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Research Methodology

Research Methodology
Research Process Steps

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Research Process Steps Research Process Steps Document Transcript

  • Research Process Steps   ASSIGNMENT 8: Research Process Steps Research Methodology Dr. Sridhar TITLE: A Study on Pragmatic Approaches and Quality Initiatives for Enhancing Teachers’ Caliber in Post Graduate Institutes offering MBA Programme under Bangalore University Under the Guidance of Dr. T.V. Raju Director, RV Institute of Management, Bangalore CANARA BANK SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES BANGALORE UNIVERSITY SUBMITTED BY Shivananda R Koteshwar PhD Research Scholar, 2013, REG# 350051   Shivananda  R  Koteshwar,  PhD  Research  Scholar,  Bangalore  University  
  • Research Process Steps   Research Procedure and Research Process • • •   • Before we define the steps in Research Procedure and Research Process, lets look at the definition of a “Procedure” and a “Process” Procedure is a sequence of steps that include preparation, conduct and completion of a task and each step can be a sequence of activities and each activity a sequence of actions. Process produce results by converting, transforming or simply using inputs to create outputs. The difference between procedures and processes is tabled below: Procedures   Processes   • Procedures  are  driven  by   completion  of  the  task   • • Procedures  are  implemented   Procedures  steps  are  completed   by  difference  people  in  different   departments  with  different   objectives   Procedures  are  discontinuous   Procedures  focus  on  satisfying   the  rules   Procedures  define  the  sequence   of  steps  to  execute  a  task   • • Procedures  are  driven  by   humans   • • Procedures  may  be  used  to   process  information   Procedures  exist  they  are  static   • Procedures  cause  people  to  take   actions  and  decisions   • • • • • • • • • • • • Processes  are  driven  by   achievement  of  a  desired   outcome   Processes  are  operated   Process  stages  are  completed  by   different  people  with  the  same   objectives  -­‐  departments  do  not   matter   Processes  flow  to  conclusion   Processes  focus  on  satisfying   the  customer   Processes  transform  inputs  into   outputs  through  use  of   resources   Processes  are  driven  by   physical  forces  some  of  which   may  be  activated  by  humans   Information  is  processed  by  use   of  a  procedure   Processes  behave  they  are   dynamic   Processes  cause  things  to   happen   Research Procedure Steps (An Example) • • • • • • • • • • Entrance Exam Counseling Selection of Guide Selection of Topic Synopsis Submission Synopsis Presentation Approval of Topic Coursework Coursework Exams Thesis ….   Shivananda  R  Koteshwar,  PhD  Research  Scholar,  Bangalore  University  
  • Research Process Steps   Research Process • Research task is a sequential process involving several clearly defined steps. No one claims that research requires completion of each step before going to the next. Recycling, circumventing and skipping occur. Some steps are begun out of sequence, some are carried out simultaneously and some may be omitted. Despite these variations, the idea of sequence is useful for developing a project and for keeping the project orderly as it unfolds. Research Process Steps (An Example) • • • • • • • • • • • • • Research Area/Theme/Problem/Idea Tentative hypothesis Literature Review Research Title/Topic Research Questions Research Proposal Objectives Hypothesis Operational definition Research Method/ Research Design (Type, Purpose, Timeframe, Scope and environment) Data collection and preparation Data Analysis Report writing / Research Reporting Research Design • Research design • • • or method specifies Type, purpose, timeframe, scope and environment. Different research methodologies exist. The methodology “I” select would be defined as Research Design Some books/literature define Research Process steps as Research Design steps but in reality, research methodology or research design is a step in research process There are two major types of research design: qualitative research and quantitative research. Researchers choose qualitative or quantitative methods according to the nature of the research topic they want to investigate and the research questions they aim to answer o Quantitative methods are useful when a researcher seeks to study large-scale patterns of behavior, while qualitative methods are more effective when dealing with interactions and relationships in detail. Qualitative method investigates the why and how of decision making, not just what, where, and when. Hence, smaller but focused samples are more often needed than large samples. o Quantitative methods include experiments, surveys, and statistical analysis, among others. Qualitative methods include participant observation, interviews, and content analysis   Shivananda  R  Koteshwar,  PhD  Research  Scholar,  Bangalore  University  
  • Research Process Steps   Research Design/Method Steps (An Example) o Research Type (Exploratory, Formal, Experimental, Ex post facto…etc) o Research question or purpose o Research timeframe o Data Collection Design  Variables  Data collection methods o Sampling Design  Sample Population and Sampling Size  Sample Distribution Decision  Sampling Method/Technique  Sampling Unit/Frame o Instrument Development  Introduction and Instructions for participants  Target Questions • Administrative Questions • Investigative questions • Measurement Questions  Preliminary Analysis plan o Pilot testing Research Type Summary Category The degree to which the research question has been crystallized The method of data collection The power of the researcher to produce effects in the variables under study The purpose of the study The time dimension The topical scope-breadth and depth of the study The research environment The participants perception of research activity • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Options Exploratory Study Formal Study Monitoring Communciation Study Experimental Ex post facto Descriptive Casual Cross sectional Longitudinal Case Statistical Study Field Setting Laboratory research Simulation Actual routine Modified routine Research Proposal A research proposal is a document written by a researcher that provides a detailed description of the proposed program. It is like an outline of the entire research process that gives a reader a summary of the information discussed in a project. Research proposals are written in future tense and have different points of emphasis. Instead of   Shivananda  R  Koteshwar,  PhD  Research  Scholar,  Bangalore  University  
  • Research Process Steps   a section describing the results, research proposals have a section describing the hypotheses or the expected results. Research proposal is an activity that incorporates decisions made during early project planning phases of the study. A written proposal is often required when a study is being suggested. It ensures that the parties concur on the project’s purse and on the proposed methods of investigation. Time and budget are often spelled out as are other responsibilities and obligations. Additional items a research proposal include are: • Need for study • Limitation of Research • Scope of Research • Time of Place and Period of study • Budget • Responsibilities and Obligations of stake holders   Shivananda  R  Koteshwar,  PhD  Research  Scholar,  Bangalore  University  
  • Research Process Steps   Research Process Detail Steps • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Research Area/Theme/Problem/Idea Tentative hypothesis Literature Review Research Title/Topic Research Questions Research Proposal o Need for study o Limitation of Research o Scope of Research o Budget o Responsibilities and Obligations of stake holders o Place and Period of study Research Proposal Approval Objectives Hypothesis Operational definition Research Method/ Research Design (Type, Purpose, Timeframe, Scope and environment) o Research Type (Exploratory, Formal, Experimental, Ex post facto…etc) o Research question or purpose o Research timeframe o Data Collection Design  Variables  Data collection methods o Sampling Design  Sample Population and Sampling Size  Sample Distribution Decision  Sampling Method/Technique  Sampling Unit/Frame o Instrument Development  Introduction and Instructions for participants  Target Questions • Administrative Questions • Investigative questions • Measurement Questions  Preliminary Analysis plan o Pilot testing Data collection and preparation Data Analysis o Findings (Testing of hypothesis) o Interpretation and Conclusions Report writing / Research Reporting   Shivananda  R  Koteshwar,  PhD  Research  Scholar,  Bangalore  University