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Organization Behavior - Introduction
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Organization Behavior - Introduction

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Organization Behavior
Introduction

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  • 1. Organization Behavior - Introduction   ASSIGNMENT 1 Introduction to Organization Behavior Organization Behavior Dr. D. Gopala Krishna TITLE: A Study on Pragmatic Approaches and Quality Initiatives for Enhancing Teachers’ Caliber in Post Graduate Institutes offering MBA Programme under Bangalore University Under the Guidance of Dr. T.V. Raju Director, RV Institute of Management, Bangalore CANARA BANK SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES BANGALORE UNIVERSITY SUBMITTED BY Shivananda R Koteshwar PhD Research Scholar, 2013, REG# 350051   Shivananda  R  Koteshwar,  PhD  Research  Scholar,  Bangalore  University  
  • 2. Organization Behavior - Introduction   1. Define Behaviour Behavior or behaviour is the range of actions and mannerisms made by organisms, systems, or artificial entities in conjunction with their environment, which includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the physical environment. It is the response of the system or organism to various stimuli or inputs, whether internal or external, conscious or subconscious, overt or covert, and voluntary or involuntary. Human behavior refers to the range of behaviors exhibited by humans and which are influenced by culture, attitudes, emotions, values, ethics, authority, rapport, hypnosis, persuasion, coercion and/or genetics. 2. Define Organization Organization is a consciously coordinated social unit composed of two or more people that function on a relatively continuous basis to achieve a common goal or set of goals. 3. Define Organization Behaviour A field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups and structure has on behavior within organizations for the purpose of applying such knowledge towards improving an organization’s effectiveness Organization behavior (OB) is concerned with the study of what people do in an organization and how their behavior affects the organization’s performance. OB includes the core topics of motivation, leader behavior and power, interpersonal communication, group structure and processes, learning, attitude development and perception, change processes, conflict, work design and work stress. 4. Benefits of studying Organization Behaviour Organizational behavior relates to the process—rather than the content—of conducting managerial work. Studying OB enables one to understand the politics/ political science, culture/ anthropology (e.g. what is the corporate culture type of the organization?), psychology (e.g. How are they motivated? How do they learn?), social psychology/sociology and teamwork (e.g. How they act in groups? What make them move in groups/ adopt groupthink? ), Personalities (e.g. what are they? Introverts. Extroverts, etc...) and thinking/ feeling/ behavior and actions of people/ individuals within the organizations, to know and understand why they think, feel and do or act as such. OB study helps in: a. Development of soft (interpersonal) skills: Soft skills generally refer to interpersonal skills such as motivating others, communicating, and adapting to people of different cultures. Hard skills generally refer to technical skills. b. Personal growth via insight into others: Understanding others leads to personal fulfillment, and can also lead to enhanced self-knowledge and self-insight. Insight is useful for such purposes as selecting people for jobs and assignments, communicating, and motivating.   Shivananda  R  Koteshwar,  PhD  Research  Scholar,  Bangalore  University  
  • 3. Organization Behavior - Introduction   c. Enhancement of individual and organizational effectiveness: An important goal of organizational behavior is to improve organizational effectiveness, the extent to which an organization is productive and satisfies the demands of its interested parties. People-oriented management practices enable workers to use their wisdom and to receive appropriate training. If a person develops knowledge about subject such as improved interpersonal communication, conflict resolution, and teamwork, he or she will become more effective. d. Sharpening and refining common sense (common sense is often wrong): Organizational behavior sharpens and enlarges the domain for common sense. Organizational behavior knowledge also refines common sense by challenging you to reexamine generally accepted ideas that may be only partially true—such as inactivity reduces stress for everybody 5. Any relationship between behaviour, productivity and profitability Yes there is a relationship between Behavior, productivity and Profitability. An organization is productive if it achieves its goals and does so by transferring inputs to outputs at the lowest cost. OB’s major concern is productivity. OB helps us to know the factors that will influence the effectiveness and efficiency of individuals, of groups and of the overall organization. • • Measures of organizational effectiveness are in its achievement of sales and market share goal. Measures of organizational efficiency include return on investment, profit per dollar of sales and output her hour of labour. Productivity is the relationship between the quantity of output and the quantity of input used to generate that output. It is basically a measure of the effectiveness and efficiency of your organization in generating output with the resources available. • Output can be measured in physical quantity or financial value • The common forms of input are labour and capital. Labour can be measured either by number of hours worked or number of workers engaged or cost of labour Organizations commonly regard profits as a key measure of their success. Trying to increase profits by reducing costs (Either by reducing salaries or minimizing capital investment) has a negative impact on the efficiency of operations so will eventually reduce profits. The only viable way to increasing profits in a sustainable manner is to increase the value added through higher productivity. This can be done with better cooperation from employees, higher investment in capital, and optimal use of capital. So productivity is key to sustaining profits in the long run. 6. Is it possible to quantify behaviour and measure it? If yes, how? Give examples   Shivananda  R  Koteshwar,  PhD  Research  Scholar,  Bangalore  University  
  • 4. Organization Behavior - Introduction   Yes, one can quantify human behavior. Once it’s quantified, it can be measured. Example: When measuring behavior, there are both dimensions of behavior and quantifiable measures of behavior. In applied behavior analysis, the quantifiable measures are a derivative of the dimensions. These dimensions are a. Repeatability: Response classes occur repeatedly throughout time—i.e., how many times the behavior occurs. Here the measurement is count (number of occurrences in behavior), Rate/Frequency (number of instances of behavior per unit of time) and celeration (how the rate changes over time) b. Temporal extent: This dimension indicates that each instance of behavior occupies some amount of time—i.e., how long the behavior occurs. Here the measurement is Duration a. Temporal locus: Each instance of behavior occurs at a specific point in time—i.e., when the behavior occurs. Here the measurement metric is Response Latency (measure of elapsed time between the onset of a stimulus and the initiation of the response) and Inter-response time (The amount of time that occurs between two consecutive instances of a response class) 7. Define personality Personality is the particular combination of emotional, attitudinal, and behavioral response patterns of an individual. It is the sum total of ways in which an individual reacts to and interacts with others. Gordon Allport- It is the dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determine his unique adjustments to his environment 8. What are the determinants of personality? Discuss with examples Personality is a result of both hereditary and environmental factors. The main determinants are: a. Heredity: It refers to those factors that were determined at conception. Physical stature, facial attractiveness, gender, temperament, muscle composition and reflexes, energy level and biological rhythms are characteristics that are generally considered to be either completely or substantially influenced that who your parents are, that is, by their biological, physiological and inherent psychological makeup. The heredity approach argues that the ultimate explanation of an individual’s personality is the molecular structure of the genes, located in the chromosomes. Heredity includes Physical factors and Brain factors. For example: Importance of heredity can be found in studies of individual job satisfaction. Job satisfaction is found to be relatively stable over time. This result is consistent with what you would expect if satisfaction is determined by something inherent in the person rather than by external environmental factors.   Shivananda  R  Koteshwar,  PhD  Research  Scholar,  Bangalore  University  
  • 5. Organization Behavior - Introduction   b. Environment: Among the factors that exert pressures on our personality formation are the culture in which we were raised; the norms among our family, friends and social groups and other influences that we experience. Environment includes Social factors, Cultural factors and Religious factors. For example: Culture establishes the norms, attitudes and values that are passed along from one generation to the next and create consistencies over time. An ideology that is intensely fostered in one culture may have only moderate influence in another. For instance, North Indians have experienced invasions and wars for centuries. This has made them aggressive, industrious, competitive, ambitious and enterprising whereas South Indians in contrast have been able to preserve and devote themselves to classical art, music and literature. Also the different demands of different situations call forth different aspects of one’s personality. Therefore we should not look at personality patters in isolation. For example: Temple or employment interview constrain many behaviors and others like picnic in a public part constrain relatively few. c. Traits: The early work in the structure of personality revolved around attempts to identify and label enduring characteristics that describe individual behavior. Popular characteristics are shy, aggressive, submissive, lazy, ambitious, loyal and timid. Those characteristics when they are exhibited in large number of situations are called Personality Traits. The Sixteen Personality Factor or 16F   Shivananda  R  Koteshwar,  PhD  Research  Scholar,  Bangalore  University  
  • 6. Organization Behavior - Introduction   The five global factors in the 16PF® consist of the following primary factors Two popular approaches of measurement of personality traits are 1. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator 2. Big Five Model Myers-Briggs Type Indicator   Shivananda  R  Koteshwar,  PhD  Research  Scholar,  Bangalore  University  
  • 7. Organization Behavior - Introduction   Big Five Model   Shivananda  R  Koteshwar,  PhD  Research  Scholar,  Bangalore  University