The Living World

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The Living World

  1. 1. THE LIVING WORLD PREPARED BY: S.RATH PGT BIOLOGY K.V 3 BBSR www.cbse123.co.cc
  2. 2. CONTENTS <ul><li>Characteristics Of Living </li></ul><ul><li>Binomial Nomenclature </li></ul><ul><li>Rules Of Nomenclature </li></ul><ul><li>Taxonomic Categories </li></ul><ul><li>Taxonomical Aids </li></ul>
  3. 3. CHARCTERISTICS OF LIVING <ul><li>Growth </li></ul><ul><li>Reproduction </li></ul><ul><li>Metabolism </li></ul><ul><li>Cellular organisation of body </li></ul><ul><li>Consciousness </li></ul><ul><li>Interaction </li></ul>
  4. 4. BIODIVERSITY <ul><li>The number &types of organisms present on earth constitute biodiversity. </li></ul><ul><li>Number of species that are known and described ranges between 1.7 to 1.8 million. </li></ul>
  5. 5. NOMENCLATURE & IDENTIFICATION <ul><li>Nomenclature-naming of a particular organism in such a manner that it is known by the same name all over the world. </li></ul><ul><li>Identification-it is the correct description of an organism and its recognition in its scientific name. </li></ul>
  6. 6. BINOMIAL NOMENCLATURE <ul><li>Given By Carolous Linnaeus </li></ul><ul><li>Each Name Has Two Components </li></ul><ul><li>First Name-generic </li></ul><ul><li>Second Name-specific Epithet </li></ul>
  7. 7. UNIVERSAL RULES OF NOMENCLATURE <ul><li>Names are in Latin and written in italics.They are Latinised or derived from Latin irrespective of their origin. </li></ul><ul><li>The first word is genus name and second word is specific epithet. </li></ul>
  8. 8. UNIVERSAL RULES OF NOMENCLATURE <ul><li>Both the words when handwritten are separately underlined or printed in italics to indicate their Latin origin. </li></ul><ul><li>Genus starts with capital letter while specific epithet starts with small letter. </li></ul><ul><li>Example- Mangifera indica </li></ul>
  9. 9. UNIVERSAL RULES OF NOMENCLATURE <ul><li>Name of the appears after specific epithet and it is written in abbreviated form. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g Mangifera indica Linn. </li></ul>
  10. 10. CLASSIFICATION <ul><li>It is the process by which any thing is grouped into conventional categories based on some easily observable characters. </li></ul>
  11. 11. PURPOSE OF CLASSIFICATION <ul><li>Organise vast number of plants,animals etc into categories that could be named, remembered & studied. </li></ul><ul><li>Study of one organism of a group gives the idea about rest of the members of that group. </li></ul>
  12. 12. TAXA & TAXONOMY <ul><li>It is the scientific term which indicates categories of organisms at different levels. </li></ul><ul><li>Taxonomy -process of classification taking into account various characteristics such as external & internal structure,structure of cell,development process & ecological information of organisms. </li></ul>
  13. 13. SYSTEMATICS <ul><li>Systema(Latin word)-arrangement of organisms </li></ul><ul><li>It is the study of organisms which include identification,nomenclature &classification of organisms.it also takes into account evolutionary relationships between organisms. </li></ul>
  14. 14. TAXONOMIC CATEGORIES <ul><li>Classification involves hierarchy of steps in which each step represents a rank or category . Category is a part of overall taxonomic arrangement ,called taxonomic category .All categories together constitute the taxonomic hierarchy.Each category is termed as taxon. </li></ul>
  15. 15. TAXONOMIC CATEGORIES SPECIES GENUS FAMILY ORDER CLASS PHYLUM OR DIVISION KINGDOM
  16. 16. SPECIES <ul><li>Group of individuals having fundamental similarities in characteristics and successful reproduction takes place among themselves form a species. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g: Panthera tigris ,Panthera leo </li></ul><ul><li>Solanum tuberosum , Solanum nigrum . </li></ul>
  17. 17. GENUS <ul><li>It consists of a group of related species which has more characters in common in comparison to species of other genera. </li></ul><ul><li>Genera are aggregates of closely related species. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g: Panthera leo , P pardus (leopard) , P tigris </li></ul><ul><li>E.g: Solanum tuberosum , S nigrum </li></ul>
  18. 18. FAMILY <ul><li>It has a group of related genera with less number of similarities as compared to genus and species. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g:family Solanaceae includes genera solanum(tomato,potato) , petunia & datura. </li></ul><ul><li>Family Felidae includes genera panthera (lion, tiger ,leopard) &Felis(cat) </li></ul>
  19. 19. ORDER <ul><li>It is the assemblage of families which include a few similar characters in comparison to genus, family etc. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g:order polynomial includes family solanaceae & convovulaceae . </li></ul><ul><li>E.g: carnivora includes family felidae & cancidae (dog) . </li></ul>
  20. 20. CLASS <ul><li>It includes all related orders having less numbers of common characteristics. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g: class mammalia includes order Primata (monkey, gorilla,gibbon) & carnivora. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g:class Dicotyledonae includes order polymoniales & sapindales (mango) </li></ul>
  21. 21. PHYLUM or DIVISION <ul><li>It includes related classes. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g:phylum Chordata includes classes fish ,amphibia, reptilia, aves &mammalia. </li></ul><ul><li>Division angiospermae includes class dicotyledonae & monocotyledonae. </li></ul>
  22. 22. TAXONOMICAL AIDS <ul><li>Herbarium </li></ul><ul><li>Botanical Garden </li></ul><ul><li>Museum </li></ul><ul><li>Zoological Park </li></ul><ul><li>Key </li></ul>

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