be found difficult; one should persist on it. Because, through consistent and persistent efforts, the individuals reach Him and blossom step by step from conceptualization and practice; to enlightenment; to composed or integrated mental state; to detachment for every result (the fleeting gains and losses); to absolute all enlivening, all empowering and all enlightening peace! Lord Krishna briefly describes the great characteristics of such an individual (and hence the society) and assures Arjuna that following this path is like drinking the sap of immortality and being one with the eternal source of love that emanates through generations after generations! Lord Krishna probably thought that Arjuna (and many others like him); in one sense; and the systems such as limbic system, autonomic nervous system, neuroendocrine system, endocrine system etc. associated with our instinctual and emotional; and conscious and subconscious behavior; are not yet tuned to this kind of enlightenment. In other words the enlightenment did not yet seep down and did not yet percolate into the bones and into every cell! In such situation it became necessary to explain the purport from different angle, in still DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 90. STUDY OF GITA 90 somewhat different language, and with different semantics. Thus in 13th chapter Lord Krishna explains the meaning of KSHETRA, KSHETRAJNA, JNANA and JNEYA, which mean body with all its systems, knower, knowledge and object of knowledge; respectively. All this is explained in scriptures such as BRAHMASUTRAS elaborated by rishis, which revolve around, spring from and culminate in Lord Krishna i.e. cosmic consciousness. PRUTHVI, which broadly means all particles, AAPA, which broadly means all liquids, TEJA, which broadly means the fire principle, VAAYU, which broadly means all energy and AAKASHA which broadly means space are called five MAHABHUTAS. BUDDHI, AVYAKTA and AHANKAR constitute the subtler aspects of human beings such as intelligence, unapparent forces and the subjective schema (of one’s own and the universe forming conceptual framework). DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 91. STUDY OF GITA 91 These eight along with various instincts and emotions constitute KSHETRA. The knower of this KSHETRA is KSHETRAJNA i.e. cosmic consciousness i.e. LORD KRISHNA. It has to be conceived that this consciousness when restricted limited KSHETRA i.e. human body and associated phenomena, constitutes the KSHETRAJNA in that respect. JNANA is knowledge; which is not merely information collected by an individual but enlightenment through study of ADHYATMA i.e. holistic physiology or study of intricacies of the dynamics of nature (KSHETRA); and consequent intellectual, emotional, instinctual and physical behavior of an individual! JNEYA is object of knowledge; viz. BRAHMA. It is without beginning and end. It is neither true not false. Here true and false refer to concept of “is” and “is not”, which refer to time and space. Hence it is beyond “is” and “is not”! It is conceived as having countless hands, eyes, ears, mouths and so on. It is said to encompass everything; space, time and all individual consciousnesses. It DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 92. STUDY OF GITA 92 incorporates all sensory perceptions and beyond it all! It is beyond all describable attributes as it is beyond the language of quality (words) and quantity (numbers). It is detached as well as attached and it is beyond all qualities and yet experiences the qualities! It is present inside and outside of everything and it is static as well as dynamic. It is extremely subtle and hence beyond perception and is infinitely away as well as in vicinity. It is beyond all light and all darkness, which are functions of visual systems! It is the knowledge as well as object of knowledge and ever present in the core heart of every one. All these qualities are described to reinforce the super concept; of cosmic consciousness. The BRAHMA or PURUSHA and PRAKRUTI are said to be free of beginning and end. This can be conceived as conscious space and conscious energy which act as fields and rest all with beginning and end and changes; constitute contingent aspects viz. the GUNAS. DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 93. STUDY OF GITA 93 Understanding these concepts helps an individual to identify himself as being increasingly closer and closer or being in common with the cosmic consciousness and begins to see the happenings in the universe and individual life as products of PRAKRUTI and GUNAS. This is progressive liberation. This liberation becomes possible because the individual sees that cosmic consciousness is like space that is essential component for everything that happens in universe but neither participates in the activities nor gets influenced by them and it is like sun, which illumines the universe without actually “going” to the nooks and corner and without actually “becoming” part of those places. Lord Krishna then describes the “applied” aspects of the holistic physiology viz. the implications of the contingent GUNAS; in human life (with undoubted impact on the universe) in 14th chapter. Nov 14, 2009, 10:10 am Gita is the nucleus of conceptual and actual world unity and harmony. DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 94. STUDY OF GITA 94 When I was more immature than what I am today, I could not appreciate the benevolence of Gita for the universe. Those days, I preferred to read Maxim Gorky’s “Mother” in preference to Gita for the blind children. The “Mother” and leftist literature in general; analyze the global problems in a rational way and take you a step forward in breaking the shackles of individualistic pettiness. Hence they are not counterproductive or retrogressive, but they should be transcended by Gita. Gita imparts the vision of universal unity and harmony and also reconciles the various characteristics, attitudes, beliefs and endeavors of the mankind from every nook and corner of world; to reach the cosmic consciousness. But this holistic perspective makes Gita somewhat ambiguous and vulnerable to attacks from fascists, fundamentalists, and extremists and overall those people who are trapped in bigotry of one kind or another. But the spirit of Gita is bound to ultimately bring together (I am sure about this from my own experience) people of all stages of development and people of all varieties! DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 95. STUDY OF GITA 95 Lord Krishna reiterates; that every thing in universe including the GUNAS; such as SATVA, RAJA and TAMA result from the cosmic consciousness. This may be considered to be a kind transduction or transformation of the consciousness into energy that mobilizes the matter according to the characteristics of the matter (which again develop from consciousness). From the interplay of consciousness, time, space, energy and matter the world appears as it does; which in turn is due to our consciousness veiled by our physiological and subjective perceptions! Making it simplified; SATVA, RAJA and TAMA indicate different characteristics of every thing such as being nearer, in between and away from absolute consciousness! SATVA therefore is a quality that blossoms knowledge and activities conducive to freedom i.e. reach the cosmic consciousness, RAJA multiplies the activities born out of subjective concepts and pursuits; and TAMA enhances decomposition, degeneration and downfall in the abyss of darkness of ignorance. DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 96. STUDY OF GITA 96 Gita is global, because you can see people with varying preponderance of the effects of SATVA, RAJA and TAMA all over the world contributing to; blossoming, day to day working and mutilation of the word respectively. TAMA constitutes ignorance, indolence, slumber, irrationality, irresponsibility, fanaticism, viciousness and so on. RAJA constitutes restless study and collection of information, dynamism (usually out of petty pursuits), rational and analytical thinking, being vigilant and/or anxious, discipline, readiness to study the point of view of others and analyze according to one’s own conceptual framework and attitude conducive to liberal individualistic progress (which generally come to loggerheads in the course of time). SATAV constitutes buoyant serenity of mind, agility and swiftness; in over all behavior, focused attentiveness, rationality complemented with holistic approach, natural awareness of SWADHARMA; the culmination of universally benevolent “discipline”; generosity and loving attitude towards all variety of perspectives as DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 97. STUDY OF GITA 97 originating from one; and perspective conducive to holistic progress that ensures progressive complementarity and sublime harmony. However, GUNAS generally bind people in some kind of subjectivity and hence the natural blossoming invariably leads to freedom from the influence and/or veils of every GUNA. This is highly idealistic state, but resides in every heart though one may be oblivious to it! Thus in one sense spirit of Gita resides in every heart; (though some may be unaware of it); and governs the dynamics of human behavior! As more and more people become aware of this invaluable treasure of enlightenment and empowerment in their hearts, the spiritual renaissance would manifest in every nook and corner of the world. There is no necessity for any blue print. The hallmark of such spiritual revolution would simply be; the awareness of this treasure in their hearts; rest all would follow! In 15th chapter, there is an analogy of ASHVATTHA tree to describe the universe and universal consciousness on the one hand; and the DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 98. STUDY OF GITA 98 individual and individual consciousness on the other. From human anatomical and physiological point of view; human brain is the seat of consciousness. It is at the top. From the root or seed of consciousness at the top; the branches in the form nerve fibers spread up and down into plexuses and peripheral nerves and billions of receptors; (the nature of which corresponds according to Gita, to the causative deeds of the individual in the past). The individual enjoys or suffers more or less exactly according to the inputs from these nerve fibers and their receptors! Indeed the consciousness gets trapped in these sense organs and the person becomes bonded! The human being becomes free after returning of his consciousness from the periphery to the center or the root! This is analogous to cosmic consciousness; that also gets in some way “trapped” in the universe; and returns towards his origin at the time when the universe gets dissolved back into its roots!! DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 99. STUDY OF GITA 99 In other words Gita beautifully shows the commonality between the individual blossoming with universal blossoming. In other words this may be called reorienting and reestablishing oneself in one’s own position! This may also be called returning to one’s own self! This consciousness reachable by an individual is the same as universal consciousness that illumines the entire universe. One can always say that this is a poetic imagination, which it is; but in the sense that it transcends the subjective reasoning! Gita is beyond human (whether poetic or scientific) imagination. Anyone however, can verify the spirit of Gita for himself or herself (and inevitably with the world, because the light of Gita cannot remain restricted to one’s petty self!)! In 16th chapter there is description of qualities conducive to downfall of a person (getting increasingly distanced from and oblivious of one’s true self i.e. cosmic consciousness) and essentially correspond to the preponderance of RAJA and TAMA described in the 14th chapter. DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 100. STUDY OF GITA 100 The way to overcome these influences of negative forces called ASURI forces; is SWADHARMA and step by step victory over the KAMA, KRODHA and LOBHA. The rejection of scriptures by an individual is usually out of impulsiveness arising from the slavery of KAMA, KRODHA and LOBHA, (desire, agitation on not getting the desired and addiction) which are three enemies of an individual; because they trap one’s consciousness and drag away from the true self of an individual. Many times I used to feel that KAMA, KRODHA and LOBHA are all natural, physiological and normal. Gita teachings are antinatural. But now I realize that my standards of “natural, physiological and normal” were mediocre and born out of intellectual lethargy and slowness. I now understand that physiological is not a static term. Hence what is physiological in immature state would be pathological in mature state. What is physiological in primitive state would be pathological in evolved state. DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 101. STUDY OF GITA 101 But having considered the differences in many environmental conditions the scriptures written thousands of years ago, in one part of the world may not be exactly applicable in another part of the world and in present situation. Hence the emphasis is given by Gita on focusing on devout love (SHRADDHA) for cosmic consciousness! This essence is reiterated by saints from all over the world and from all religions and in terms of remembering the cosmic consciousness through repetition of a name of God NAMASMARAN, or OMKAR according to that tradition or religion In 17th chapter there is explanation about three types of SHRADDHA, AHAR, YAJNA, TAPA and DANA, (salient aspects of behavior) for the benefit of an individual in search of truth! The sketchy description gives broad guidance about principles of behavior useful in individual and global blossoming. In essence, the SHRADHA and consequent endeavors are differentiated according to the GUNAS. DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 102. STUDY OF GITA 102 SATVA type worship divinity, RAJA type worship affluence, magic and even devilish forces and TAMA type worship evil spirits and dead bodies. SATVA type eat the food conducive to inner blossoming and enlightenment (usually fresh, sweet and empowering fortitude), RAJA type eat food conducive to multiply the vigor and indiscriminate desires (usually spicy and hot, including some types of non-vegetarian food) followed by ill effects, and TAMA type like stale, fermented, rotten, stinking (e.g. some types of cheese and fish) leading to further ignorance, or dullness. SATVA perform YAJNA a procedure to invoke cosmic consciousness for satisfaction, RAJA type for petty pursuits and socio-political gains for prestige and acclaim and TAMA type do it (for even worse purposes) and without adhering to the procedure, and without any interest, concern and expenditure! The purity, decency, humility of body and conduct, with respect to deity, teachers and enlightened individuals is called SHAREER TAPA. The appropriate and benevolent dialogue and study of DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 103. STUDY OF GITA 103 the nature is called VANGMAYA (related to intelligence and speech) TAPA. The observance of abstinence from speech (unnecessary talk, gossip or any kind of impulsive expressions), on the one hand and experience of noble feeling and the expression of this noble feeling and selfless love; is called MANAS TAPA. Out of these; TAPA without any petty expectations is called SATVIKA, with expectations of socio- political gains is called RAJAS and with fanatic endeavors with intentions of harming the others is called TAMAS TAPA. DANA i.e. donations (cash, or kind) are also categorized. Thus when given selflessly as a part of SWADHARMA it is SATVIK, given with discomfort due to excessive love for money, with intentions to extract excessive benefits is RAJAS and when given at wrong place, to wrong person (obviously with ill intentions) it is called TAMAS. At the end it is summarized (endorsed and reiterated by saints from all over the world and from all religions) that every activity should begin and end in thankful remembrance of the name of God (called NAMASMARAN or OMKAR) DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 104. STUDY OF GITA 104 symbolizing cosmic consciousness (according to the tradition or religion). It is also clarified that; if intelligence, emotions, instincts and body are not integrated and not focused in totality on cosmic consciousness, then the process of blossoming and enlightenment is jeopardized. In 18th chapter many points from previous chapters are repeated and emphasized again in a kind of useful summary. Thus terms such as SANYASA, TYAGA, JNANA, KARMA, KARTA, KARANAS, ADHISHTHAN, KARTA, KARAN, CHESHTA, DAIVA, JNANA, JNEYAM, PARIJNATA, KARANAM, KARMA, KARTA, BUDDHI, DHRITI, SUKHAM, BRAHMANA, KASHATRIYA, VAISHYA, and SHUDRA are explained. What I understand and deduce, (which may not be the same be as implied in Gita or commentaries on Gita and scriptures) is as follows. SANYASA is giving up all activities of personal desires. DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 105. STUDY OF GITA 105 TYAGA is giving up all results or fruits of actions. According to Gita, the activities prescribed in scriptures for common welfare should be performed without ulterior motives or expectations. NIYATA KARMA means all activities included in daily routine for universal welfare. If an individual abandons them because of other petty distractions or because of indolence, then it is called TAMAS TYAGA. Abandoning the activities out of fear of bodily discomfort is called RAJAS TYAGA and does not lead to individual and global blossoming. Thus forsaking the fruits and performing actions (SWADHARMA) is called SATVIKA TYAGA. Thus a person following SWADHARMA does not give value or importance to the nature of the work and hence is free of confusion and doubts. Every activity has some components viz. ADHISHTHANA the space or area or field of activity, KARTA the individual consciousness DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 106. STUDY OF GITA 106 operating, KARAN the means, CHESHTA the actual dynamics and DAIVA, which means the unseen environmental forces influencing the outcome. JNANA, JNEYAM and PARIJNATA (knowledge, object of knowledge and knower respectively) are the control mechanisms bringing about actions e.g. neurophysiological controls and KARAN, KARMA KARTA (means or tools, action proper and doer) constitute the actual components of actions. JNANA is classified as TAMASIK (fanatic and blind), RAJASIK (rational and analytical but sectarian) and SATVIK (unifying and holistic). KARMA also is SATVIK (selfless SWADHARMA), RAJAS (actions performed vehemently with individualistic pursuits) and TAMAS (work begun without thought and sense of proportion usually to harm one or others). KARTA (doer) is also SATVIK (selfless, humble, buoyant, enthusiastic and steadfast and courageous irrespective success or failures because of strength of conviction), RAJAS (motivated by vested DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 107. STUDY OF GITA 107 interests and hence harboring ulterior motives and violent and vacillating in excitement and depression) and TAMAS (ignorant, unskilled, dull, crooked, vicious, cynical, melancholic and lethargic). BUDDHI (wisdom) also is SATVIK (discerns desirable and undesirable and freedom and bondage), RAJAS (cannot discern and hence misinterprets desirable and undesirable) and TAMAS (blunderous and disastrous in every respect). DHRITI (fortitude) also is SATVIK (composed and integrated in every respect and focused completely on cosmic consciousness), RAJAS (involved in various activities for petty gains) and TAMAS (full of slumber, nightmares, and bouts of sadness and arrogance and shackling the individual in everyway). SUKHAM (happiness) also is SATVIK (initially unpleasant but subsequently benevolent), RAJAS (initially pleasant due objects of pleasure but latter precipitating misery due loss of those objects or their ill effects) and TAMAS (one which creates slumber, perversion and bondage). DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 108. STUDY OF GITA 108 BRAHMANA, KSHATRIYA, VAISHYA and SHUDRA constitute different aptitudes and constitutions, suitable for intellectual and enlightening activities, leadership and brave military activity, trading, rearing cattle and farming; and patient and sustained provision of services; requiring different skills respectively. SWADHARMA i.e. act with complete dedication and selfless involvement for individual and global blossoming (through guidance from scriptures or from inner voice through NAMSMARAN) helps us return towards our root i.e. cosmic consciousness, even if our aptitude and skills may appear to be inferior to those of others!! Lord Krishna explains that following SWADHARMA is itself the ultimate reward in life and everything else is born out of ignorance and/or pettiness and hence counterproductive i.e. taking us away from our root! In the last few verses He asks Arjuna repeatedly to focus on the true self i.e. cosmic consciousness and not get distracted by any other subjective ideological considerations (SARVA DHARMAN DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 109. STUDY OF GITA 109 PARITYAJYA) and assures; in fact pledges that He would liberate Arjuna of all bondages (PAPA)! Arjuna understands and agrees to follow Lord Krishna i.e. cosmic consciousness in struggle of life! Sanjay, the narrator, in the ecstasy of having heard this dialogue and remembered the stunningly glorious persona of Lord Krishna; declares his opinion that union of individual consciousness (Arjuna) and cosmic consciousness (Krishna) is itself ultimate victory in every possible way. ADDENDA NOVEMBER 25, 2009 03:00 PM In chapter 3, Lord Krishna expresses His concern about the common people, who follow the reputed individuals in the society! Even as this is grossly true; this is an obvious statement. Lord Krishna appears to imply that; in any system; the control mechanisms or the regulating centers or the higher centers are DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 110. STUDY OF GITA 110 followed by rest of the component parts. This is true for the whole universe as well as the human body also. In other words; the higher self of an individual has the responsibility to behave in tune with the cosmic consciousness so that rest of the consciousness trapped in the body systems also can follow the suite. The position of the leaders in the society is that of the higher centers in the human body. If the higher centers in the human body get deranged then the whole body would go in disarray. Another point that is raised is bout KARMAMUKTI or BANDHAMUKTI. I used to wonder, what is this? Now I seem to understand that this is nothing else but the freedom of our consciousness from the shackling influence of biophysical, biochemical and physiological activities. This is possible through linking with the cosmic consciousness, by anchoring to the name of that cosmic consciousness called NAMA and remembering the NAMA is DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 111. STUDY OF GITA 111 focusing on and getting linked and gradually merged with the cosmic consciousness! In Gita Lord Krishna is the cosmic consciousness. NOVEMBER 26, 2009, 09:45 AM In 12th chapter there is verse, in which there is a clarification about the culmination; of study into knowledge or wisdom, of wisdom into composure of mind (DHYANA), of DHYANA into KARMAPHALATYAGA i.e. detachment from the results of actions and of KARMAPHALATYAGA into peace. I used to wonder; how simple detachment from results or fruits of actions could be superior stage just penultimate to peace! This was probably because the detachment appeared simple and pertaining to individual experiences. Moreover, simply getting detached from one result of one action could not appear to endow permanent peace. This is because one could perform innumerable actions and each time the question of detachment would arise. DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 112. STUDY OF GITA 112 It is clear however, now, that the detachment has far deeper and cosmic meaning. If and when I realize that that I am part of cosmic consciousness and KARMA is actually the manifestation of the universe, then I realize that detachment is actually not from personal actions, but from the universal action of the cosmic consciousness! Secondly the detachment is not from one or another action, but it is from all possible actions of individual consciousness including all subjective realm such intellectual, emotional, instinctual and physical actions. It also includes all the physiological, biochemical and biophysical actions going no in one’s body or rather being! Last but not the least, it includes peaceful and loving renunciation of everything subjective in nature! Once this meaning becomes clear, it becomes clear how DHYNA culminates into KARMAPHALATYAGA and how KARMAPHALATYAGA culminates into or sublimates into peace! DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 113. STUDY OF GITA 113 KARMAPHALATYAGA here is really the MUKTI or liberation and it is but appropriate that it is associated with peace. In 16th chapter, there are verses, indicating the fruit of hating the cosmic consciousness (Lord Krishna) in terms of going into abysmal births and miserable end (GATI). The meaning of these verses appeared to indicate the consequences of one’s actions and somewhat punitive nature of the Lord! This appeared in contrast to the kind and benevolent nature of Lord, so much emphasized by many saints. This appeared inexplicable, when one pondered over the verses in 6th and 9th chapters stating that even a sinner of worst kind gets liberation and in verse 18th chapter stating that ISHAVR resides in every heart and governs and mobilized the living beings. Now it appears that the verses in 16th chapter relate to the ego of a person who separates him or her from the cosmic consciousness and hence makes one arrogant and hate his or her own cosmic self! In such a condition, the Lord probably implies that he or she would keep on reverberating in his or her own separated and hence painful, miserable and helpless state. If you experience the might of the shackling ego, as I have experienced, you would DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 114. STUDY OF GITA 114 agree with this! However, after coming into contact with Gita and getting immersed in her, he or she would begin to reorient himself or herself with the true self or cosmic consciousness and peace. This also you would agree if and when you experience this! NOVEMBER 26, 2009, 02:00 PM In 9th chapter, Lord says that for him every one is equal and He neither loves nor hates (in a personal manner) any one. I now understand that even as Lord can see the unity of the universe and its being present in Him, every one of us does not experience this. Hence due our personal biases and subjectivity we see individuals as good, bad, simple, shrewd, cunning, crooked, vicious, vindictive, gullible, healthy, sick, happy, miserable etc. Gita implies that it is natural for everyone to evolve in this realization; the Lord shares with Arjuna. All the means described n Gita (and many others not directly and clearly described in Gita) take us to this realization. DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 115. STUDY OF GITA 115 So, even as the Lord is present everywhere and all times, common people like us are not evolved enough to see it and experience it. Thus we see suffering, happiness, hatred etc in ourselves or the others! In 5th chapter, it is said that SANYASA is not possible without YOGA. Most of us experience sometimes repulsion and sometimes craving for certain things and people. Lord suggests us rise above this. The peace devoid of vacillations is associated with loving renunciation! If you have subtle dislike for you spouse and you decide to separate, then that is not SANYASA in true sense or renunciation in true sense! It is merely a reaction of hatred! Conversely, if you like your spouse so much that you cannot bear the thought of separation, then that is not YOGA or objective impersonal love! These; hated and subjective attachment; are responsible for bondage and suffering! This holds true for every kind of subjective hatred and love. DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 116. STUDY OF GITA 116 Lord teaches us that renouncing per se is not true sacrifice with objective perspective i.e. SANYASA and getting possessed per se; is not objective love or YOGA. In the course of evolution you rise above this kind of hatred or subjective attachment. You learn and realize the rhythm of life. You learn to enjoy the supreme love and supreme sacrifice objectively. Thus SANYASA is rising above all the subjective framework and getting freed from it; and YOGA is the absence of resentment and presence of fulfillment while you are rising! Further; it becomes clear, that just as SANYASA i.e. true renunciation; is impossible without YOGA i.e. bond of objective love, similarly; the YOGA the bond of objective love is not possible without SANYASA i.e. renouncing all ideas, ideals, ambitions, aims, objectives and other preoccupations; born out of subjective framework of mind! In other words, rising into objectivity is truly a self (subjective) less (detachment and SANYASA) and DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 117. STUDY OF GITA 117 truly loving (union with the cosmic self i.e. objective love, or YOGA) act! It has been repeatedly said that NAMASMARAN can help in this! It is said in 6th chapter that self control (moderation) helps and individual to attain YOGA. But in 6th, 7th and 9th chapters it is also said that those who worship me can attain me irrespective of their conduct. What is importance of SATVA GUNA if this is so? I think it refers to the fact that in general SATVA GUNA is near to revelation of truth. But that is not always apparent and perceptible to common man’s eye. Hence it is also said that Lord’s devotee instantly becomes one with Lord as stated in 9th and 11th chapters!! Hence this statement of Gita is particularly validated by the behavior of AVALIYAS, who are nonconformist realized souls such as Satam Maharaj, Gajanan Maharaj etc. NOVEMBER 27, 2009, 3:45 PM DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 118. STUDY OF GITA 118 Some people commented that Arjuna was actually right in renouncing the war as he stated at the end of the 1st chapter itself, that he was ready to die without offering any resistance rather participating in war for the sake of winning the kingdom! Apparently I was also in two minds when I read this comment. But in the course of time I realized that Arjuna was kind and loving but getting derailed from his duty towards himself and the society. I also realized that those justified and upheld the view point of Arjuna were themselves in the dilemma of identifying the enemy and fighting it! In my experience, when you are not sure about the identity of the enemy; you are not convinced about fighting! In short Arjuna had not identified his true self and hence he had not identified the true enemy and hence was reluctant to enter and participate in the war! DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
  • 119. STUDY OF GITA 119 With the practice of NAMASMARAN; the nature of the enemy becomes clear and you begin to enjoy the participating in the war with enemy inside and outside as a matter of privilege of SWADHARMA! In 18th chapter there is reference to not getting TYAGA PHALA by RAJASA TYAGA! How can we reconcile the idea of KARMAPHALATYAGA and getting TYAGA PHALA? The answer is; here the Lord refers to the fruit or PHALA which liberates us from all kinds of expectations! Hence this TYAGA PHALA is quite different or in fact quite opposite of KARMAPHALA which leads to bondage! DR. SHRINIWAS KASHALIKAR
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