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Summary of seven game changing trends infosys report



Summary of Seven game changing trends

Summary of Seven game changing trends
Infosys Report.pdf



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Summary of seven game changing trends infosys report Summary of seven game changing trends infosys report Document Transcript

  • Infosys Reports – Summary of Seven game-changing trends ASSIGNMENT 4: Infosys Reports – Summary of Seven game-changing trends Research Methodology Dr. Sridhar TITLE: A Study on Pragmatic Approaches and Quality Initiatives for Enhancing Teachers’ Caliber in Post Graduate Institutes offering MBA Programme under Bangalore University Under the Guidance of Dr. T.V. Raju Director, RV Institute of Management, Bangalore CANARA BANK SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES BANGALORE UNIVERSITY SUBMITTED BY Shivananda R Koteshwar PhD Research Scholar, 2013, REG# 350051   Shivananda  R  Koteshwar,  PhD  Research  Scholar,  Bangalore  University  
  • Infosys Reports – Summary of Seven game-changing trends Seven  Game  Changing  Trends   Source:  http://www.infosys.com/building-tomorrows-enterprise   Overview:  Infosys  approach  to  innovation     In   today’s   changing   world,   opportunities   have   become   inseparably   linked   with   advances  in  IT.  In  Infosys  endeavor  to  future  proof  the  businesses  of  their  clients,   Infosys   has   identified   seven   key   areas   that   are   rapidly   increasing   in   influence,   and   present   great   scope   for   IT-­‐led   innovations:   (1)   Digital   consumers,   (2)   Emerging  economies,  (3)  Healthcare  economy  (4)  New  commerce,    (5)  Pervasive   computing,  (6)  Smarter  organizations,  and  (7)  Sustainable  tomorrow,       Infosys   believe   that   realizing   the   full   potential   of   these   drivers   is   important   for   tomorrow’s  enterprise  to  forge  ahead  of  its  competition.     1. Digital   Consumers:   Informed   and   assertive   digital   consumers   seek   compelling   experiences.   A   digital   ecosystem   enables   self-­‐service   as   well   as   co-­‐creation.  Personalized  solutions  usher  in  on-­‐demand  solutions,  accelerate   innovation   and   access   new   demographic   segments.   Significantly,   they   maximize  customer  value  across  the  lifecycle.   2. Emerging   economies:   Access   to   'local'   knowledge   is   critical   as   emerging   economies   transform   the   global   marketplace.   An   ecosystem   that   harnesses   collaboration   helps   realize   'reverse   innovation'   across   industries.   Products   and   services   must   be   re-­‐engineered,   rather   than   re-­‐created,   to   address   the   specific  needs  of  micro-­‐segments.   3. Healthcare  economy:  IT  minimizes  healthcare  costs  by  eliminating  wastage,   avoiding  redundant  processes  and  incorporating  best  practices  in  treatment.   Intelligent  medical  devices  and  evidence-­‐based  medicine  ensure  patient  self-­‐ care.  In  addition,  peer-­‐to-­‐peer  collaboration  through  social  media  develops  a   preventive  healthcare  lifestyle.   4. New  commerce:  The  ubiquity  of  the  Internet  and  mobile  devices  should  be   harnessed   to   meet   micro-­‐requirements   of   customers.   Next-­‐generation   mobility   solutions   co-­‐create   value   by   redefining   stakeholder   engagement.   They   also   address   differences   within   and   across   markets,   and   drive   sustainable  growth.   5. Pervasive   computing:   Enterprises   should   analyze   real-­‐time   data   from   multiple   embedded   devices   to   better   align   products   and   services   with   customer   requirements.   Computing   and   storage   infrastructure   plays   a   significant   role   in   cost-­‐efficiency,   quality   of   service   and   agility.   Artificial   intelligence,   cloud-­‐based   solutions   and   sensor   networks   are   a   business   imperative.   6. Smarter  organizations:  Smart  decision-­‐making  demands  simple  processes.   Operational   excellence   and   accelerated   innovation   help   companies   deliver   higher   value   to   customers.   However,   it   requires   balancing   the   challenges   of   a   globally   connected   marketplace   with   the   demands   of   localization.   Tomorrow's   companies   should   facilitate   collaboration   across   stakeholders   to   adapt  to  change.     Shivananda  R  Koteshwar,  PhD  Research  Scholar,  Bangalore  University  
  • Infosys Reports – Summary of Seven game-changing trends 7. Sustainable   tomorrow:   A   smart   enterprise   can   grow   sustainably   through   equitable   social   contracts,   effective   resource   utilization   and   'green'   innovation.   Smart   solutions   and   analytical   insights   help   companies   navigate   the  challenges  of  sustainable  growth.  A  road  map  ensures  sustained  action  to   become  more  profitable.       1. Digital  Consumers:     A   higher   penetration   of   new   technologies   spanning   the   Internet,   telecom,   media   and   social   space   has   created   the   Digital   Consumer.   Rapidly   evolving   technology  has  accelerated  changes  in  the  digital  landscape  and  how  quickly   these  digitally  active  consumers  embrace  these  technologies  with  ease.  These   consumers   have   created   a   significant   change   in   traditional   consumer   behaviors.  They  have  changed  the  way  consumers  communicate,  transact  and   make  purchase  decisions.       As  keen  analysts  of  this  trend  and  participants  in  the  digital  economy,  Infosys   fully   realize   the   need   to   place   the   digital   consumer   at   the   core   of   their   business.   Infosys   believe   that   this   trend   will   change   the   way   enterprises   of   tomorrow   will   operate   and   connect   with   their   consumers.   The   enterprises   of   tomorrow  must  therefore  realize  the  potential  of  this  trend.       It   is   evident   that   the   emergence   of   the   digital   consumer   has   staggering   implications   for   businesses.   The   new   trends   in   consumer   behavior   require   organizations   to   re-­‐look   at   company   processes,   product   design,   quality   of   experience,   pricing   configuration,   delivery   mechanism   and   medium   of     Shivananda  R  Koteshwar,  PhD  Research  Scholar,  Bangalore  University    
  • Infosys Reports – Summary of Seven game-changing trends marketing   communication.   The   way   forward   lies   in   customer   centricity   and   reorienting   every   business   function   around   their   needs.   Only   those   organizations,   which   place   the   digital   consumer   at   the   core   of   their   enterprise,  will  emerge  successful.       Self   Service,   Extreme   personalization   and   co-­creation   are   the   core   of   a   successful  digital  consumer  strategy.     Self  Service:  Digitally  active  consumers  are  now  reducing  their  dependence   on   organizations   and   relying   on   themselves   and   peer   reviews.   Self   Service   aims   at   creating   a   new   level   of   customer   service   by   creating   better   experiences   and   increasing   levels   of   consumer   satisfaction.   Information   on   common   customer   requests   or   grievances   captured   by   a   self-­‐service   automated   system   can   be   analyzed   to   understand   preferences   and   subsequently   factored   into   the   company’s   product   development   and   innovation   processes.     Self-­‐service   channels   can   be   used   to   improve   company’s  awareness  of  customers  and  trends  and  customers’  awareness  of   products  and  services.       Extreme   personalization   (N=1):     Digital   consumers   are   asserting   their   individualistic   nature   and   are   expecting   the   companies   to   understand   their   uniqueness.   It   is   imperative   that   organizations   transition   from   a   macro-­‐ segmentation  outlook  to  micro-­‐segmentation  (In  Infosys,  this  is  referred  to  as   N=1).   Personalization   reduces   the   time   to   market   for   new   products   and   accelerates   innovation   by   providing   direct   knowledge   of   customer   preferences  and  habits.       Co-­creation:   Co-­‐creation   harnesses   the   collective   intelligence   of   customers   and   partners   to   accelerate   innovation   and   shape   products   and   services   and   their   employees   to   redefine   both   strategy   and   the   organization.   Implementation  comes  with  challenges  like  Clarity  of  purpose,  Harmony  with   Intellectual  property  and  community  involved  in  creation  needs  to  be  vibrant   and  adequately  motivated  in  order  to  sustain  its  interest  and  effort.     2.  Emerging  Economies     Emerging   economies   are   frequently   described   as   low/middle   income   countries   that   are   not   completely   industrialized;   are   undergoing   economic   liberalization;   are   open   to   foreign   investment;   and   have   shown   recent   economic   growth.   Intermediaries   (private   businesses,   Non   profit   organizations  or  services  provided  by  government)  minimize  the  sources  of   market   failures   and   bring   buyers   and   sellers   together   efficiently.   In   emerging   economies,  these  intermediaries  are  still  emerging.       Shivananda  R  Koteshwar,  PhD  Research  Scholar,  Bangalore  University  
  • Infosys Reports – Summary of Seven game-changing trends   To  succeed  in  emerging  economies,  one  needs  Growth  Momentum,  Smart   Sourcing  and  innovative  hubs     Growth  Momentum:  Transaction  costs  and  operating  challenges  are  higher   in   emerging   markets   due   to   absence   of   intermediaries.   Informal   intermediaries   are   developed   in   many   emerging   markets   as   a   response   to   gaps   created   by   the   absence   of   intermediaries   but   are   accessible   only   to   certain   local   players.     Access   to   the   local   knowledge   is   critical   in   an   emerging   economy.   Consumers   in   emerging   economies   are   extremely   diverse.   Understanding   the   specific   needs   and   purchasing   power   of   the   target   segment   is   extremely   important.   The   consumer   segments   in   these   economies   have   their   own   expectations   from   products   and   services   that   are   driven   by   the  socio-­‐political,  cultural  and  historical  aspects  of  the  country  and  the  same   successful   product/service   in   a   developed   market   does   not   work   here.     The   products   need   to   be   re-­‐engineered   from   the   ground   up   to   meet   the   requirements  of  emerging  economies.     Smart   Sourcing:   Due   to   unreliable   nature   of   intermediaries   and   infrastructure,   many   companies   are   taking   an   approach   to   build   an   ecosystem  of  partners  to  support  their  operations,  rather  than  trying  to  own   the   resources   outright.   Its   critical   for   organizations   to   cultivate   an   empowered   local   leadership   team   to   learn   from   local   market   insights   and   allow  operational  decision  making  at  ground  level.       Innovation  Hubs:  Companies  need  to  adopt  a  new  form  of  innovation  –  one   that  requires  low  resource  intensity  and  strong  knowledge  management.  This   new   form   of   innovation   also   necessitates   the   development   of   experimental   hubs  that  open  innovation  processes  locally  to  respond  to  the  different  needs,   maturity   and   price   points   in   the   emerging   economies   and   help   collaborate   with   complementally   ecosystem   partners.   Emerging   economies   are   also   taking  advantage  of  having  fewer  legacy  investments  to  skip  a  generation  of   technologies   and   service   delivery   mechanism   wherever   possible   in   the     Shivananda  R  Koteshwar,  PhD  Research  Scholar,  Bangalore  University    
  • Infosys Reports – Summary of Seven game-changing trends innovation  process.  As  a  result,  there  is  a  growing  reverse  innovation  trend   with  innovation  from  emerging  economies  to  developed  markets.       3.  Healthcare  Economies     There   have   been   significant   technological   and   scientific   breakthroughs   in   healthcare   and   yet   economies   are   struggling   to   address   increasing   costs,   inconsistent   quality   and   accessibility   to   timely   healthcare.     In   the   coming   years,   aging   population,   changing   lifestyles,   globalization   and   increased   prevalence   of   chronic   diseases   will   present   multiple   challenges   to   already   stretched  healthcare  delivery  in  various  economies.  Healthcare  issues  would   not  only  impact  countries  socially  and  economically  but  would  also  threaten   the   competitiveness   of   enterprises.   Fundamental   transformations   are   required  to  prevent  these  issues.       Affordability:   Affordability   is   not   just   being   cost   effective,   its   about   providing   quality   healthcare   in   a   timely   manner.   The   key   components   of   healthcare  which  make  up  cost  –  core  services,  operations,  drugs,  diagnostics,   medical   devices   etc.   need   to   be   designed   and   modeled   for   affordability   by   eliminating   wastages   and   redundancies,   eliminating   excesses,   innovating   ways   for   providing   healthcare   in   more   affordable   environment.   Technology   would   not   only   reduce   the   cost   of   delivery   but   also   enable   the   industry   to   scale   and   cope   with   changing   demographics.   To   improve   affordability,   devices  and  drug  manufactures  are  also  looking  at  emerging  markets  not  only   as   the   future   growth   engines   but   also   for   importing   innovations   from   these   countries.       Prevention:  While  improving  efficiency  will  increase  affordability,  there  has   to  be  a  focus  on  prevention.  One  good  way  of  adopting  preventive  model  is  by   incentivizing  people  for  healthy  behavior.    The  preventive  model  focuses  on   providing  the  overall  well  being  of  patient,  unlike  the  traditional  cure  model,   which  focused  only  on  paying  physicians  for  treating  a  specific  illness.    This   shift  from  the  cure  model  to  the  preventive  model  is  what  will  revolutionize   the   healthcare   sector.     Methods   like   incentivizing   wellness   in   health   insurance   plans   will   become   mainstream.   Healthcare   providers   will   be   able   to   use   technology   like   social   media   to   promote   and   motivate   adoption   of     Shivananda  R  Koteshwar,  PhD  Research  Scholar,  Bangalore  University    
  • Infosys Reports – Summary of Seven game-changing trends   preventive  healthcare.       Patient   Centricity:   Current   healthcare   is   disease   centric   or   physician   centric   and  is  not  sustainable  so  healthcare  is  becoming  more  patient  centric.  Patient   centric   means   considering   the   patient’s   values,   involving   them   in   clinical   decisions   and   ensuring   transparency   and   self-­‐care.   Patient   centric   care   has   the  capacity  to  work  in  several  scenarios  and  create  new  methods  of  delivery.   4. New  Commerce     New   Commerce   is   not   as   much   about   individual   transactions   as   much   as   about   engagements;   its   guiding   philosophy   is   to   create   value   for   all   market   participants   –producers,   sellers,   intermediaries   and   consumers.   Customers   and   enterprises   alike   are   looking   to   conserve   their   resources   and   do   more   with  less.  A  micro  mindset  is  emerging  where  customers  are  unwilling  to  pay   for   a   complete   package   if   all   they   require   is   a   fraction.     Given   the   innovations   in  technology  and  its  higher  penetration,  there  is  now  an  opportunity  to  cater   to   underserved   segments   who   were   previously   ignored   due   to   financial,   geographic   or   demographic   constraints.   Pay   per   go   model,   repackaging   product   sin   bite   sizes   and   allowing   customers   to   buy   a   part   in   place   of   the   whole  are  changes  that  are  helping  cater  to  new  segments.         Mobility:     Mobility   refers   to   the   notion   of   redefining   access.   It   has   created   new   business   dynamics   and   technology,   devices   and   policy   have   come   together   to   make   everything   from   capital   to   channels   more   mobile   and   improve   growth,   productivity   and   profitability.   Within   the   new   commerce   theme,   mobility   manifests   as   mCommerce,   Enterprise   Mobility,   Mobility   of   Capital   or   Mobility   of   Resources.   The   rising   demand   for   mobilization   of   all   types   of   services   has   spawned   off   an   applications   ecosystem   comprising   of   developers,   telecom   operators,   device   manufacturers,   Internet   firms   and   other   service   providers   working   to   make   mobilized   applications   ubiquitous   and  accessible.       Micro:   Micro   refers   to   the   notion   of   redefining   size.   Micro-­‐commerce   has   added   new   dimensions   to   business;   small   ticket   transactions   have   enabled   sellers   attain   higher   volumes   and   buyers   obtain   better   value   for   their   money.     Micro-­‐commerce   is   witnessing   the   following   developments   –   Innovative   Delivery  model  and  Effective  payment  systems     Inclusivity:  Inclusivity  refers  to  the  notion  of  redefining  markets.  Inclusivity     Shivananda  R  Koteshwar,  PhD  Research  Scholar,  Bangalore  University    
  • Infosys Reports – Summary of Seven game-changing trends isn’t   only   about   inclusion   of   the   bottom   of   the   pyramid   in   mainstream   commerce   but   about   reaching   out   to   markets   previously   not   accessed   for   what   of   supply   chain   feasibility   or   financial   viability.   The   influential   trends   in   inclusivity  on  the  rise  are:  Eco  system  and  Co-­‐Creation,  Seamless  Integration   and  Secure  Environment     5. Pervasive  computing     Pervasive  or  ubiquitous  computing  is  related  to  the  creation  of  environments   involving   computing   and   communication   capability,   which   seamlessly   integrated   with   the   end   users.   There   are   various   technologies,   devices   and   network   facilitating   seamless   computing,   communication,   collaboration   as   well   as   commerce   for   the   end   user.   This   is   made   by   embedding   sensors,   controllers,   devices   and   data   into   the   physical   world   thereby   creating   seamless   interactions.   Pervasive   computing   will   enable   everyday   objects   to   become  smarter  and  interactive  and  thus  will  revolutionize  the  way  humans   interact  with  the  world  around  them.        Three   significant   themes   that   will   help   in   the   evolution   of   pervasive   computing  are  intelligent,  cloud  based  computing  and  Sensor  networks.     Intelligent:  Intelligent  technologies  help  in  managing  supply  chain.  Artificial   intelligence,   multi-­‐agents   and   fuzzy   logic   based   techniques   can   be   sued   to   optimize   the   supply   chain.   The   accumulated   content   and   ideas   within   successful   social   networking   environments   become   an   aggregation   of   the   collective  intelligence  of  the  user  community  participating  in  those  sites.  This   presents   significant   opportunities   for   the   enterprises   that   wish   to   leverage     Shivananda  R  Koteshwar,  PhD  Research  Scholar,  Bangalore  University    
  • Infosys Reports – Summary of Seven game-changing trends this  for  insights  and  inferences  on  their  users.  Enterprises  can  improve  their   decision   making   by   better   understand   and   analyzing   the   collective   intelligence   created   across   various   customer   touch   points   as   well   as   social   networks   This   is   facilitated   by   technological   developments   in   areas   such   as   customer   intelligence,   text   analytics,   semantic   web,   natural   language   processing  as  well  as  social  network  analysis.       Cloud   Based:   Enterprises   can   optimize   costs   by   leveraging   and   consuming   just   in   time   computing   and   storage   via   cloud   based   computing   platforms   and   services.   Cloud   computing   provides   a   massive   abstracted   IT   infrastructure,   dynamic   allocation,   scaling,   movement   of   applications   as   well   as   commoditization   of   infrastructure.   Cloud   computing   as   advantages   such   as   lower   costs,   faster   time   to   market,   high   degree   of   flexibility,   unlimited   infrastructure   growth   capability,   low   lock-­‐in,   low   cost   of   entry   and   low   incremental  cost.       Sensor   Networks:   Sensor   networks   include   a   network   of   nodes   that   can   sense   and   may   control   the   environment   therefore   enabling   interaction   between  people  or  computers  and  the  surrounding  environment.  The  sensors   are  context  aware,  can  sense,  monitor  and  report  events.  They  are  wireless,   self-­‐powering,   scalable   as   well   as   self-­‐organizing.   Organizations   are   increasingly   adopting   Smart   Environments   –   Smart   Grids,   Smart   power   systems,   Smart   housing,   Smart   transportation   systems,   Smart   retain   store   etc.       6. Smarter  organizations     Smarter   organizations   are   those   that   are   able   to   deliver   long-­‐term   value   by   creating   a   critical   balance   between   operational   excellence   and   continuous   innovation.   They   predict   and   adapt   to   changing   environments   and   have   an   excellence  knowledge  managements  system.    In  a  rapidly  evolving  landscape,   it  becomes  increasingly  difficult  for  large  businesses  to  focus  their  efforts  and   be  relevant.  Smarter  organization  will  not  only  focus  their  innovation  efforts   but  also  accelerate  their  speed  of  innovation  in  order  to  stay  ahead.         Simplification:   Overwhelmed   by   complexity   of   changes   due   to   globalization,   internet  and  competition,  even  larger  firms  have  found  it  difficult  to  cope  up   with   these   changes.   Smart   organizations   realize   that   lack   of   clarity   of   strategic   direction   makes   it   difficult   for   managers   to   identify   which   structure   to   strengthen   and   what   to   let   go.   So   smart   organizations   must   state   their     Shivananda  R  Koteshwar,  PhD  Research  Scholar,  Bangalore  University    
  • Infosys Reports – Summary of Seven game-changing trends strategic  intent  with  no  ambiguity.  This  enables  clear  identification  of  where   the  company  will  focus  its  innovation  efforts  and  where  company  will  drive   standardization  and  rationalization.       Adaptability:   Smart   organizations   will   have   to   realize   that   the   velocity   of   change  will  continue  to  increase  and  the  ability  to  adapt  quickly  will  become   a   strategic   capability   for   succeeding   in   tomorrow’s   world.   Smarter   organizations   will   require   strategic   agility.   Smarter   organizations   are   those   that  are  agile  and  therefore  deal  with  uncertainty         Learning   and   Collaboration:   The   three   key   knowledge   management   challenges   are   (1)   Risk   of   knowledge   attrition   due   to   ageing   workforce,   (2)   Engaging   new   employees   entering   the   workforce   and   (3)   Distributed   workforce.     Smart   organizations   have   to   proactively   re-­‐look   at   how   their   employees   collaborate   and   learn.   Smarter   organizations   are   re-­‐designing   their  workplaces  to  make  it  more  collaborative  and  facilitate  the  accelerated   flow  of  information  among  distributed  teams.  We  are  seeing  the  rise  of  next   generation  digital  workplaces  that  will  enable  distributed  work,  collaborative   learning  and  proactive  recommendations.       7. Sustainable  tomorrow     It   is   crucial   to   maintain   the   sustainability   of   the   environment   and   in   turn,   economies  without  depleting  natural  resources.  Businesses  are  at  the  heart  of   economies   and   will   be   sustainable   in   the   future   only   if   economies   sustain.   Businesses   have   to   be   environmentally   responsible   in   order   to   sustainable   themselves.   Sustainability   is   not   only   a   need   but   also   a   source   of   tremendous   opportunity  to  business  –  Opportunity  to  differentiate,  innovate  and  to  earn   trust.         Shivananda  R  Koteshwar,  PhD  Research  Scholar,  Bangalore  University  
  • Infosys Reports – Summary of Seven game-changing trends    Three   significant   ideas   that   will   drive   the   sustainability   in   business   –   Social  Contracts,  Reducing  Resource  Intensity  and  Green  Innovation     Social   Contracts:   Traditionally   businesses   have   been   driven   by   economic   interests   and   those   of   their   key   stakeholders   such   as   investors   and   customers.   Today   businesses   have   an   extended   set   of   stakeholders   –   The   environment,   local   communities,   activist   organizations   and   the   larger   society   that  have  the  ability  to  influence  the  future  of  the  business.  There  is  hence  an   implicitly   social   contract   with   the   society.   Honoring   this   implicitly   contract   is   fundamental   to   building   the   trust   with   the   society   and   for   continuity   of   the   business  in  the  future.       Shivananda  R  Koteshwar,  PhD  Research  Scholar,  Bangalore  University    
  • Infosys Reports – Summary of Seven game-changing trends   Reducing  Resource  Intensity:  Resource  intensity  is  about  doing  more  with   fare   less   resource   –energy,   water   or   material.   It   is   about   harnessing   less-­‐ intensive   alternatives   or   finding   transformational   ways   to   de-­‐intensify   and   achieve   the   same   or   better   outcome   using   for   lesser   resources.   This   can   be   reduced   through   sharing   resources   or   through   resource   pooling.   Reducing   resource  intensity  not  only  helps  reduce  the  burden  on  the  environment  but   also   potentially   save   costs,   lowering   risk   due   to   resource   dependencies   and   gaining  other  business  benefits.       Green   Innovation:   Green   innovation   is   about   seeing   the   opportunity   for   business   leadership   through   innovation   for   sustainability.   Green   innovation   is  driven  by  sustainability  that  has  the  potential  to  change  industry  dynamics   and   set   new   standards   for   others   to   follow.   Green   innovation   in   the   organization   needs   to   be   fostered   by   creating   the   right   environment   and   feeding  in  the  right  information.    It  is  important  for  organizations  to  look  for   green   innovation   opportunities   in   every   sphere   –   operations,   products,   supply   chain,   processes,   service   models,   stakeholder   engagements   and   branding.         Shivananda  R  Koteshwar,  PhD  Research  Scholar,  Bangalore  University  
  • Infosys Reports – Summary of Seven game-changing trends CONLUSION           Shivananda  R  Koteshwar,  PhD  Research  Scholar,  Bangalore  University  
  • Infosys Reports – Summary of Seven game-changing trends       Shivananda  R  Koteshwar,  PhD  Research  Scholar,  Bangalore  University  
  • Infosys Reports – Summary of Seven game-changing trends       Shivananda  R  Koteshwar,  PhD  Research  Scholar,  Bangalore  University  
  • Infosys Reports – Summary of Seven game-changing trends     Shivananda  R  Koteshwar,  PhD  Research  Scholar,  Bangalore  University