The Living World

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  • 1. THE LIVING WORLD PREPARED BY: S.RATH PGT BIOLOGY K.V 3 BBSR www.cbse123.co.cc
  • 2. CONTENTS
    • Characteristics Of Living
    • Binomial Nomenclature
    • Rules Of Nomenclature
    • Taxonomic Categories
    • Taxonomical Aids
  • 3. CHARCTERISTICS OF LIVING
    • Growth
    • Reproduction
    • Metabolism
    • Cellular organisation of body
    • Consciousness
    • Interaction
  • 4. BIODIVERSITY
    • The number &types of organisms present on earth constitute biodiversity.
    • Number of species that are known and described ranges between 1.7 to 1.8 million.
  • 5. NOMENCLATURE & IDENTIFICATION
    • Nomenclature-naming of a particular organism in such a manner that it is known by the same name all over the world.
    • Identification-it is the correct description of an organism and its recognition in its scientific name.
  • 6. BINOMIAL NOMENCLATURE
    • Given By Carolous Linnaeus
    • Each Name Has Two Components
    • First Name-generic
    • Second Name-specific Epithet
  • 7. UNIVERSAL RULES OF NOMENCLATURE
    • Names are in Latin and written in italics.They are Latinised or derived from Latin irrespective of their origin.
    • The first word is genus name and second word is specific epithet.
  • 8. UNIVERSAL RULES OF NOMENCLATURE
    • Both the words when handwritten are separately underlined or printed in italics to indicate their Latin origin.
    • Genus starts with capital letter while specific epithet starts with small letter.
    • Example- Mangifera indica
  • 9. UNIVERSAL RULES OF NOMENCLATURE
    • Name of the appears after specific epithet and it is written in abbreviated form.
    • E.g Mangifera indica Linn.
  • 10. CLASSIFICATION
    • It is the process by which any thing is grouped into conventional categories based on some easily observable characters.
  • 11. PURPOSE OF CLASSIFICATION
    • Organise vast number of plants,animals etc into categories that could be named, remembered & studied.
    • Study of one organism of a group gives the idea about rest of the members of that group.
  • 12. TAXA & TAXONOMY
    • It is the scientific term which indicates categories of organisms at different levels.
    • Taxonomy -process of classification taking into account various characteristics such as external & internal structure,structure of cell,development process & ecological information of organisms.
  • 13. SYSTEMATICS
    • Systema(Latin word)-arrangement of organisms
    • It is the study of organisms which include identification,nomenclature &classification of organisms.it also takes into account evolutionary relationships between organisms.
  • 14. TAXONOMIC CATEGORIES
    • Classification involves hierarchy of steps in which each step represents a rank or category . Category is a part of overall taxonomic arrangement ,called taxonomic category .All categories together constitute the taxonomic hierarchy.Each category is termed as taxon.
  • 15. TAXONOMIC CATEGORIES SPECIES GENUS FAMILY ORDER CLASS PHYLUM OR DIVISION KINGDOM
  • 16. SPECIES
    • Group of individuals having fundamental similarities in characteristics and successful reproduction takes place among themselves form a species.
    • E.g: Panthera tigris ,Panthera leo
    • Solanum tuberosum , Solanum nigrum .
  • 17. GENUS
    • It consists of a group of related species which has more characters in common in comparison to species of other genera.
    • Genera are aggregates of closely related species.
    • E.g: Panthera leo , P pardus (leopard) , P tigris
    • E.g: Solanum tuberosum , S nigrum
  • 18. FAMILY
    • It has a group of related genera with less number of similarities as compared to genus and species.
    • E.g:family Solanaceae includes genera solanum(tomato,potato) , petunia & datura.
    • Family Felidae includes genera panthera (lion, tiger ,leopard) &Felis(cat)
  • 19. ORDER
    • It is the assemblage of families which include a few similar characters in comparison to genus, family etc.
    • E.g:order polynomial includes family solanaceae & convovulaceae .
    • E.g: carnivora includes family felidae & cancidae (dog) .
  • 20. CLASS
    • It includes all related orders having less numbers of common characteristics.
    • E.g: class mammalia includes order Primata (monkey, gorilla,gibbon) & carnivora.
    • E.g:class Dicotyledonae includes order polymoniales & sapindales (mango)
  • 21. PHYLUM or DIVISION
    • It includes related classes.
    • E.g:phylum Chordata includes classes fish ,amphibia, reptilia, aves &mammalia.
    • Division angiospermae includes class dicotyledonae & monocotyledonae.
  • 22. TAXONOMICAL AIDS
    • Herbarium
    • Botanical Garden
    • Museum
    • Zoological Park
    • Key