The production and productivity of Wheat crop were quite low, when
India became independent in 1947.
The productivity was merely 663 kg per hectare during 1950-51, which
was not sufficient to feed the Indian population.
The Country used to import Wheat in large quantities for fulfilling the
needs of our people from many countries like USA.
Reasons of low production and productivity of
Wheat at that time was:Higher susceptibility to diseases.
The higher sensitivity to thermo & photo
Several policy decisions and actions were taken by
Government of India from time to time to increase
production and productivity in the country.
The Ministry of Agriculture, Govt. of India launched and
implemented various Centrally Sponsored/ Central Sector
Schemes, namely, IADP(intensive agriculture district
programme) (1960-61), High Yielding Varieties
Wheat is the second most produced cereal in the
Provides a large fraction of the dietary protein and
total food supply, and is grown all throughout the
In India,wheat is grown as rabi crop (refers
to agricultural crops sown in winter and harvested in
The normal National productivity is about 2703
Major Wheat producing States are Uttar Pradesh,
Punjab, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Bihar,
These States contribute about 99.5% of total Wheat
production in the country.
Kingdom: Plantae (Plants)
Division: Magnoliophyta ( Flowering plants )
Class: Liliopsida (Monocotyledons)
Family: Poaceae (Grass family)
Genus: Triticum (wheat)
Species: Triticum aestivum - common
An average composition of wheat is –
Composition of Wheat
Classification of wheat on the basis of their chromosomal numbers-:
Diploid (having 7 pairs of
Tetraploid (having 14 pairs of
Einkorn wheat (T.monococcum)• Triticum dicoccum- also called
Also called one grained wheat.it is
starch wheat or two grained
one of the oldest wheats. It is not
used much for baking but primarily • Cultivated in
for animal feed.
Hexaploid (having 21 pairs of
Club wheat (T.compactum) –
Also known as dwarf or hedgehog
Plants are well adapted to poor
Commonly grown in central
Polish Wheat(T.polonicum) grown in spain,Italy,turkey.
Spelt Wheat(T.spelta)Grown in spain &U.S.A.
Grown as food for livestock.
Poulard wheat(T.turgidum) –
Also known as English wheat.
Have no commercial use.
Common wheat (triticum
A chief source of bread.
Cultivated in india mainly.
Durum Wheat(T.durum)Plants have thick head with long
stiff beards &very hard,red
grains,which are rich in gluten.
Important varieties of wheat
Famous traditional varieties of wheat are –
Sehore (also known as Lahandosh or Chandoshi),
All these varieties perform well under organic management and have
excellent chapatti making quality.
Insect-pest of wheat &their
Termites can damage the crop at any stage of crop growth. Problem is more predominant
in rainfed areas than irrigated ones.
Use of undecomposed FYM under un-irrigated conditions can also increase the chances of
Use of Neem leaf manure or Neem seed manure in the soil at the time of sowing can
prevent termite attack.
Gujhia weevil attack germinating seedlings, resulting into high seedling mortality.
Neem leaf/seed manure can prevent their attack.
This insect feed on plants during the night
and hide during the day time. They also
damage leaves .
Spraying Neem leaf extract (5 kg Neem
leaves crushed in boiled water and diluted
to 100 liter) can effectively reduce the
Brown Wheat Mite, Aphids and Jassids
Intercropping of wheat with mustard and
safflower (100 gm seed of each mixed
with 100kg wheat at the time of sowing)
can effectively check the spread of
Diseases of Wheat Crop &their management
Rusts - Rusts are caused by three different species
of the fungi, Puccinia.
The small, round-oval spots (called pustules) of
brown rust (caused by Puccinia recondita
tritici) develop mainly on the leaves but under
severe attack, appear on sheath and stem as
Bright orange spots appear either in small
clusters or irregularly scattered spreads very
fast during warm and humid environmental
This rust is most widespread in the country and
generally the most damaging in many areas.
Brown rust on wheat stem
Yellow Rust : This rust is caused by the fungus, Puccinia strciformis.
Yellow spots develop mainly on the leaves.
The spots are oval in shape and lemon-yellow in
colour and are formed in long streaks or rows, and
smaller than those of brown rust.
Appearance of lemon-yellow pustules in rows is
characteristic feature of yellow rust.
Yellow rust is predominant in hills and north-western
part of the country where the temperatures are low.
In plains it does not cause much damage.
Black Rust:Black rust of wheat is caused by
Puccinia graminis tritici.
The spots occur on stem, leaf sheath,
leaves but the stem is often most
The spots are reddish-brown in colour
and elongated in shape. It spreads fast
under relatively warmer and humid
As the crop matures, dark, black,
elongated spots are formed.
Black rust on wheat
Management of Rusts
Most effective method for control of rust, is to grow
To protect the crop from rust infection, spray 5 liters
of sour buttermilk mixed with 200 litre of water.
Amaranth (chaulai or lal bhaji – a common green
leaf vegetable or Pudina leaf dust can also be used
as fine spray (25- 30 gm dry leaf powder per lit of
water) to prevent the infection of rusts.
Foliar spray of dry leaf extract of Hibiscus rosasinensis (China rose) can also prevent the rust
Kernal bunt is a common problem in northern India.
This disease is caused by fungus Neovossia indica.
The disease can be recognized only after the grains have
developed. A portion of the grain along its groove is
converted into a black powdery mass, which gives a foul
Flour prepared from wheat with more than 3 % infected
grains smells fishy and is unsafe for consumption.
Use disease free seeds.
Growing resistant varieties is best option.
Avoid continuous cropping of wheat in the same field.
Use of Mustard flour 1 kg and milk 5 liters mixed with 100 liter water as
Caused by Alternaria triticina.
Symptoms are Small oval or elliptical lesions surrounded
by yellow halo appear and subsequently they enlarge
becoming irregular in shape, the chlorotic borders of the
lesions may become diffused and turn light to dark
brown in colour.
Control measures : Use of certified seeds.
Seeds Should be treated before sowing with Vitavax 75
WP or Bavistin( 2.5gm /kg seed).
Cultivation of Wheat
Wheat is an annual grass cultivated mostly in all
moderately dry temperature climates.
It requires comparatively cool,moist,spring having 10
degree Celsius temperature at the time of sowing,warm
&bright days at the time of sprouting &dry harvest periods.
Wheat is grown best in areas having 35cm to 60cm annual
The best soils for wheat are clay &loams.
The best fertilizer used is barnyard manure.
In India,wheat is grown as rabi crop.The fields are
cleared and then ploughed 4-5 times before
Healthy &ripe seeds are sown in slightly moist
soil.Sowing generally starts in October &
continuous upto middle of November.
NPK fertilizer is added for better yield.
Harvesting of Wheat
The crop is harvested when the grains become hard and the
straw becomes yellow, dry and brittle.
In india,wheat is harvested between mid January to june.
Indian farmers use hooks,scythes &reaping machines for
cutting the culms & threshing machines for separating the
In some states like Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh etc.
harvesting & threshing is done by combine harvester at a
The maturity time of the crop differs from zone to zone and
so is the harvesting.
Tools &machines used for harvesting of wheat
Use of hooks for cutting
Man using scythe in wheat field
Combine harvester used for harvesting of wheat
Skin care products such as moisturizers, lotions, skin care serums and anti aging creams contain
hydrolyzed wheat protein to effectively preserve or improve skin moisture.
Hair care products on the other hand also improve their quality with hydrolyzed wheat protein as an
ingredient. This increases the overall strength of the hair right up to the roots; it makes hair more
Botanical name – Oryza sativa
• Rice is a kharif crop(Kharif
crop, refers to the planting,
cultivation and harvesting of any
domesticated plant sown in the
Rice plant are annual grasses that
attain a height of about 2-4 feet.
A mature rice plant consists of :PANICLE
Each grain is sorrounded by a husk.
Grains are detached from the plant along with
the brown husk &this grain with husk is called
Rice varieties in India
In India,there are about 1107 varieties of rice.they differ in color,shape,size,flavour &other
characteristics.Some of these varieties are given below-
Composition of Rice
The other substances found in rice include vitamin
Insects/pests causing damage to rice
Examples of root feeders are termites (order Isoptera) and the rice
Adult water weevil feeds on the leaves and causes little damage
while the larvae feed on the roots and severely reduce the root
system. Plants with reduced root systems grow poorly and have
Use of insecticides can kill the root feeders.
The stem borers, generally considered the most
serious pests of rice worldwide, occur and infest
plants from seedling stage to maturity.
Fifty species in three families-Pyralidae,
Lepidoptera, and Diopsidae (Diptera)—are known
to attack the rice crop
Diopsis have been recorded as rice stem borers.
Feeding in the stem during the vegetative growth
stage of the plant (seedling to stem elongation)
causes death of the plant.
Damaged shoots do not produce a panicle, and
thus, produce no grain.
Leafhoppers and Planthoppers
The leafhoppers attack all aerial parts of the plant whereas the
planthoppers attack the basal portions .
The leafhoppers and planthoppers (order Hemiptera) are sucking
insects which remove plant sap from the xylem and phloem
tissues of the plant.
These insects are severe pests in Asia.where they not only cause
direct damage, by removing plant sap, but are also vectors of
serious rice virus diseases, such as rice tungro virus transmitted by
the green leafhopper & grassy stunt virus transmitted by the brown
stem of rice plant
Defoliation reduces the photosynthetic capacity of the rice plant and thereby decreases
A large group of insects belonging to several insect orders feed on rice leaves. Most common
are the larvae and adults of beetles (order Coleoptera) and grasshoppers (order Orthoptera)
Foliar sprays, which act on the larvae and on the adult moths and
eggs, also come into greater contact with natural enemies of the
Most biological control of stem borers in tropical Asia and Africa
comes from indigenous predators, parasites. The conservation of
these valuable organisms is the key to development of stable and
successful integrated pest management (IPM) systems.
Numerous parasitoids have been reported attacking the eggs,
larvae and pupae of the rice leaffolder.
judicious use of selective insecticides in rice is necessary.
Developing Insect Resistant Rice Varieties.
Rice Cultivation & harvesting
Rice grows best in hot moist tropics&requires an average temperature of 2025 degree Celsius,a warm &bright sun,an average rain fall of 120-150 cm
&damp soil which can easily be flooded.
Before plantation the field is prepared by ploughing it thoroughly.
The rice seeds are grown in seed beds.
About 9-10 inches tall seedlings are planted
in mud in rows.
The mature plants turns yellow.
Fully mature plants with ripened seeds are
harvested by cutting their stalks.
The stacks of stocks are then allowed to dry.
Grains remain protected inside the
husk,known as dhaan or paddy.
The husk is removed only before use.
1. Main staple food of a large section of world population.
2. Rice bran is used as salad oil,for the preparation of soaps,cosmetics,rust resistene oil& as
3. Husk is used as fuel,bedding material for animals.
4. Husk is also used for preparation of activated carbon,sodium silicate & silicon.
5. Straw is used for the preparation of hats,shoes & other articles.