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Emotional intelligence


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  • 1. Emotional Intelligence History and Significance
  • 2. Paradigm/Definition• There is an intelligence based on emotion, and people who have this capacity are less depressed, healthier, more enjoyable, and have better relationships• A form of social intelligence that involves the ability to monitor one’s own and others’ feelings and emotions, to discriminate among them, and to use this information to guide one’s thinking and action
  • 3. Paradigm/Definition• The ability to perceive emotions; to access and generate emotions so as to assist thought; to understand emotions and emotional knowledge; and to reflectively regulate emotions so as to promote emotional and intellectual growth
  • 4. Plato• 2,000 years when Plato wrote, “All learning has an emotional base.”
  • 5. Contributors• David Wechsler, Edward Thorndike, Howard Gardner, Wayne Payne, Reuven Bar-On, MSC (Mayer, Salovey, Caruso), and Daniel Goleman.
  • 6. Researchers/Writers• Daniel Goleman – writer -Emotional Intelligence• John Mayer and Peter Salovey –researchers – non-cognitive aspects of intelligence; they defined emotional intelligence in 1990
  • 7. Researchers/Writers• David Wechsler• The global capacity of the individual to act purposefully, to think rationally, and to deal effectively with his environment• intelligence was comprised of “non-intellective” and “intellective” elements.• 1943, he proposed that “non-intellective” elements were crucial for predicting a person’s ability to succeed in life
  • 8. Researchers/Writers• Edward Thorndike was a psychologist who developed an important distinction between three broad classes of intellectual functioning in the late 1930’s – abstract intelligence – mechanical intelligence – social intelligence
  • 9. Researchers/Writers• Thorndike – abstract intelligence- measured by testing – mechanical intelligence-the ability to visualize relationships among objects and understand how the physical world work – social intelligence - the ability to successfully function in interpersonal situations
  • 10. Researchers/Writers• Howard Gardner• Harvard Graduate School in Education developed a theory of multiple intelligences. He found seven types of intelligence that include: logical, linguistic, musical, spatial, kinaesthetic, intrapersonal, and interpersonal
  • 11. Researchers/Writers• Howard Gardner• seven types of intelligence that include:• logical• linguistic• musical• spatial• kinaesthetic• intrapersonal• interpersonal
  • 12. Researchers/Writers• Howard Gardner• 2 types that fit emotional intelligence• Intrapersonal intelligence - is the capacity to manage ourselves through knowing and understanding our feelings, wishes, needs, wants, and purpose• interpersonal intelligence- involves the ability to be sensitive to other people’s emotions and psychological states, and enables us to choose appropriate responses
  • 13. Researchers/Writers• Wayne Payne – 1985 doctoral student• coined the term “emotional intelligence”in the title of his dissertation.• A Study of Emotion: Developing Emotional Intelligence; Self-Integration; Relating to Fear, Pain, and Desire
  • 14. Researchers/Writers• Reuven Bar-On• developed the term “EQ,” or emotional quotient in 1985 to describe his approach to estimating social and emotional competence• part of numerous research projects• Bar-On and several colleagues are writing a two-volume series on the assessment of emotional and social intelligence
  • 15. Researchers/Writers• Mayer and Salovey• co-authored two academic papers in 1990• attempting to develop a method of scientifically measuring the difference between people’s ability in the area of emotion
  • 16. Researchers/Writers• Mayer and Salovey• Developed four branches of mental ability – perception, appraisal, and expression of emotion – emotional facilitation of thinking – understanding and analyzing emotions – reflective regulation of emotion to promote emotional and intellectual growth
  • 17. Mayer and Salovey Emotions •are sufficiently vivid and available that they can be generated as•prioritize thinking by directing attention to aids to judgment and memoryimportant information; concerning feelings; •emotional states differentially•emotional mood swings change the encourage specific problem-individual’s perspective from optimistic to solving approaches, such as whenpessimistic, encouraging consideration of happiness facilitates inductivemultiple points of view; reasoning and creativity
  • 18. Mayer and Salovey• ability to stay open to feelings, both pleasant and unpleasant;• to reflectively engage or detach from an emotion depending its judged utility;• to reflectively monitor emotions in relation to oneself and others;• to manage emotion in oneself and others by moderating negative emotions and enhancing positive emotions
  • 19. Goleman Aspects of Emotional Intelligence• Knowing one’s emotions• Managing emotions• Motivating oneself• Recognizing emotion in others• Handling relationships
  • 20. Goleman - Aspects of Emotional Intelligence• Knowing ones emotions - self-awareness and recognizing an emotion when it occurs• Managing emotions - handling emotions in a fashion to build on self-awareness• Motivating oneself - the ability to channel emotions in the service of a goal• Recognizing emotions in others, or empathy -the appreciation of the differences in people and the sensitivity to other’s feelings.• Handling relationships -managing emotions in others
  • 21. Emotional Intelligence tests• Emotional Competence Inventory 360 (ECI 360)• Bar-On EQ-i• MSCEIT – Mayer, Salovey and Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test• Work Profile Questionnaire (WPQei)
  • 22. Emotional Intelligence tests• Emotional Competence Inventory 360 (ECI 360) - measures the twenty-five competencies outlined in Goleman’s 1998 book• Bar-On EQ-i - tested on over 48,000 people worldwide. – gives an overall “EQ” score and scores of five composite scales. • interpersonal, intrapersonal, adaptability, stress management, and general mood.
  • 23. Emotional Intelligence tests• MSCEIT – Mayer, Salovey and Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test - measures the four branches of mental ability outlined in Mayer and Salovey’s model• Work Profile Questionnaire (WPQei) - tests the competencies and attributes as identified by Mayer, Salovey, and Goleman. – based on a model of emotional intelligence that is composed of seven intelligences
  • 24. Importance to business• Leaders must understand followers• Followers must understand leaders
  • 25. Importance of business• Emotional intelligence helps one’s ability to communicate – Method – Style
  • 26. Business Cases• Experienced partners in a multinational consulting firm were assessed on the EI competencies plus three others. Partners who scored above the median on 9 or more of the 20 competencies delivered $1.2 million more profit from their accounts than did other partners – a 139 percent incremental gain (Boyatzis, 1999).
  • 27. Business Cases• An analysis of more than 300 top-level executives from fifteen global companies showed that six emotional competencies distinguished stars from the average: Influence, Team Leadership, Organizational Awareness, self-confidence, Achievement Drive, and Leadership (Spencer, L. M., Jr., 1997).
  • 28. Business Cases• Salespeople selected on the basis of emotional competence also had 63% less turnover during the first year than those selected in the typical way (Spencer & Spencer, 1993; Spencer, McClelland, & Kelner, 1997).
  • 29. Business Cases• Research by the Center for Creative Leadership has found that the primary causes of derailment in executives involve deficits in emotional competence. The three primary ones are difficulty in handling change, not being able to work well in a team, and poor interpersonal relations.
  • 30. Paving the WayAssess the organization’s needs: Determine the competencies that are most critical for effective job performance in a particular type of job.
  • 31. Paving the WayAssess the individual:This assessment should be based on the key competencies needed for a particular job
  • 32. Paving the WayAssess the individual:This assessment should be based on the key competencies needed for a particular job
  • 33. Paving the Way• Deliver assessments with care• Maximize learner choice• Encourage people to participate• Link learning goals to personal values• Adjust expectations: Build positive expectations• Gauge readiness for training
  • 34. Paving the Way• Make change self-directed• Set clear goals• Break goals into manageable steps• Provide opportunities to practice• Give performance feedback• Rely on experiential methods: Active, concrete, experiential methods tend to work best for learning social and emotional competencies.
  • 35. Paving the Way• Build in support• Use models: Use live or videotaped models that clearly show how the competency can be used in realistic situations.• Enhance insight• Prevent relapse• Encourage use of skills on the job
  • 36. Paving the Way• Develop an organizational culture that supports learning• Evaluate - One-year follow-ups are desirable