56699897 wcdma-ran-planning-and-optimization-features-and-algorithms

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56699897 wcdma-ran-planning-and-optimization-features-and-algorithms

  1. 1. www.huawei.comCopyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.WCDMA UE Behaviorsin Idle Mode1
  2. 2. Page1Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.ForewordUE behaviors in idle mode include :PLMN selectionSystem information receptionCell selection and reselectionLocation registrationPaging procedureAccess procedurePLMN selectionUsed to ensure that the PLMN selected by the UE properly provides services.Cell selection and reselectionUsed to ensure that the UE finds a suitable cell to camp on.Location registrationUsed for the network to trace the current status of the UE and to ensure that the UE is campedon the network when the UE does not perform any operation for a long period.System information receptionThe network broadcasts the network information to a UE which camps on the cell to control thebehaviors of the UE.PagingUsed for the network to send paging messages to a UE which is in idle mode, CELL_PCHstate, or URA_PCH state.AccessFrom the view of access stratum, access is the procedure UE shift from idle mode toconnected mode.2
  3. 3. Page2Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.Contents1. PLMN Selection2. System Information Reception3. Cell Selection and Reselection4. Location Registration5. Paging Procedure6. Access Procedure3
  4. 4. Page3Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.Contents1. PLMN Selection2. System Information Reception3. Cell Selection and Reselection4. Location Registration5. Paging Procedure6. Access Procedure4
  5. 5. Page4Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.Cell SearchUE does not have UTRAN carrier informationIn order to find a suitable cell to stay, UE will scan all thefrequencies in UTRAN. In each carrier, UE just need to find acell with best signalUE has UTRAN carrier informationUE will try whether the original cell is suitable to stay. If not, UEstill need to scan all the frequencies about UTRAN in order tofind a suitable cell in PLMNTypical scenario of first occasion is the first time a new UE is put into use.The second occasion is very common.5
  6. 6. Page5Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.Cell SearchSlot synchronizationFrame synchronization andcode-group identificationPrimary Scrambling codeidentificationStep 1: Slot synchronizationDuring the first step of the cell search procedure the UE uses the primary synchronisation code(PSC) to acquire slot synchronisation to a cell.Step 2: Frame synchronization and code-group identificationDuring the second step of the cell search procedure, the UE uses the secondarysynchronisation code (SSC) to find frame synchronisation and identify the code group of thecell found in the first step.Step 3: Primary Scrambling code identification:During the last step of the cell search procedure, the UE determines the exact primaryscrambling code used by the found cell. The primary scrambling code is typically identifiedthrough symbol-by-symbol correlation over the CPICH with all codes within the code groupidentified in the second step.If the UE has received information about which scrambling codes to search for, steps 2 and 3above can be simplified.6
  7. 7. Page6Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.PLMN SelectionUE shall maintain a list of allowed PLMN types. In thePLMN list, the UE arranges available PLMNs by priorities.When selecting a PLMN, it searches the PLMNs from thehigh priority to the low.The UE selects a PLMN from HPLMNs or VPLMNs.UE can get the system information from PCCPCH, and the PLMN information is transmitted inMIB of PCCPCHAfter getting the MIB, UE can judge weather the current PLMN is the right one. If so, UE willget the SIB scheduling information from the MIB; if not, UE will search another carrier, do thisprocedure again7
  8. 8. Page7Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.PLMN Selection (Cont.)PLMN Selection in HPLMNsAutomatic PLMN Selection ModeThe UE selects an available and suitable PLMN from the wholeband according to the priority orderManual PLMN Selection ModeThe order of manual selection is the same as that of automaticselection.The priority order for automatic PLMN selection modeThe PLMN selected by theUE before automatic PLMNselectionPreviously selected PLMN6The PLMNs are arranged indescending order of signalquality.Other PLMN/access technology combinationsexcluding the previously selected PLMN5The PLMNs are arranged inrandom orderOther PLMN/access technology combinations withthe high quality of received signals excluding thepreviously selected PLMN4The PLMNs are arranged inpriority orderPLMNs contained in the "Operator ControlledPLMN Selector with Access Technology" data fieldin the SIM excluding the previously selected PLMN3The PLMNs are arranged inpriority orderPLMNs contained in the "User Controlled PLMNSelector with Access Technology" data field in theSIM excluding the previously selected PLMN2Home PLMNsHPLMNs1RemarkPLMN typeOrder8
  9. 9. Page8Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.PLMN Selection (Cont.)PLMN Selection in VPLMNsIf a UE is in a VPLMN, it scans the “user controlled PLMNselector” field or the “operator controlled PLMN selector” fieldin the PLMN list to find the HPLMN or the PLMN with higherpriority according to the requirement of the automatic PLMNselection mode.A value of T minutes may be stored in the SIM. T is either in the range from 6 minutes to 8hours in 6-minute steps or it indicates that no periodic attempts shall be made. If no value isstored in the SIM, a default value of 60 minutes is used.After the UE is switched on, a period of at least 2 minutes and at most T minutes shall elapsebefore the first attempt is made.The UE shall make an attempt if the UE is on the VPLMN at time T after the last attempt.9
  10. 10. Page9Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.Contents1. PLMN Selection2. System Information Reception3. Cell Selection and Reselection4. Location Registration5. Paging Procedure6. Access Procedure10
  11. 11. Page10Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.Structure of System InformationSystem information is organized as a tree, including:MIB (Master Information Block )SB (Scheduling Block )SIB (System Information Block )System information is used for the network to broadcast network information to UEs campingon a cell so as to control the behavior of UEs.MIBWhen selecting a new cell, the UE reads the MIB. The UE may locate the MIB bypredefined scheduling information. The IEs in the MIB includes MIB value tag, PLMNtype, PLMN identity, reference and scheduling information for a number of SIBs in acell or one or two SBs in a cell.SBScheduling Block (SB) gives reference and scheduling information to other SIBs. Thescheduling information of a SIB may be included in only one of MIB and SB.SIBSystem Information Block (SIB) contains actual system information. It consists ofsystem information elements (IEs) with the same purpose.Scheduling information for a system information block may only be included in either themaster information block or one of the scheduling blocks.11
  12. 12. Page11Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.System InformationSIB1: Contains the system information for NAS and thetimer/counter for UESIB2: Contains the URA informationSIB3: Contains the parameters for cell selection and cell re-selectionSIB5: Contains parameters for the common physical channels ofthe cellSIB7: Contains the uplink interference level and the refreshingtimer for SIB7SIB11: Contains measurement controlling informationSIB4: Contains parameters for cell selection and cell re-selection while UE is in connectedmodeSIB6: Contains parameters for the common physical channels of the cell while UE is inconnected modeSIB8: Contains the CPCH static informationSIB9: Contains the CPCH dynamic informationSIB10: Contains information to be used by UEs having their DCH controlled by a DRACprocedure. Used in FDD mode only. To be used in CELL_DCH state only. Changes so often,its decoding is controlled by a timerSIB12: Contains measurement controlling information in connecting modeSIB13: Contains ANSI-41 system informationSIB14: Contains the information in TDD modeSIB15: Contains the position service informationSIB16: Contains the needed pre-configuration information for handover from other RAT toUTRANSIB17: Contains the configuration information for TDDSIB18: Contains the PLMN identities of the neighboring cellsTo be used in shared networks to help with the cell reselection process12
  13. 13. Page12Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.Reception of System InformationThe UE shall read system information broadcast on a BCHtransport channel when the UE is in idle mode or inconnected mode, that is, in CELL_FACH, CELL_PCH, orURA_PCH state.The UE may use the scheduling information in MIB and SB to locate each SIB to be acquired.If the UE receives a SIB in a position according to the scheduling information and consider thecontent valid, it will read and store it.13
  14. 14. Page13Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.Contents1. PLMN Selection2. System Information Reception3. Cell Selection and Reselection4. Location Registration5. Paging Procedure6. Access Procedure14
  15. 15. Page14Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.Cell SelectionWhen the PLMN is selected and the UE is in idle mode, theUE starts to select a cell to camp on and to obtain services.There are four states involved in cell selection:Camped normallyAny cell selectionCamped on any cellConnected modeCamped normally: The cell that UE camps on is called the suitable cell. In this state, the UEobtains normal service.Any cell selection: In this state, the UE shall attempt to find an acceptable cell of an any PLMNto camp on, trying all RATs that are supported by the UE and searching first for a high qualitycellCamped on any cell: The cell that UE camps on is called the acceptable cell. In this state theUE obtains limited service. The UE shall regularly attempt to find a suitable cell of the selectedPLMN, trying all RATs that are supported by the UE.Connected mode: When returning to idle mode, the UE shall use the procedure Cell selectionwhen leaving connected mode in order to find a suitable cell to camp on and enter stateCamped normally. If no suitable cell is found in cell reselection evaluation process, the UEenters the state Any cell selection.15
  16. 16. Page15Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.Cell Selection (Cont.)Two types of cell selection:Initial cell selectionIf no cell information is stored for the PLMN, the UE starts thisprocedure.Stored information cell selectionIf cell information is stored for the PLMN, the UE starts thisprocedure.Initial cell selection: If no cell information is stored for the PLMN, the UE starts the initial cellselection. For this procedure, the UE need not know in advance which Radio Frequency (RF)channels are UTRA bearers. The UE scans all RF channels in the UTRA band according to itscapabilities to find a suitable cell of the selected PLMN. On each carrier, the UE need onlysearch for the strongest cell. Once a suitable cell is found, this cell shall be selected.Stored information cell selection: For this procedure, the UE need know the central frequencyinformation and other optional cell parameters that are obtained from the measurement controlinformation received before, such as scrambling codes. After this procedure is started, the UEselects a suitable cell if it finds one. Otherwise, the "Initial cell selection" procedure is triggered.16
  17. 17. Page16Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.Cell Selection Criteriaminqualqualmeasqual QQS −=oncompensatirxlevrxlevmeasrxlev PQQS −−= minCriterion S is used by the UE to judge whether the cell issuitable to camped on.Criterion S : Srxlev > 0 & Squal > 0, where:If the pilot strength and quality of one cell meet S criteria, UE will stay in this cell and get othersystem information. Then, UE will initiate a location update registration process.If the cell doesn’t satisfy S criteria, UE will get adjacent cells information from SIB11. Then, UEwill judge weather these cells satisfy S criteria. If the adjacent cell is suitable, UE will stay inthe adjacent cell.If no cell satisfies S criteria, UE will take the area as dead zone and continue the PLMNselection and reselection procedure.Max(UE_TXPWR_MAX_RACH-P_MAX,0), dBmPcompensationMaximum TX power level an UE may use when accessing the cell onRACH (read in system information) (dBm)UE_TXPWR_MAX_RACHMaximum RF output power of the UE (dBm)P_MAXMinimum required RX level in the cell (dBm)QrxlevminMinimum required quality level in the cell (dB)QqualminMeasured cell RX level value. This is received signal, CPICH RSCP forcurrent cells (dBm)QrxlevmeasMeasured cell quality value. The quality of the received signal expressed inCPICH Ec/N0 (dB) for current cellQqualmeasCell RX level value (dBm)SrxlevCell quality value (dB)SqualExplanationParameters17
  18. 18. Page17Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.Parameters of S CriterionQUALMEASParameter name: Cell Se-reselection quality measureRecommended value: CPICH_ECNOQQUALMINParameter name: Min quality levelRecommended value: -18, namely -18dBQUALMEASParameter name: Cell Sel-reselection quality measureValue range: CPICH_ECNO(CPICH Ec/N0),CPICH_RSCP(CPICH RSCP)Physical unit: None.Content: Cell selection and reselection quality measure, may be set to CPICH Ec/N0or CPICH RSCP.Recommended value: CPICH_ECNO.QQUALMINParameter name: Min quality levelValue range: -24~0Physical value range: -24~0; step: 1Physical unit: dBContent: The minimum required quality level corresponding to CPICH Ec/No. The UEcan camp on the cell only when the measured CPICH Ec/No is greater than the valueof this parameter.Recommended value: -18Set this parameter through ADD CELLSELRESEL, query it through LSTCELLSELRESEL, and modify it through MOD CELLSELRESEL.18
  19. 19. Page18Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.Parameters of S CriterionQRXLEVMINParameter name: Min Rx levelRecommended value: -58, namely -115dBmMAXALLOWEDULTXPOWERParameter name: Max allowed UE UL TX powerRecommended value: 21, namely 21dBmQRXLEVMINParameter name: Min Rx levelValue range: -58~-13.Physical value range: -115~-25; step: 2 (-58:-115; -57:-113; ..., -13:-25 ).Physical unit: dBm.Content: The minimum required RX level corresponding to CPICH RSCP. The UE cancamp on the cell only when the measured CPICH RSCP is greater than the value ofthis parameter.Recommended value: -58.Set this parameter through ADD CELLSELRESEL, query it through LSTCELLSELRESEL, and modify it through MOD CELLSELRESEL.MAXALLOWEDULTXPOWERParameter name: Max allowed UE UL TX powerValue range: -50~33Physical value range: -50~33; step: 1Physical unit: dBmContent: The maximum allowed uplink transmit power of a UE in the cell, which isrelated to the network planning. Content: Allowed maximum power transmitted onRACH in the cell. It is related to network planning.Recommended value: -21Set this parameter through ADD CELLSELRESEL, query it through LSTCELLSELRESEL, and modify it through MOD CELLSELRESEL.19
  20. 20. Page19Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.Cell ReselectionAfter selecting a cell and camping on it, the UE periodicallysearches for a better cell according to the cell reselectioncriteria. If finding such a cell, the UE selects this cell tocamp on.UE should monitor the quality of current cell and neighbor cells in order to camp on the bettercell to initiate service. The better cell is the most suitable one for the UE to camp on and obtainservices. The QoS of this cell is not necessarily more satisfying.20
  21. 21. Page20Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.Measurement Start Criteria (Cont.)Intra-frequency measurementSqual ≤ Sintrasearch↓Qqualmeas − Qqualmin ≤ Sintrasearch↓Qqualmeas ≤ Qqualmin + SintrasearchParameters of the measurement start criteriaMinimum required quality level in the cell (dB) .QqualminMeasurement threshold for UE to trigger inter-RAT cell reselection,compared with Squal.SsearchRATmMeasurement threshold for UE to trigger inter-frequency cell reselection,compared with Squal.SintersearchMeasurement threshold for UE to trigger intra-frequency cell reselection,compared with Squal.SintrasearchCell quality value (dB)SqualDescriptionName21
  22. 22. Page21Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.Measurement Start Criteria (Cont.)Inter-frequency measurementSqual ≤ Sintersearch↓Qqualmeas − Qqualmin ≤ Sintersearch↓Qqualmeas ≤ Qqualmin + SintersearchParameters of the measurement start criteriaMinimum required quality level in the cell (dB) .QqualminMeasurement threshold for UE to trigger inter-RAT cell reselection,compared with Squal.SsearchRATmMeasurement threshold for UE to trigger inter-frequency cell reselection,compared with Squal.SintersearchMeasurement threshold for UE to trigger intra-frequency cell reselection,compared with Squal.SintrasearchCell quality value (dB)SqualDescriptionName22
  23. 23. Page22Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.Measurement Start Criteria (Cont.)Inter-RAT measurementSqual ≤ SsearchRATm↓Qqualmeas − Qqualmin ≤ SsearchRATm↓Qqualmeas ≤ Qqualmin + SsearchRATmParameters of the measurement start criteriaMinimum required quality level in the cell (dB) .QqualminMeasurement threshold for UE to trigger inter-RAT cell reselection,compared with Squal.SsearchRATmMeasurement threshold for UE to trigger inter-frequency cell reselection,compared with Squal.SintersearchMeasurement threshold for UE to trigger intra-frequency cell reselection,compared with Squal.SintrasearchCell quality value (dB)SqualDescriptionName23
  24. 24. Page23Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.Parameters of Measurement Start CriteriaIDLESINTRASEARCHParameter name: Intra-freq cell reselection threshold for idlemodeRecommended value: NoneCONNSINTRASEARCHParameter name: Intra-freq cell reselection threshold forconnected modeRecommended value: NoneIDLESINTRASEARCHParameter name: Intra-freq cell reselection threshold for idle modeValue range: {{-16~10},{127}} .Physical value range: -32~20; step: 2.Physical unit: dB.Content: A threshold for intra-frequency cell reselection in idle mode. When the quality(CPICH Ec/No measured by UE) of the serving cell is lower than this threshold plusthe [Qqualmin] of the cell, the intra-frequency cell reselection procedure will be started.Recommended value: None.Set this parameter through ADD CELLSELRESEL, query it through LSTCELLSELRESEL, and modify it through MOD CELLSELRESEL.CONNSINTRASEARCHParameter name: Intra-freq cell reselection threshold for connected modeValue range: {{-16~10},{127}} .Physical value range: -32~20; step: 2.Physical unit: dBContent: A threshold for intra-frequency cell reselection in connect mode. When thequality (CPICH Ec/No measured by UE) of the serving cell is lower than this thresholdplus the [Qqualmin] of the cell, the intra-frequency cell reselection procedure will bestarted.Recommended value: None.Set this parameter through ADD CELLSELRESEL, query it through LSTCELLSELRESEL, and modify it through MOD CELLSELRESEL.24
  25. 25. Page24Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.Parameters of Measurement Start CriteriaIDLESINTERSEARCHParameter name: Inter-freq cell reselection threshold for idlemodeRecommended value: NoneCONNSINTERSEARCHParameter name: Inter-freq cell reselection threshold forconnected modeRecommended value: NoneIDLESINTERSEARCHParameter name: Inter-freq cell reselection threshold for idle modeValue range: {{-16~10},{127}} .Physical value range: -32~20; step: 2.Physical unit: dB.Content: A threshold for inter-frequency cell reselection in idle mode. When the quality(CPICH Ec/No measured by UE) of the serving cell is lower than this threshold plusthe [Qqualmin] of the cell, the inter-frequency cell reselection procedure will be started.Recommended value: None.Set this parameter through ADD CELLSELRESEL, query it through LSTCELLSELRESEL, and modify it through MOD CELLSELRESEL.CONNSINTERSEARCHParameter name: Inter-freq cell reselection threshold for connected modeValue range: {{-16~10},{127}} .Physical value range: -32~20; step: 2.Physical unit: dBContent: A threshold for inter-frequency cell reselection in connect mode. When thequality (CPICH Ec/No measured by UE) of the serving cell is lower than this thresholdplus the [Qqualmin] of the cell, the inter-frequency cell reselection procedure will bestarted.Recommended value: None.Set this parameter through ADD CELLSELRESEL, query it through LSTCELLSELRESEL, and modify it through MOD CELLSELRESEL.25
  26. 26. Page25Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.Parameters of Measurement Start CriteriaSSEARCHRATParameter name: Inter-RAT cell reselection thresholdRecommended value: NoneSSEARCHRATParameter name: Inter-RAT cell reselection thresholdValue range: {{-16~10},{127}} .Physical value range: -32~20; step: 2.Physical unit: dB.Content: A threshold for inter-RAT cell reselection. When the quality (CPICH Ec/Nomeasured by UE) of the serving cell is lower than this threshold plus the [Qqualmin] ofthe cell, the inter-RAT cell reselection procedure will be started.Recommended value: None.Set this parameter through ADD CELLSELRESEL, query it through LSTCELLSELRESEL, and modify it through MOD CELLSELRESEL.26
  27. 27. Page26Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.Measurement Start Criteria DescriptionThe intra-frequency, inter-frequency, and inter-RAT measurement criteria are as shown in thefigure.Usually, Sintrasearch > Sintersearch > SsearchRATm27
  28. 28. Page27Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.Cell Reselection CriteriaCriterion R is used for intra-frequency, inter-frequency cellsand inter-RAT cell reselection.The cell-ranking criterion R is defined by :nsoffsetnmeasn QQR ,, −=hystssmeass QQR += ,The cells are ranked according to R criteria specified above ,deriving QQmeas,nmeas,n and QQmeas,smeas,s andcalculating R value.In Rs, s means serving cell. In Rn, n means neighbor cell.The offset Qoffset1s,n is used for Qoffsets,n to calculate Rn. The hysteresis Qhyst1s is usedfor Qhysts to calculate Rs.If a TDD or GSM cell is ranked as the best cell, the UE shall reselect that TDD or GSM cell.If an FDD cell is ranked as the best cell and the quality measure for cell selection andreselection is set to CPICH RSCP, the UE shall reselect that FDD cell.If an FDD cell is ranked as the best cell and the quality measure for cell selection andreselection is set to CPICH Ec/N0, the UE shall perform a second ranking of the FDD cellsaccording to the R criteria specified above.In this case, however, the UE uses the measurement quantity CPICH Ec/N0 for deriving theQmeas,n and Qmeas,s and then calculating the R values of the FDD cells. The offsetQoffset2s,n is used for Qoffsets,n to calculate Rn, the hysteresis Qhyst2s is used for Qhysts tocalculate Rs.28
  29. 29. Page28Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.Hysteresis and Time IntervalTimeTreselectionQualityRnRsQmeas,nQmeas,sQhyst,sQoffsets,nIn all the previous cases, the UE can reselect a new cell only when the following conditions aremet:The new cell is better ranked than the serving cell during a time interval Treselection.More than one second has elapsed since the UE camped on the current serving cell.29
  30. 30. Page29Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.Parameters of R CriteriaIDLEQHYST1SParameter name: Hysteresis 1 for idle modeRecommended value: 2, namely 4dBCONNQHYST1SParameter name: Hysteresis 1 for connect modeRecommended value: 2, namely 4dBIDLEQHYST1SParameter name: Hysteresis 1 for idle modeValue range: 0~20.Physical value range: 0~40; step: 2.Physical unit: dB.Content: The hysteresis value in idle mode for serving FDD cells in case the qualitymeasurement for cell selection and reselection is set to CPICH RSCP. It is related tothe slow fading feature of the area where the cell is located. The greater the slowfading variance is, the greater this parameter.Recommended value: 2.Set this parameter through ADD CELLSELRESEL, query it through LSTCELLSELRESEL, and modify it through MOD CELLSELRESEL.CONNQHYST1SParameter name: Hysteresis 1 for connected modeValue range: 0~20.Physical value range: 0~40; step: 2.Physical unit: dB.Content: The hysteresis value in connect mode for serving FDD cells in case thequality measurement for cell selection and reselection is set to CPICH RSCP. It isrelated to the slow fading feature of the area where the cell is located. The greater theslow fading variance is, the greater this parameter.Recommended value: 2.Set this parameter through ADD CELLSELRESEL, query it through LSTCELLSELRESEL, and modify it through MOD CELLSELRESEL.30
  31. 31. Page30Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.Parameters of R Criteria (Cont.)IDLEQHYST2SParameter name: Hysteresis 2 for idle modeRecommended value: Qhyst1s for idle modeCONNQHYST2SParameter name: Hysteresis 2 for connected modeRecommended value: Qhyst1s for connected mode.IDLEQHYST2SParameter name: Hysteresis 2 for idle modeValue range: {{0~20},{255}} .Physical value range: 0~40; step: 2.Physical unit: dB.Content: The hysteresis value in idle mode for serving FDD cells in case the qualitymeasurement for cell selection and reselection is set to CPICH Ec/No. It is related to the slowfading feature of the area where the cell is located. The greater the slow fading variance is, thegreater this parameter. It is optional. If it is not configured, [Hysteresis 1] will be adopted as thevalue.Recommended value: Qhyst1s for idle mode .Set this parameter through ADD CELLSELRESEL, query it through LST CELLSELRESEL, andmodify it through MOD CELLSELRESEL.CONNQHYST2SParameter name: Hysteresis 2 for connected modeValue range: {{0~20},{255}} .Physical value range: 0~40; step: 2.Physical unit: dB.Content: The hysteresis value in connect mode for serving FDD cells in case the qualitymeasurement for cell selection and reselection is set to CPICH RSCP. It is related to the slowfading feature of the area where the cell is located. The greater the slow fading variance is, thegreater this parameter.Recommended value: Qhyst1s for connected mode. .Set this parameter through ADD CELLSELRESEL, query it through LST CELLSELRESEL, andmodify it through MOD CELLSELRESEL.31
  32. 32. Page31Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.Parameters of R Criteria (Cont.)TRESELECTIONSParameter name: Reselection delay timeRecommended value: 1, namely 1s.TRESELECTIONSParameter name: Reselection delay timeValue range: 0~31 .Physical value range: 0~31; step: 1.Physical unit: s.Content: If the signal quality of a neighboring cell is better than the serving cell duringthe specified time of this parameter, the UE will reselect the neighboring cell. It is usedto avoid ping-pong reselection between different cells. Note: The value 0 correspondsto the default value defined in the protocol.Recommended value: 1.Set this parameter through ADD CELLSELRESEL, query it through LSTCELLSELRESEL, and modify it through MOD CELLSELRESEL.32
  33. 33. Page32Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.Parameters of R Criteria (Cont.)IDLEQOFFSET1SNParameter name: IdleQoffset1snRecommended value: 0, namely 0dB.CONNQOFFSET1SNParameter name: ConnQoffset1snRecommended value: 0, namely 0dB.IDLEQOFFSET1SNParameter name: IdleQoffset1snOffset of cell CPICH RSCP measurement value in cell selection or reselection when the UE is inidle modeValue range: -50 to +50 .Physical value range: -50 to +50; step: 1.Physical unit: dB.Content: This parameter is used for moving the border of a cell. The larger the value of thisparameter, the lower the probability of neighboring cell selection.Recommended value: 0.Set this parameter through ADD INTRAFREQNCELL / ADD INTERFREQNCELL, query itthrough LST INTRAFREQNCELL / LST INTERFREQNCELL, and modify it through MODINTRAFREQNCELL / MOD INTERFREQNCELL.CONNQOFFSET1SNParameter name: ConnQoffset1snOffset of cell CPICH RSCP measurement value in cell selection or reselection when the UE is inconnected modeValue range: -50 to +50 .Physical value range: -50 to +50 ; step: 1.Physical unit: dB.Content: This parameter is used for moving the border of a cell. The larger the value of thisparameter, the lower the probability of neighboring cell selection.Recommended value: 0.Set this parameter through ADD INTRAFREQNCELL / ADD INTERFREQNCELL, query itthrough LST INTRAFREQNCELL / LST INTERFREQNCELL, and modify it through MODINTRAFREQNCELL / MOD INTERFREQNCELL.33
  34. 34. Page33Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.Parameters of R Criteria (Cont.)IDLEQOFFSET2SNParameter name: IdleQoffset2snRecommended value: 0, namely 0dB.CONNQOFFSET2SNParameter name: ConnQoffset2snRecommended value: 0, namely 0dB.IDLEQOFFSET2SNParameter name: IdleQoffset2snOffset of cell CPICH Ec/No measurement value in cell selection or reselection when the UE is inidle modeValue range: -50 to +50 .Physical value range: -50 to +50; step: 1.Physical unit: dB.Content: This parameter is used for moving the border of a cell. The larger the value of thisparameter, the lower the probability of neighboring cell selection.Recommended value: 0.Set this parameter through ADD INTRAFREQNCELL / ADD INTERFREQNCELL, query itthrough LST INTRAFREQNCELL / LST INTERFREQNCELL, and modify it through MODINTRAFREQNCELL / MOD INTERFREQNCELL.CONNQOFFSET2SNParameter name: ConnQoffset2snOffset of cell CPICH RSCP measurement value in cell selection or reselection when the UE is inconnected modeValue range: -50 to +50 .Physical value range: -50 to +50 ; step: 1.Physical unit: dB.Content: This parameter is used for moving the border of a cell. The larger the value of thisparameter, the lower the probability of neighboring cell selection.Recommended value: 0.Set this parameter through ADD INTRAFREQNCELL / ADD INTERFREQNCELL, query itthrough LST INTRAFREQNCELL / LST INTERFREQNCELL, and modify it through MODINTRAFREQNCELL / MOD INTERFREQNCELL.34
  35. 35. Page34Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.Contents1. PLMN Selection2. System Information Reception3. Cell Selection and Reselection4. Location Registration5. Paging Procedure6. Access Procedure35
  36. 36. Page35Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.Location RegistrationThe location registration includes:Location update (for non-GPRS)Route update (for GPRS)The location registration is used for the PLMN to trace the current status of the UE and toensure that the UE is connected with the network when the UE does not perform any operationfor a long period.36
  37. 37. Page36Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.Periodic Location RegistrationPeriodic location registration is controlled by a PeriodicLocation Update timer (T3212) or a Periodic Routing AreaUpdate timer (T3312)Periodic location registration may be used to periodically notify the network of the availability ofthe UE.T3212 is for non-GPRS operationT3312 is for GPRS operation37
  38. 38. Page37Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.Parameters of Location RegistrationT3212Parameter name: Periodical location update timer [6min]Recommended value: 10, namely 60minATTParameter name: Attach/detach indicationRecommended value: ALLOWEDT3212Parameter name: Periodical location update timer [6min]Value range: 0~255.Physical unit: 6 min.Content: This parameter indicates the time length of the periodical location update.Periodical location update is implemented by MS through the location updateprocedure. 0: The periodical update procedure is not used. This parameter is valid onlywhen [CN domain ID] is set as CS_DOMAIN.Recommended value: 10.Set this parameter through ADD CNDOMAIN, query it through LST CNDOMAIN,modify it through MOD CNDOMAIN.ATTParameter name: Attach/detach indicationValue range: NOT_ALLOWED, ALLOWED .Content: NOT_ALLOWED indicates that MS cannot apply the IMSI attach/detachprocedure. ALLOWED indicates that MS can apply the IMSI attach/detach procedure.This parameter is valid only when [CN domain ID] is set as CS_DOMAIN.Recommended value: ALLOWED.Set this parameter through ADD CNDOMAIN, query it through LST CNDOMAIN,modify it through MOD CNDOMAIN.38
  39. 39. Page38Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.Contents1. PLMN Selection2. System Information Reception3. Cell Selection and Reselection4. Location Registration5. Paging Procedure6. Access Procedure39
  40. 40. Page39Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.Paging InitiationCN initiated pagingEstablish a signaling connectionUTRAN initiated pagingTrigger the cell update procedureTrigger reading of updated system informationFor CN originated paging:In order to request UTRAN connect to UE, CN initiates the paging procedure,transmits paging message to the UTRAN through Iu interface, and UTRAN transmitsthe paging message from CN to UE through the paging procedure on Uu interface,which will make the UE initiate a signaling connection setup process with the CN.For UTRAN originated paging:When the cell system message is updated: When system messages change, theUTRAN will trigger paging process in order to inform UE in the idle, CELL_PCH orURA_PCH state to carry out the system message update, so that the UE can read theupdated system message.UE state transition: In order to trigger UE in the CELL_PCH or URA_PCH state tocarry out state transition (for example, transition to the CELL_FACH state), the UTRANwill perform a paging process. Meanwhile, the UE will initiate a cell update or URAupdate process, as a reply to the paging.40
  41. 41. Page40Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.Paging Type 1If UE is in CELL_PCH,URA_PCH or IDLE state,the pagingmessage will be transmitted on PCCH with paging type 1CN RNC1 RNC2 NODEB1.1 NODEB2.1 UERANAPRANAPRANAP RANAPPCCH: PAGING TYPE 1PAGINGPAGINGPCCH: PAGING TYPE 1Paging type 1:The message is transmitted in one LA or RA according to LAI or RAI.After calculating the paging time, the paging message will be transmitted at that timeIf UE is in CELL_PCH or URA_PCH state, the UTRAN transmits the paginginformation in PAGING TYPE 1 message to UE. After received paging message, UEperforms a cell update procedure to transit state to CELL_FACH.As shown in the above figure, the CN initiates paging in a location area (LA), which is coveredby two RNCs. After receiving a paging message, the RNC searches all the cells correspondingto the LAI, and then calculates the paging time, at which it will send the PAGING TYPE 1message to these cells through the PCCH.41
  42. 42. Page41Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.Paging Type 2If UE is in CELL_DCH or CELL_FACH state,the pagingmessage will be transmitted on DCCH with paging type 2CN SRNC UERANAPRANAPPAGINGRRCRRCDCCH: PAGING TYPE 2Paging type 2:If UE is in CELL_DCH or CELL_FACH state,the paging message will be transmittedon DCCH with paging type 2The message will be only transmitted in a cellAs shown in the above figure, if the UE is in the CELL_-DCH or CELL_FACH state, theUTRAN will immediately transmit PAGING TYPE 2 message to the paged UE on DCCHchannel.42
  43. 43. Page42Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.Typical Call Flow of UEUE NAS UE AS NSS MSCpagingAUTHENTICATION REQUESTAUTHENTICATION RESPONSERR_SECURITY_CONTROL_REQ(IK CK)Security mode controlSETUPCALL CONFIRMALERTCONNECTCONNECT ACKNOWLEDGERAB setup processpagingRR_EST_REQ (PAGING RESPONSE)RR_PAING_INDINITIAL_DIRECT_TRANSFER(PAGING RESPONSE)RANAPRANAPRRC setup processMany problems will cause the target UE cannot receive the paging message properlyPower setting of paging channel is unreasonable.Unreasonable paging strategies will result in paging channel congestion, which cancause paging message loss.Paging parameter is unreasonableEquipment fault43
  44. 44. Page43Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.DRX ProcedureUE receives the paging indicator on PICH periodically, thatis the Discontinuous Reception (DRX)The value for the DRX paging cycle length is determined asfollows: :DRX Cycle Length = (2^K)×PBP framesIn idle mode, the UE can monitor the paging in two modes: one is to decode SCCPCH directlyevery 10ms, the other is to decode the PICH periodically. The second one is the DRX, which isDiscontinuous Reception Mechanism.The paging period formula:DRX Cycle Length = (2^K)*PBP framesK is the “CN domain specific DRX cycle length coefficient”, which is broadcasted inSIB1. The typical value is 6.PBP is paging block period, which is 1 for FDD modeThe paging period should be 640ms if K is 644
  45. 45. Page44Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.DRX Procedure (Cont.)Through DRX, UE only listens to PICH at certain predefinedtime. And UE will read the paging information on SCCPCH ifthe paging indicator is 1.The value of the Paging Occasion is determined as follows:Paging Occasion (CELL SFN) ={(IMSI mod M) mod (DRX cycle length div PBP)} * PBP+ n * DRX cycle length + Frame OffsetPaging SFN formula:Paging Occasion (CELL SFN) = {(IMSI mod M) mod (DRX cycle length div PBP)}*PBP + n *DRX cycle length + Frame Offsetn =0, 1, 2……and the requirement is the calculated CELL SFN must be below itsmaximum value 4096Frame Offset is 0 for FDD modeM is the number of SCCPCH which carries PCH, and the typical value is 1The formula cloud be simplified as: SFN = IMSI mod (2^K) + n * (2^K)45
  46. 46. Page45Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.DRX Procedure (Cont.)⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦( )( )( ) NpNpSFNSFNSFNSFNPIq mod144144mod512/64/8/18 ⎟⎟⎠⎞⎜⎜⎝⎛⎥⎦⎥⎢⎣⎢×+++×+=UE must calculate q to know which PI to monitor in oneframe of PICHThe q value is achieved by the following formula :Where, PI = (IMSI div 8192) mod NPSFN is the paging occasion of the UEAs shown in the followed figure, the UE needs to monitor the frames (paging occasions)indicated by the red dots, and then decodes the qth PI of this frame.¡ £¡ £¡ £02^K-10 4095¡ £¡ £¡ £PI PI PI PI¡ £¡ £¡ £¡ £¡ £¡ £0 1 q NP-1One DRX cycle46
  47. 47. Page46Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.DRX Procedure (Cont.)τPICHAssociated S-CCPCH framePICH frame containing paging indicatorTime offset between PICH and S-CCPCHThe timing relationship between PICH and S-CCPCH is defined by the above figure, and theinterval is 3 slots duration (2ms, 7680 chips).47
  48. 48. Page47Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.Parameters of DRXDRXCYCLELENCOEFParameter name: DRX cycle length coefficientRecommended value: 6PICHMODEParameter name: PICH modeRecommended value: V36.DRXCYCLELENCOEFParameter name: DRX cycle length coefficientValue range: 6~9 .Content: This parameter is broadcasted on SIB1. This parameter is used when a UE isin idle mode.Recommended value: 6.Set this parameter through ADD CNDOMAIN, query it through LST CNDOMAIN, andmodify it through MOD CNDOMAIN.PICHMODEParameter name: PICH modeValue range: V18, V36, V72, V144 .Physical value range: 18, 36, 72, 144 .Content: Indicating the number of PIs contained in each frame on the PICH.Recommended value: V36 .Set this parameter through ADD PICH, query it through LST PICH.48
  49. 49. Page48Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.Parameters of DRXMACCPAGEREPEATParameter name: Number of page re-TXRecommended value: 1MACCPAGEREPEATParameter name: Number of page re-TXNumber of retransmissions of paging messageValue range: 0~2 .Content: If the number of retransmissions of paging message exceeds this parametervalue, retransmissions stop.Recommended value: 1.Set this parameter through SET WFMRCFGDATA, query it through LSTWFMRCFGDATA.49
  50. 50. Page49Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.Contents1. PLMN Selection2. System Information Reception3. Cell Selection and Reselection4. Location Registration5. Paging Procedure6. Access Procedure50
  51. 51. Page50Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.Two Working Mode of UEIdle modeAfter turning on, UE will stay in idle modeConnected modeUE will switch to connected mode which could be CELL_FACHstate or CELL_DCH state from the idle modeAfter releasing RRC connection, UE will switch to the idlemode from the connected modeThe most important difference between idle mode and connected mode is whether UE hasRRC connection with UTRAN or not.In idle mode, UE will be identified by IMSI, TMSI or PTMSI and so on.In connected mode, UE will be identified by URNTI (UTRAN Radio Network TemporaryIdentity), which is the ID of one RRC connection.51
  52. 52. Page51Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.Random Access ProcedureDefinitionRandom access procedure is initiated by UE in order to getservice from the system. Meanwhile, the access channels areallocated to the UE by systemThis process may happen in the following scenarios:Attach and detachLA update and RA updateSignaling connection for services52
  53. 53. Page52Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.Random Access ChannelAICH accessslots10 ms#0 #1 #2 #3 #14#13#12#11#10#9#8#7#6#5#4τp-a#0 #1 #2 #3 #14#13#12#11#10#9#8#7#6#5#4PRACHaccess slotsSFN mod 2 = 0 SFN mod 2 = 110 msAccess slot set 1 Access slot set 2DefinitionUE will transmit the preamble at the access time slotEach 20ms access frame is composed of two 10ms radio frames, which is divided into 15access time slot, and 5120 chips for each slotThe PRACH access slots, AICH access slots and their time offset are showed in the abovefigure53
  54. 54. Page53Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.RACH Sub-Channels141312111098721076543614131211109855432107648141312111093765432102111098141312176543210011109876543210Random access sub-channels numberSFNmod 8The access slots of different RACH sub-channels are illustrated bythe following tableA RACH sub-channel defines a sub-set of the total set of uplink access slots. There are a totalof 12 RACH sub-channels.54
  55. 55. Page54Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.Access Service ClassThe PRACH resources can be classified into several ASCs,so as to provide RACH applications with different priorities.For Frequency Division Duplex (FDD) mode, the PRACH resources include access timeslotsand preamble signatures, which can be classified into several ASCs, so as to provide RACHapplications with different priorities.The ASCs range from 0 to 7, and the quantity of ASCs is 8. "0" indicates the highest priorityand "7" indicates the lowest priority.The system will assign random access sub-channels and signatures according to the ASC(Access Service Class ) of UE.Set ASC of PRACH through ADD PRACHASC, modify it through MOD PRACHASC, andremove it through RMV PRACHASC.55
  56. 56. Page55Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.Access Control“Access Control” is used by network operators to preventoverload of radio access channels under critical conditions.Access class 0~Access Class 9Access class 11~Access Class 15Access class 10The access class number is stored in the SIM/USIM.Access class 0~9 are allocated to all the users. And the 10 classes show the same priority.Access class 11~15 are allocated to specific high priority users as follows. (The enumeration isnot meant as a priority sequence):Access class 15: PLMN staffAccess class 14: users subscribing to emergency servicesAccess class 13: public organizationsAccess class 12: users subscribing to security servicesAccess class 11: users responsible for PLMN managementAccess Class 10 indicates whether or not network access for Emergency Calls is allowed forUEs with access classes 0 to 9 or without an IMSI. For UEs with access classes 11 to 15,Emergency Calls are not allowed if both "Access class 10" and the relevant Access Class (11to 15) are barred. Otherwise, Emergency Calls are allowed.56
  57. 57. Page56Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.Mapping between AC and ASCThe AC-ASC mapping information is optional and used forthe System Information Block 5 (SIB5) only.Set the mapping between AC and ASC through ADD PRACHACTOASCMAP, modify itthrough MOD PRACHACTOASCMAP, and remove it through RMV PRACHACTOASCMAP.57
  58. 58. STARTChoose a RACH sub channel fromavailable onesGet available signaturesSet Preamble Retrans MaxSet Preamble_Initial_PowerSend a preambleCheck the corresponding AIIncrease message part power byp-m based on preamble powerSet physical status to be RACHmessage transmitted Set physical status to be Nackon AICH receivedChoose a access slot againCounter> 0 & Preamblepower-maximum allowed power<6 dBChoose a signature andincrease preamble transmit powerSet physical status to be Nackon AICH receivedGet negative AINo AIReport the physical status to MACENDGet positive AIThe counter of preamble retransmitSubtract-1, Commanded preamblepower increased by Power Ramp StepNYSend the correspondingmessage partRandom Access Procedure58
  59. 59. Physical random access procedure1. Derive the available uplink access slots, in the next full access slot set, for the set ofavailable RACH sub-channels within the given ASC. Randomly select one access slotamong the ones previously determined. If there is no access slot available in theselected set, randomly select one uplink access slot corresponding to the set ofavailable RACH sub-channels within the given ASC from the next access slot set. Therandom function shall be such that each of the allowed selections is chosen with equalprobability2. Randomly select a signature from the set of available signatures within the givenASC3. Set the Preamble Retransmission Counter to Preamble_ Retrans_ Max4. Set the parameter Commanded Preamble Power to Preamble_Initial_Power5. Transmit a preamble using the selected uplink access slot, signature, and preambletransmission power6. If no positive or negative acquisition indicator (AI ≠ +1 nor –1) corresponding to theselected signature is detected in the downlink access slot corresponding to theselected uplink access slot:A: Select the next available access slot in the set of available RACH sub-channels within the given ASCB: select a signatureC: Increase the Commanded Preamble PowerD: Decrease the Preamble Retransmission Counter by one. If the PreambleRetransmission Counter > 0 then repeat from step 6. Otherwise exit thephysical random access procedure7. If a negative acquisition indicator corresponding to the selected signature isdetected in the downlink access slot corresponding to the selected uplink access slot,exit the physical random access procedure Signature8. If a positive acquisition indicator corresponding to the selected signature is detected ,Transmit the random access message three or four uplink access slots after the uplinkaccess slot of the last transmitted preamble9. Exit the physical random access procedure59
  60. 60. Page59Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.RRC Connection MessageTypical RRC connection messagesRRC_CONNECTION_REQUESTRRC_CONNECTION_SETUPRRC_CONNECTION_SETUP_COMPLETERRC_CONNECTION_RELEASEWhen a UE needs network service, it first sets up RRC connection as follows:The UE sends a RRC CONNECTION REQUEST message from the cell where itcamps to the RNC.The RNC allocates related resources for the UE and sends an RRC CONNECTIONSETUP message to the UE.The UE sends a RRC CONNECTION SETUP COMPLETE message to the RNC. TheRRC connection setup ends.60
  61. 61. Page60Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.UE Timers and Constants in Idle ModeT300Parameter name: Timer 300 [ms]Recommended value: D2000, namely 2000msN300Parameter name: Constant 300Recommended value: 3T300Parameter name: Timer 300[ms]Value range: D100, D200, D400, D600, D800, D1000, D1200, D1400, D1600, D1800,D2000, D3000, D4000, D6000, D8000 .Physical value range: 100, 200, 400, 600, 800, 1000, 1200, 1400, 1600, 1800, 2000,3000, 4000, 6000, 8000Physical unit: msContent: T300 is started after the UE transmits the RRC CONNECTION REQUESTmessage and stopped after the UE receives the RRC CONNECTION SETUPmessage. RRC CONNECTION REQUEST resents upon the expiry of the timer if V300less than or equal to N300. Otherwise, the UE enters idle mode.Recommended value: D2000.Set this parameter through SET IDLEMODETIMER, query it through SETIDLEMODETIMER.N300Parameter name: Constant 300Value range: 0~7 .Content: Maximum number of retransmission of RRC CONNECTION REQUEST .Recommended value: 3.Set this parameter through SET IDLEMODETIMER, query it through SETIDLEMODETIMER.61
  62. 62. Page61Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.UE Timers and Constants in Idle ModeT312Parameter name: Timer 312 [s]Recommended value: 6, namely 6sN312Parameter name: Constant 312Recommended value: D1, namely 1T312Parameter name: Timer 312[s]Value range: 1~15 .Physical value range: 1~15sPhysical unit: sContent: T312 is started after the UE starts to establish a DCH and stopped when theUE detects N312 consecutive "in sync" indications from L1. It indicates physicalchannel setup failure upon the expiry of the timer.Recommended value: 6.Set this parameter through SET IDLEMODETIMER, query it through SETIDLEMODETIMER.N312Parameter name: Constant 312Value range: D1, D2, D4, D10, D20, D50, D100, D200, D400, D600, D800, D1000 .Physical value range: 1, 2, 4, 10, 20, 50, 100, 200, 400, 600, 800, 1000Content: Maximum number of consecutive "in sync" indications received from L1. .Recommended value: D1.Set this parameter through SET IDLEMODETIMER, query it through SETIDLEMODETIMER.62
  63. 63. Page62Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.RRC Connection Establish ChannelType and Bit RateRRCCAUSEParameter name: Cause of RRC connection establishmentRecommended value: noneSIGCHTYPEParameter name: Channel type for RRC establishmentRecommended value: noneRRCCAUSEParameter name: Cause of RRC connection establishmentValue range: ORIGCONVCALLEST, ORIGSTREAMCALLEST, ORIGINTERCALLEST,ORIGBKGCALLEST, ORIGSUBSTRAFFCALLEST, TERMCONVCALLEST,TERMSTREAMCALLEST, TERMINTERCALLEST, TERMBKGCALLEST,EMERGCALLEST, INTERRATCELLRESELEST, INTERRATCELLCHGORDEREST,REGISTEST, DETACHEST, ORIGHIGHPRIORSIGEST, ORIGLOWPRIORSIGEST,CALLREEST, TERMHIGHPRIORSIGEST, TERMLOWPRIORSIGEST,TERMCAUSEUNKNOWN, DEFAULTEST.Content: The cause of Rrc connection establishment. .Recommended value: none.Set this parameter through SET RRCESTCAUSE, query it through LSTRRCESTCAUSE.SIGCHTYPEParameter name: Channel type for RRC establishmentValue range: FACH, DCH_3.4K_SIGNALLING, DCH_13.6K_SIGNALLING.Content: FACH indicates that the RRC is established on the common channel.DCH_3.4K_SIGNALLING indicates that the RRC is established on the dedicatedchannel of 3.4 kbit/s. DCH_13.6K_SIGNALLING indicates that the RRC is establishedon the dedicated channel of 13.6 kbit/s. .Recommended value: none.Set this parameter through SET RRCESTCAUSE, query it through LSTRRCESTCAUSE.63
  64. 64. Page63Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.RRC Connection Establish ChannelType and Bit RateINTRAMEASCTRLParameter name: IntraMeas Ctrl Ind for RRC establishmentRecommended value: SUPPORTINTRAMEASCTRLParameter name: IntraMeas Ctrl Ind for RRC establishmentValue range: NOT_SUPPORT, SUPPORT.Content: NOT_SUPPORT indicates that the Intrafreq measurement control messagewill be send in RRC Connection Establishment. SUPPORT indicates that the Intrafreqmeasurement control will not be send in RRC Connection Establishment.Recommended value: SUPPORT .Set this parameter through SET RRCESTCAUSE, query it through LSTRRCESTCAUSE.64
  65. 65. Thank youwww.huawei.com65
  66. 66. www.huawei.comCopyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.WCDMA Power Controland Relevant Parameters263
  67. 67. Page1Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.ObjectivesUpon completion of this course, you will be able to:Describe the purpose and function of power controlExplain open loop power control and parametersExplain inner loop power control and relevant parametersExplain outer loop power control and relevant parameters264
  68. 68. Page2Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.Contents1. Power Control Overview2. Open Loop Power Control3. Closed Loop Power Control265
  69. 69. Page3Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.Contents1. Power Control Overview2. Open Loop Power Control3. Closed Loop Power Control266
  70. 70. Page4Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.Purpose of Uplink Power ControlUplink Transmission CharacterSelf-interference systemUplink capacity is limited by interference levelNear-far effectFadingUplink Power Control FunctionEnsure uplink quality with minimum transmission powerDecrease interference to other UE, and increase capacitySolve the near-far effectSave UE transmission powerCDMA system have the embedded characteristics of self-interference, for uplink oneuser’s transmission power become interference to others.The more connected users, the higher interference. Generally the capacity is limited byinterference level.WCDMA suffer from Near-far effect, which means if all UE use the same transmissionpower, the one close to the NodeB may block the entire cell.Uplink power control can guarantee the service quality and minimize the requiredtransmission power. It will resolve the near-far effect and resist fading of signalpropagation. By lowering the uplink interference level, the system capacity will beincreased.267
  71. 71. Page5Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.Purpose of Downlink Power ControlDownlink Transmission CharacterInterference among different subscribersInterference from other adjacent cellsDownlink capacity is limited by NodeB transmission powerFadingDownlink Power Control FunctionEnsure downlink quality with minimum transmission powerDecrease interference to other cells, and increase capacitySave NodeB transmission powerThe downlink has different characteristics from the uplink, for downlink interference iscaused by multi-path, part of one user’s power also become interference to others.Downlink power from adjacent cells also is one part of interference to the own cell.Transmission power of NodeB is shared by all users channels, so downlink capacityusually is considered to be limited by transmission power.Downlink power control also can guarantee the service quality and minimize therequired transmission power, so the capacity is maximized in case that interference islowered.268
  72. 72. Page6Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.Effect of Power ControlTime (ms)0 200 400 600 800-20-15-10-505101520Relativepower(dB)Channel FadingTransmitting powerReceiving powerBecause of channel fading in mobile communication system, the radio signal isdeteriorated and fluctuated, the fast power control become one key technology to resistthis phenomenon.In this figure, the channel fading is compensated by the transmitting power, which isadjusted by the fast power control, so the receiving power is almost constant and theradio propagation condition is improved.269
  73. 73. Page7Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.Power Control ClassificationOpen Loop Power ControlUplink / Downlink Open Loop Power ControlClosed Loop Power ControlUplink / Downlink Inner Loop Power ControlUplink / Downlink Outer Loop Power ControlIn WCDMA system, power control includes open loop and closed loop power control.Open loop power control is used to determine the initial transmission power, and theclosed loop power control adjusts the transmission power dynamically andcontinuously during the connection.For uplink, the UE’s transmission power is adjusted; and for downlink, the NodeB’stransmission power is adjusted.270
  74. 74. Page8Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.Power Control For Physical ChannelsPower control methods are adopted for these physical channels:“√" – can be applied, “×" – not applied√×××SCH√×××PICH√×××AICH×××√PRACH√×××SCCPCH√×××PCCPCH×√√√DPCCH×√√√DPDCHOuter LoopPower ControlInner LoopPower ControlNo PowerControlClosed Loop Power ControlOpen LoopPowerControlPhysicalChannelOpen loop power control is used in two cases:1. to decide the initial transmission power of PRACH preamble.2. to decide the initial transmission power of DPCCH / DPDCH.Closed loop power control is only applied on DPCCH and DPDCHFor other common channels, power control is not applied, they will use fixedtransmission power:The PCPICH power is defined by the PCPICH TRANSMIT POWER parameteras an absolute value in dBm.All other common channels power is defined in relation with the PCPICHTRANSMIT POWER parameter, and measured in dB.271
  75. 75. Page9Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.Common Physical Channel Power ParametersMAXTXPOWERParameter name: Max transmit power of cellThe recommended value is 430, namely 43dBmPCPICHPOWERParameter name: PCPICH transmit powerThe recommended value is 330, namely 33dBmMAXTXPOWERParameter name: Max transmit power of cellValue Range: 0 to 500Physical Value Range: 0dBm to 50 dBm, step 0.1dBThe recommended value is 430, namely 43dBmContent: The sum of the maximum transmit power of all DL channels in a cell.Set this parameter through ADD CELLSETUP, query it through LST CELL and modify itthrough MOD CELLPCPICHPOWERParameter name: PCPICH transmit powerValue Range: -100 to 500Physical Value Range: -10dBm to 50 dBm, step 0.1dBThe recommended value is 330, namely 33dBmContent: This parameter should be set based on the actual environment and thedownlink coverage should be guaranteed firstly. If PCPICH transmit power is configuredtoo great, the cell capacity will be decreased, for power resources is occupied bycommon channel and the interference to traffic channels is also increased.Set this parameter through ADD PCPICH, query it through LST PCPICH and modify itthrough MOD CELL272
  76. 76. Page10Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.Common Physical Channel Power ParametersPSCHPOWER or SSCHPOWERParameter name: PSCH / SCCH transmit powerThe recommended value is -50, namely -5dBBCHPOWERParameter name: BCH transmit powerThe recommended value is -20, namely -2dBPSCHPOWER or SSCHPOWERParameter name: PSCH / SCCH transmit powerValue range: -350 to 150.Physical value range: -35 to 15, step 0.1dBThe recommended value is -50, namely -5dBContent: The offset between the PSCH / SSCH transmit power and PCPICH transmitpower.For PSCH Power, set it through ADD PSCH, and query it through LST PSCH; for SSCHPower, set it through ADD SSCH, and query it through LST SSCH. And modify it throughMOD CELLBCHPOWERParameter name: BCH transmit powerValue Range:-350 to 150Physical Value Range:-35 to 15 dB, step 0.1dBThe recommended value is -20, namely -2dBContent: The offset between the BCH transmit power and PCPICH transmit power.Set this parameter through ADD BCH, query it through LST BCH, and modify it throughMOD CELL273
  77. 77. Page11Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.Common Physical Channel Power ParametersMAXFACHPOWERParameter name: Max transmit power of FACHThe recommended value is 10, namely 1dBPCHPOWERParameter name: PCH transmit powerThe recommended value is -20, namely -2dBMAXFACHPOWERParameter name: Max transmit power of FACHValue range : -350 to 150Physical Value Range:-35 to 15 dB, step 0.1dBThe recommended value is 10, namely 1dBContent: The offset between the FACH transmit power and PCPICH transmitpower.Set this parameter through ADD FACH, query it through LST FACH, and modifyit through MOD SCCPCHPCHPOWERParameter name: PCH transmit powerValue Range:-350 to 150Physical Value Range:-35 to 15 dB, step 0.1dBThe recommended value is -20, namely -2dBContent: The offset between the PCH transmit power and PCPICH transmitpower.Set this parameter through ADD PCH, query it through LST PCH, and modify itthrough MOD SCCPCH274
  78. 78. Page12Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.Common Physical Channel Power ParametersAICHPOWEROFFSETParameter name: AICH power offsetThe default value of this parameter is -6, namely -6dBPICHPOWEROFFSETParameter name: PICH power offsetThe default value of this parameter is -7, namely -7dBAICHPOWEROFFSETParameter name: AICH power offsetValue Range: -22 to 5Physical Value Range: -22 to 5 dB, step 1dBThe default value of this parameter is -6, namely -6dBContent: The offset between the AICH transmit power and PCPICH transmitpower.Set this parameter through ADD CHPWROFFSET, query it through LSTCHPWROFFSET, and modify it through MOD AICHPWROFFSETPICHPOWEROFFSETParameter name: PICH power offsetValue Range:-10 to 5Physical Value Range:-10 to 5 dB , step 1dBThe default value of this parameter is -7, namely -7dBContent: The offset between the PICH transmit power and PCPICH transmitpower.Set this parameter through ADD CHPWROFFSET, query it through LSTCHPWROFFSET, and modify it through MOD PICHPWROFFSET275
  79. 79. Page13Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.Contents1. Power Control Overview2. Open Loop Power Control3. Closed Loop Power Control276
  80. 80. Page14Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.Contents2. Open Loop Power Control2.1 Open Loop Power Control Overview2.2 PRACH Open Loop Power Control2.3 Downlink Dedicated Channel Open Loop Power Control2.4 Uplink Dedicated Channel Open Loop Power Control277
  81. 81. Page15Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.Open Loop Power Control OverviewPurposeCalculate the initial transmission power of uplink / downlink channelsPrincipleEstimates the downlink signal power loss on propagation pathPath loss of the uplink channel is related to the downlink channelApplicationOpen loop power control is applied only at the beginning of connectionsetup to set the initial power value.In downlink open loop power control, the initial transmission power is calculatedaccording to the downlink path loss between NodeB and UE.In uplink, since the uplink and downlink frequencies of WCDMA are in the samefrequency band, a significant correlation exists between the average path loss of thetwo links. This make it possible for each UE to calculate the initial transmission powerrequired in the uplink based on the downlink path loss.However, there is 90MHz frequency interval between uplink and downlink frequencies,the fading between the uplink and downlink is uncorrelated, so the open loop powercontrol is not absolutely accurate.278
  82. 82. Page16Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.Contents2. Open Loop Power Control2.1 Open Loop Power Control Overview2.2 PRACH Open Loop Power Control2.3 Downlink Dedicated Channel Open Loop Power Control2.4 Uplink Dedicated Channel Open Loop Power Control279
  83. 83. Page17Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.PRACH Open Loop Power Control5. Downlink SynchronizationUE Node BServingRNCDCH - FPAllocate RNTISelect L1 and L2parametersRRCRRCNBAPNBAP3. Radio Link Setup ResponseNBAPNBAP2. Radio Link Setup RequestRRCRRC7. CCCH: RRC Connection Set upStart RXdescriptionStart TXdescription4. ALCAP Iub Data Transport Bearer SetupRRCRRC9. DCCH: RRC Connection Setup Complete6. Uplink SynchronizationNBAPNBAP8. Radio Link Restore IndicationDCH - FPDCH - FPDCH - FPOpen loop powercontrol of PRACH1. CCCH: RRC Connection RequestIn access procedure, the first signaling “RRC CONNECTION REQUEST” istransmitted in message part on PRACH.Before PRACH message part transmission, UE will transmit PRACH preamble, andthe transmission power of first preamble is calculated by this PRACH open loop powercontrol.280
  84. 84. Page18Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.PRACH Open Loop Power ControlInitial Power Calculation for the First PreambleWhen UE needs to set up a RRC connection, the initial powerof uplink PRACH can be calculated according to the followingformula:PowerTxInitialgCalculatinForValueConstant+ceInterferenUL+CPICH_RSCP-PowerTransmitPCPICH=ernitial_PowPreamble_IIn this formula, wherePCPICH TRANSMIT POWER defines the PCPICH transmit power in a cell. It isbroadcast in SIB5.CPICH_RSCP means received signal code power, the received powermeasured on the PCPICH. The measurement is performed by the UE.UL interference is the UL RTWP measured by the NodeB. It is broadcast in SIB7.CONSTANT VALUE compensates for the RACH processing gain. It is broadcastin SIB5.The initial value of PRACH power is set through open loop power control. UE operationsteps are as follows:1. Read “Primary CPICH DL TX power”, “UL interference” and “Constant value”from system information.2. Measure the value of CPICH_RSCP;3. Calculate the Preamble_Initial_Power of PRACH.281
  85. 85. Page19Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.PRACH Open Loop Power Control ParametersCONSTANTVALUEParameter name: Constant value for calculating initial TXpowerThe recommended value is -20, namely -20dBCONSTANTVALUEParameter name: Constant value for calculating initial TX powerValue range : -35 ~ -10Physical Value Range:-35 to -10 dBContent: It is used to calculate the transmit power of the first preamble in therandom access process.Recommended value: -20Set this parameter through ADD PRACHBASIC, query it through LST PRACH,and modify it through MOD PRACHUUPARAS282
  86. 86. Page20Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.PRACH Open Loop Power ControlTiming relationship of PRACH and AICHAICHPRACH1 access slotτ p-aτ p-mτp-pPre-amblePre-ambleMessagepartAcq.Ind.After UE transmit the first Preamble on PRACH, it will wait for the corresponding AI(Acquisition Indicator) on the AICH. The timing relationship of PRACH and AICH isshown in above figure.There will be 3 parameters used to define the timing relationship:τp-p: time interval between two PRACH preambles. τp-p is not a fixed value, it isdecided by selecting access slot of PRACH preambles,Here τp-p has one restriction, it must be longer than a minimum value τp-p min ,namely τp-p ≥ τp-p min.τp-a: time interval between PRACH preamble and AICH Acquisition Indicator. IfUE sends the PRACH preamble, it will detect the responding AI after τp-a time.τp-m: time interval between PRACH preamble and PRACH message part. If UEsends the PRACH preamble and receives positive AI from the AICH, it will sendthe message part after τp-m time.283
  87. 87. Page21Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.PRACH Open Loop Power Control ParametersAICHTXTIMINGParameter name: AICH transmission timingContent:When AICHTXTIMING = 0,τp-p,min = 15360 chips, τp-a = 7680 chips, τp-m = 15360 chipsWhen AICHTXTIMING = 1,τp-p,min = 20480 chips, τp-a = 12800 chips, τp-m = 20480 chipsThe recommended value is 1Parameter AICHTXTIMING is used to define the set of τp-p min, τp-a, τp-m.AICHTXTIMINGParameter name: AICH transmission timingValue range:0,1Content:When AICHTXTIMING = 0,τp-p,min = 15360 chips, τp-a = 7680 chips, τp-m = 15360 chipsWhen AICHTXTIMING = 1,τp-p,min = 20480 chips, τp-a = 12800 chips, τp-m = 20480 chipsRecommended value: 1Set this parameter through ADD AICH, query it through LST AICH, and modify itneeds de-activated the cell through DEA CELL. After the old configuration ofAICH is deleted through RMV AICH , a new AICH can be established throughADD AICH284
  88. 88. Page22Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.PRACH Open Loop Power ControlPower Ramping for Preamble RetransmissionPower Ramp StepPower Offset Pp-mPreamble_Initial_PowerMessagepartPre-amblePre-amble……Pre-amblePre-amble#1 #3 #N#2After UE transmit the first Preamble,If no positive or negative AI on AICH is received after τp-a time,UE shall increase the preamble power by POWER RAMP STEP, andretransmit the preamble.This ramping process stops until the number of transmitted preambles hasreached the MAX PREAMBLE RETRANSMISSION within an access cycle,or when the maximum number of access cycles has reached MAXPREAMBLE LOOP.If a negative AI on AICH is received by the UE after τp-a time,which indicates rejection of the preamble, the UE shall wait for a certain“Back-off Delay” and re-initiate a new random access process.When a positive AI on AICH is received by UE after τp-a time,it will transmit the random access message after the uplink access slot ofthe last preamble.The transmit power of the random access message control part should bePOWER OFFSET higher than the power of the last transmitted preamble.285
  89. 89. Page23Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.PRACH Open Loop Power Control ParametersPOWERRAMPSTEPParameter name: Power increase stepThe recommended value is 2, namely 2dBPREAMBLERETRANSMAXParameter name: Max preamble retransmissionThe Recommended value is 20POWERRAMPSTEPParameter name: Power increase stepValue range : 1 to 8Physical Value Range: 1 to 8 dBContent: The power increase step of the random access preambles transmittedbefore the UE receives the acquisition indicator in the random access process.Recommended value: 2Set this parameter through ADD PRACHBASIC, query it through LST PRACH,and modify it through MOD PRACHUUPARASPREAMBLERETRANSMAXParameter name: Max preamble retransmissionValue range : 1 to 64Content: The maximum number of preambles transmitted in a preamble rampingcycle.Recommended value: 20Set this parameter through ADD PRACHBASIC, query it through LST PRACH,and modify it through MOD PRACHUUPARAS286
  90. 90. Page24Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.PRACH Open Loop Power Control ParametersMMAXParameter name: Max preamble loopThe recommended value is 8NB01MIN / NB01MAXParameter name: Random back-off lower / upper limitThe recommended value: 0 for both NB01MIN / NB01MAXMMAXParameter name: Max preamble loopValue range: 1 to 32Content: The maximum number of random access preamble loops.Recommended value: 8Set this parameter through ADD RACH, query it through LST RACH, and modifyit first de-activated the cell through DEA CELL, then MOD RACH.NB01MIN / NB01MAXParameter name: Random back-off lower / upper limitValue range: 0 to 50Content: The lower / upper limit of random access back-off delay.The recommended value: 0 for both NB01MIN / NB01MAXSet this parameter through ADD RACH, query it through LST RACH, and modifyit first de-activated the cell through DEA CELL, then MOD RACH.287
  91. 91. Page25Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.PRACH Open Loop Power Control ParametersPOWEROFFSETPPMParameter name: Power offsetThe default value:-3dB for signalling transmission;-2dB for service transmission.POWEROFFSETPPMParameter name: Power offsetValue range: -5 to 10dBContent: The power offset between the last access preamble and the messagecontrol part. The power of the message control part can be obtained by addingthe offset to the access preamble power.The recommended value of this parameter is -3dB for signalling transmission ,and that -2dB for service transmissionSet this parameter through ADD PRACHTFC, query it through LST PRACH, andmodify it de-activated the cell through DEA CELL . After the old configuration ofPRACH is deleted through RMV PRACHTFC , a new parameters can beestablished through ADD PRACHTFCThe PRACH message also consists of control part and data part, here the POWEROFFSET is the difference between the PRACH preamble and the message control part.The PRACH message uses GAIN FACTOR to set the power of control / data part:GAIN FACTOR BETAC ( βc ) is the gain factor for the control part.GAIN FACTOR BETAD ( βd ) is the gain factor for the data part.288
  92. 92. Page26Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.Contents2. Open Loop Power Control2.1 Open Loop Power Control Overview2.2 PRACH Open Loop Power Control2.3 Downlink Dedicated Channel Open Loop Power Control2.4 Uplink Dedicated Channel Open Loop Power Control289
  93. 93. Page27Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.DL DPDCH Open Loop Power Control5. Downlink SynchronizationUE Node BServingRNCDCH - FPAllocate RNTISelect L1 and L2parametersRRCRRCNBAPNBAP3. Radio Link Setup ResponseNBAPNBAP2. Radio Link Setup RequestRRCRRC7. CCCH: RRC Connection Set upStart RXdescriptionStart TXdescription4. ALCAP Iub Data Transport Bearer SetupRRCRRC9. DCCH: RRC Connection Setup Complete6. Uplink SynchronizationNBAPNBAP8. Radio Link Restore IndicationDCH - FPDCH - FPDCH - FP1. CCCH: RRC Connection RequestDL DPDCH OpenLoop Power ControlAccording to the RRC connection establishment procedure, after RNC received the“RRC CONNECTION REQUEST” message, and NodeB set up the radio link for UE,then Iub interface resources is established between NodeB and RNC.When DCH-FP of Iub interface finished downlink and uplink synchronization, thedownlink DPCH starts to transmit, and DPDCH initial transmission power is calculatedthrough open loop power control.290
  94. 94. Page28Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.DL DPDCH Open Loop Power ControlWhen a dedicated channel is set up, the initial power ofdownlink DPDCH can be calculated according to thefollowing formula:⎟⎟⎠⎞⎜⎜⎝⎛−××= TotalCPICHCPICHDLInitial P)No/Ec(P)NoEb(WRP αIn this formula, whereR is the requested data bitrate by the userW is the chip rate(Eb/No)DL is the Eb/No target to ensure the service quality. RNC searches forthe (Eb/No)DL dynamically in a set of pre-defined values according to specific cellenvironment type, coding type, bitrate, BLER target and etc.(Ec/Io)CPICH is the CPICH signal quality measured by UE, then it is sent to RNCthrough RACH.α is the orthogonality factor in the downlink. In Huawei implementation, α is setto 0.Ptotal is the total carrier transmit power measured at the NodeBThe initial transmission power of downlink DPDCH could be calculated through thisformula, then, initial transmission power of downlink DPCCH can be obtainedaccording to the power offset: PO1, PO2 and PO3.291
  95. 95. Page29Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.DL DPDCH Open Loop Power ControlData1 TPC TFCI Data2 PilotDownlinkTransmitPowerDPCCHDPDCH DPDCH DPCCHPO2PO1PO31 timeslotThis figure shows the power offset of downlink DPCH :PO1 is the power offset of DPCCH TFCI bits to DPDCH data bits.PO2 is the power offset of DPCCH TPC bits to DPDCH data bits.PO3 is the power offset of DPCCH Pilot bits to DPDCH data bits.The values of PO1, PO2 and PO3 are configured on RNC.292
  96. 96. Page30Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.DL DPDCH Open Loop Power Control ParameterTFCIPOParameter name: TFCI power offsetThe recommended value is 0, namely 0dBTPCPOParameter name: TPC power offsetThe recommended value is 12, namely 3dBTFCIPOParameter name: TFCI power offsetValue range : 0 to 24Physical value range: 0 to 6 dB, step: 0.25Content: The offset of TFCI bit transmit power from data bit transmit power ineach time slot of radio frames on DL DPCHRecommended value: 0Set this parameter through SET FRC, query it through LST FRC, and modify itthrough SET FRCTPCPOParameter name: TPC power offsetValue range : 0 to 24Physical value range: 0 to 6 dB, step: 0.25Content: The offset of TPC bit transmit power from data bit transmit power ineach time slot of radio frames on DL DPCHRecommended value: 12Set this parameter through SET FRC, query it through LST FRC, and modify itthrough SET FRC293
  97. 97. Page31Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.DL DPDCH Open Loop Power Control ParameterPILOTPOParameter name: Pilot power offsetThe recommended value is 12, namely 3dBPILOTPOParameter name: Pilot power offsetValue range : 0 to 24Physical value range: 0 to 6 dB, step: 0.25Content: The offset of pilot bit transmit power from data bit transmit power ineach time slot of radio frames on DL DPCHThe recommended value is 12, namely 3dBSet this parameter through SET FRC, query it through LST FRC, and modify itthrough SET FRC294
  98. 98. Page32Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.Downlink Power Control RestrictionThe power of downlink dedicated channel is limited by anupper and lower limit for each radio link.The DL DPDCH power could not exceed Maximum_DL_Power,nor could it be below Minimum_DL_Power.RLMAXDLPWR / RLMINDLPWRParameter name: RL Max / Min DL TX powerThe recommended value is shown in the following table.Note: Both downlink open loop and close loop power control will be limited by this parameter.RLMAXDLPWRParameter name: RL Max DL TX powerValue range : -350 to 150Physical Value Range:-35 to 15 dB, step 0.1dBContent: The maximum downlink transmit power of radio link. This parameter shouldfulfill the coverage requirement of the network planning, and the value is relative to[PCPICH transmit power]Set this parameter through ADD CELLRLPWR , query it through LST CELLRLPWR, andmodify it through MOD CELLRLPWRRLMINDLPWRParameter name: RL Min DL TX powerValue range : -350 to 150Physical Value Range:-35 to 15 dB, step 0.1dBContent: The minimum downlink transmit power of radio link. This parameter shouldconsider the maximum downlink transmit power and the dynamic range of power control,and the value is relative to [PCPICH transmit power].Since the dynamic range of power control is set as 15dB, this parameter isrecommended as [RL Max DL TX power] – 15 dB.Set this parameter through ADD CELLRLPWR, query it through LST CELLRLPWR, andmodify it through MOD CELLRLPWR295
  99. 99. Page33Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.Downlink Power Restriction ParametersReferential configurations for typical services:8-114384 kbps8-132256 kbps16-150144 kbps32-17-264 kbps64-19-432 kbps128-23-88 kbpsPS Domain32-15064 kbps32-15056 kbps64-17-232 kbps64-17-228 kbps128-18-312.2 kbps AMRCS DomainDownlink SFRL Min DownlinkTransmit PowerRL Max DownlinkTransmit PowerService296
  100. 100. Page34Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.Contents2. Open Loop Power Control2.1 Open Loop Power Control Overview2.2 PRACH Open Loop Power Control2.3 Downlink Dedicated Channel Open Loop Power Control2.4 Uplink Dedicated Channel Open Loop Power Control297
  101. 101. Page35Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.UL DPCCH Open Loop Power Control5. Downlink SynchronizationUE Node BServingRNCDCH - FPAllocate RNTISelect L1 and L2parametersRRCRRCNBAPNBAP3. Radio Link Setup ResponseNBAPNBAP2. Radio Link Setup RequestRRCRRC7. CCCH: RRC Connection Set upStart RXdescriptionStart TXdescription4. ALCAP Iub Data Transport Bearer SetupRRCRRC9. DCCH: RRC Connection Setup Complete6. Uplink SynchronizationNBAPNBAP8. Radio Link Restore IndicationDCH - FPDCH - FPDCH - FP1. CCCH: RRC Connection RequestOpen Loop PowerControl of UL DPCCHAccording to the RRC connection establishment procedure, after RNC sent the “RRCCONNECTION SETUP” message, UE will try to synchronize with NodeB, and theuplink DPCCH starts to transmit, here DPCCH initial transmission power is calculatedthrough open loop power control298
  102. 102. Page36Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.UL DPCCH Open Loop Power ControlThe initial power of the uplink DPCCH can be calculatedaccording to the following formula:WhereCPICH_RSCP means the received signal code power, the receivedpower measured on the CPICH.DPCCH_Power_Offset is provided by RNC to the UE via RRCsignaling.RSCP_CPICHOffset_Power_DPCCHPower_Initial_DPCCH −=For Huawei, DPCCH_Power_Offset is calculated with the following formula:WherePCPICH Transmit Power defines the PCPICH transmit power in a cell.UL Interference is the UL RTWP measured by the NodeB.Default Constant Value reflects the target Ec/No of the uplink DPCCHpreamble.ValuettanConsDefaultceInterferenULPowerTransmitPCPICHOffset_Power_DPCCH++=299
  103. 103. Page37Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.UL DPCCH Open Loop Power Control ParameterDEFAULTCONSTANTVALUEParameter name: Constant value configured by defaultThe recommended value is -27, namely -27dB.DEFAULTCONSTANTVALUEParameter name: Constant value configured by defaultValue range : -35 to -10 , unit :dBContent: This parameter is used to obtain DPCCH_Power_Offset, which is usedby UE to calculate the initial transmit power of UL DPCCH during the open looppower control process.Recommended value: -27Set this parameter through SET FRC, query it through LST FRC, and modify itthrough SET FRC300
  104. 104. Page38Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.Uplink Power Control RestrictionDuring the operation of uplink power control, the UEtransmit power shall not exceed the Maximum AllowedUplink Transmit Power.MAXALLOWEDULTXPOWERParameter name: Max allowed UE UL TX powerThe recommended value is 21, namely 21 dBm.MAXALLOWEDULTXPOWERParameter name: Max allowed UE UL TX powerValue range: -50 to 33Physical value range: -50 to 33 dBm. Step: 1Content: The maximum allowed uplink transmit power of a UE in the cell, whichis related to the network planning.Recommended value: 21Set this parameter through ADD CELLSELRESEL, query it through LSTCELLSELRESEL, and modify it through MOD CELLSELRESEL301
  105. 105. Page39Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.Uplink Power Control RestrictionIn addition, there are four parameters which correspond to the maximumallowed transmit power of four classes of services respectively:MAXULTXPOWERFORCONVParameter name: Max UL TX power of Conversational serviceMAXULTXPOWERFORSTRParameter name: Max UL TX power of Streaming serviceMAXULTXPOWERFORINTParameter name: Max UL TX power of Interactive serviceMAXULTXPOWERFORBACParameter name: Max UL TX power of Background serviceThe recommended value is 24, namely 24 dBm.MAXULTXPOWERFORCONVParameter name: Max UL TX power of Conversational serviceMAXULTXPOWERFORSTRParameter name: Max UL TX power of Streaming serviceMAXULTXPOWERFORINTParameter name: Max UL TX power of Interactive serviceMAXULTXPOWERFORBACParameter name: Max UL TX power of Background serviceValue range: -50 to 33Physical value range: -50 to 33 dBm. Step: 1Content: The maximum UL transmit power for specific service in the cell, whichis related to the network planning.Recommended value: 24Set this parameter through ADD CELLCAC, query it through LST CELLCAC,and modify it through MOD CELLCAC302
  106. 106. Page40Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.Contents1. Power Control Overview2. Open Loop Power Control3. Closed Loop Power Control303
  107. 107. Page41Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.Contents3. Closed Loop Power Control3.1 Closed Loop Power Control Overview3.2 Uplink Inner Loop Power Control3.3 Downlink Inner Loop Power Control3.4 Outer Loop Power Control304
  108. 108. Page42Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.Closed Loop Power Control OverviewWhy closed loop power control is needed?Open loop power control is not accurate enough, it can onlyestimate the initial transmission power.Closed loop power control can guarantee the QoS withminimum power. By decreasing the interference, the systemcapacity will be increased.Inner LoopOuter LoopSIRtarSIRmea>SIRtar→ TPC=0SIRmea<SIRtar→ TPC=1UntilSIRmea=SIRtarTPCBLERtarBLERmea>BLERtar→SIRtarBLERmea<BLERtar→SIRtarUntilBLERmea=BLERtarTPC=1 PowerTPC=0 PowerInner Loop Power ControlThe receiver compares SIRmea (measured SIR) with SIRtar (target SIR), and decide the TPC tosend.If SIRmea is greater than SIRtar, the TPC is set as “0” to increase transmission powerIf SIRmea is less than SIRtar, the TPC is set as “1” to decrease transmission powerTPC is sent to the transmitter in DPCCH, the transmitter will adjust the power according to thevalue of received TPC.Through inner loop power control, the SIRmea can be ensured to approach SIRtar.Outer Loop Power ControlThe receiver compares BLERmea (measured BLER) with BLERtar (target BLER), and decide howto set the SIRtar.If BLERmea is greater than BLERtar, the SIRtar is increasedIf BLERmea is less than BLERtar, the SIRtar is decreasedThe adjusted SIRtar is sent for the inner loop power control, then it will be used in previousprocess to guide the transmitter power adjustment.Through outer loop power control, the BLERmea can be ensured to approach BLERtar.305
  109. 109. Page43Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.Contents3. Closed Loop Power Control3.1 Closed Loop Power Control Overview3.2 Uplink Inner Loop Power Control3.3 Downlink Inner Loop Power Control3.4 Outer Loop Power Control306
  110. 110. Page44Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.Uplink Inner Loop Power ControlNodeB compares the measured SIR to the preset target SIR, then derivesTPC and sends the TPC Decision to UE.TPC Decision( 0, 1 )Generate TPC_cmd( -1, 0, 1 )Adjust DPCCH Tx△DPCCH =△TPC×TPC_cmdSingle RL / Soft HOPCA1 / PCA2Adjust DPDCH Tx( βc , βd )NodeB UETransmit TPCInner LoopSet SIRtarCompare SIRmea with SIRtarSIRmea > SIRtar → TPC = 0SIRmea ≤ SIRtar → TPC = 1RNC sends SIRtar (target SIR) to NodeB and then NodeB compares SIRmea (measuredSIR) with SIRtar once every timeslot.If the estimated SIR is greater than the target SIR, NodeB sends TPC “0” to UEon downlink DPCCH TPC field.Otherwise, NodeB sends TPC “1” to UE.After reception of one or more TPC in a slot, UE shall derive a single TPC_cmd (TPCcommand, with value among -1,0,1):For UE is in soft handover state, more than one TPC is received in a slot, sofirstly multiple TPC_cmd is combined.Two algorithms could be used by the UE for deriving the TPC_cmd, those arePCA1 and PCA2 (PCA means Power Control Algorithm).When deriving the combined TPC_cmd, UE shall adjust the transmit power of uplinkDPCCH with a step “UL Closed Loop Power Control Step Size“, as following:△DPCCH =△TPC×TPC_cmdThis adjustment is executed on the DPCCH, then associated DPDCH transmit poweris calculated according to DPDCH / DPCCH power ratio βd / βc.307
  111. 111. Page45Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.Uplink Inner Loop PCA1 with Single Radio LinkFor single radio link and PCA1, UE derives one TPC_cmd in eachtime slot as follows:0110110110…… ………… ……TPC_cmdTPC-111-111-111-1This control is performed in each time slot, sothe power control frequency is 1500HzWhen UE has single radio link, only one TPC will be received in each slot. In this case,the value of TPC_cmd shall be derived by PCA1 as follows:If the received TPC is equal to 0, then TPC_cmd for that slot is –1.If the received TPC is equal to 1, then TPC_cmd for that slot is 1.According to DPCCH channel structure, there are 15 time slots in a 10ms radio frame,and the control is performed once in each time slot, so the frequency of uplink innerloop PCA1 is 1500Hz.308
  112. 112. Page46Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.Uplink Inner Loop PCA2 with Single Radio LinkFor single radio link and PCA2, UE derives one TPC_cmd in each5-slot group as follows:This control is performed in each 5-slot group,so the power control frequency is 300Hz110111111100000TS14TS13TS12TS11TS10TS9TS8TS7TS6TS5TS4TS3TS2TS1TS010ms radio frameGroup 2Group 1 Group 3…… ……0000010000-10000TPCTPC_cmd…… ……When UE has single radio link, only one TPC will be received in each slot. In this case,the value of TPC_cmd shall be derived by PCA2 as follows:For the first 4 slots of a set, TPC_cmd = 0.For the fifth slot of a set, UE make the decisions on as follows:If all 5 TPC within a group are 1, then TPC_cmd = 1 in the 5th slot.If all 5 TPC within a group are 0, then TPC_cmd = -1 in the 5th slot.Otherwise, TPC_cmd = 0 in the 5th slot.According to DPCCH channel structure, there are 15 time slots in a 10ms radio frame,and the control is performed once in each 5-slot group, so the frequency of uplink innerloop PCA2 is 500Hz.309
  113. 113. Page47Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.Uplink Inner Loop with Soft HandoverWhen UE enters soft handover state, on the NodeB side,there are two phases :Uplink synchronization phaseMulti-radio link phaseOn UE side, UE will receive different TPCs from differentRLS in one time slot. Therefore, the UE should combine allthe TPCs to get a unique TPC_CMD.On the NodeB side, there are two phases during the soft handover state:Uplink synchronization phaseThe NodeB should send durative “TPC = 1” to the newly-added RL beforesuccessful synchronization.Multi-radio link phaseEach NodeB and each cell will estimate the SIR individually and the generalTPC individually. Therefore, the UE may receive different TPC from differentRLS.Especially, when UE is in softer handover state, it means UE has radio links to thesame NodeB, in this case, these RLs (Radio Link) belong to the same RLS (Radio LinkSet), and the all TPCs are the same from each RL.310
  114. 114. Page48Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.Uplink Inner Loop PCA1 with Soft HandoverFor each slot, combine TPC fromthe same RLS, then get WiCELL1 CELL2CELL4CELL3RL1-1 RL1-2RLS1RLS2 RLS3Get TPC_cmd based onTPC_cmd = γ (W1, W2, … WN)0110110110…… ……RLS1-TPC (W1)…… ……RLS2-TPC (W2) 1010101101…… ………… ……TPC_cmd1101100100-1-1-1-11-1-11-1-1RLS3-TPC (W3)When UE is in soft handover state, multiple TPC will be received in each slot fromdifferent cells in the active set. UE will generate the TPC_cmd by PCA1 as follows:1. Combine the TPC from the same RLS and derive the WiWhen the RLs (Radio Link) are in the same RLS (Radio Link Set), they willtransmit the same TPC in a slot. In this case, the TPCs from the same RLS shallbe combined into one.After combination, UE will obtain a soft symbol decision Wi for each RLSi.2. Combine the TPC from different RLSs and derive the TPC_cmdUE derives TPC_cmd, it is based on a function γ and all the N soft symboldecisions Wi:TPC_cmd = γ (W1, W2, … WN),Where TPC_cmd can only take the values 1 or -1.In Huawei implementation, the function γ shall fulfil the following criteria:If the TPCs from all RLSs are “1”, the output of γ shall be equal to “1” ;If one TPC from any RLS is “0”, the output of γ shall be equal to “-1”.311
  115. 115. Page49Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.Uplink Inner Loop PCA2 with Soft HandoverCombine TPC from same RLSin each time slotCalculate TPC_cmdIf any TPC_tempi = -1, TPC_cmd = -1If , TPC_cmd = 1Otherwise, TPC_cmd = 0Calculate TPC_tempi for each RLSi5.0_11>∑=NiitempTPCNCELL1 CELL2CELL4CELL3RL1-1 RL1-2RLS1RLS2 RLS3When UE is in soft handover state, multiple TPC will be received in each slot fromdifferent cells in the active set. UE will generate the TPC_cmd by PCA2 as follows:1. Combine the TPC from the same RLS.When the RLs are in the same RLS, they will transmit the same TPC in a slot. Inthis case, the TPCs from the same RLS shall be combined into one.2. Calculate the TPC_tempi for each RLSUE derives TPC_tempi through the same way in the last slide, as follows:For the first 4 slots of a group, TPC_tempi = 0.For the 5th slot of a group:If all 5 TPCs within a group are 1, then TPC_tempi = 1 in the 5th slot.If all 5 TPCs within a group are 0, then TPC_tempi = -1 in the 5th slot.Otherwise, TPC_tempi = 0 in the 5th slot.3. Calculate the TPC_cmdUE derives TPC_cmd through the following criteria:If any TPC_tempi is equal to -1, TPC_cmd is set to -1.If , TPC_cmd = 1Otherwise, TPC_cmd = 05.0temp_TPCN1 N1ii >∑=312
  116. 116. Page50Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.Uplink Inner Loop PCA2 with Soft HandoverRLS3RLS2RLS1 100100000000100100110000011111111110000011111TS14TS13TS12TS11TS10TS9TS8TS7TS6TS5TS4TS3TS2TS1TS0…… ……10ms/frameGroup 1 Group 2 Group 3RLS3RLS2RLS1 00000-100000000000000-100001000010000-1000010000TS14TS13TS12TS11TS10TS9TS8TS7TS6TS5TS4TS3TS2TS1TS0…… ……TPCTPC_tempi00000-1000010000TS14TS13TS12TS11TS10TS9TS8TS7TS6TS5TS4TS3TS2TS1TS0…… ……TPC_cmdThe example of the uplink inner loop PCA2 in soft handover state.313

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