Graham KeatingCareers ConsultantAgenda•Psychometric Testing – What’s involved•How to prepare a CV from Scratch•Interview Skills•Networking
Graham KeatingPsychometrician Psychometric Testing
Dictionary:Psychometrics (n) ‘The branch of psychology that deals with the design, administration, and interpretation of quantitative tests for the measurement of psychological variables such as intelligence, aptitude, and personality traits.’
2+2=?“Numeracy tests are useless; they test nothing.” (Manchester student)
AGR Survey92% of employers considered psychometric testing to be a useful or very useful aid to the recruitment process.(Association of Graduate Recruiters survey)
Psychometric Tests used inRecruitment1. Ability or Aptitude Tests• Verbal• Numerical• Logical2. Personality or Interest Inventories
Why do employers use tests?• To identify key abilities or personalities• To support other selection tools
Selection Tools Tests are usually part of the selection process together with:• application forms and CVs• interviews• group exercises• presentations
Selection Methods -Advantages • Application Forms... good for checking facts, demonstrating written communication skills • Interviews... good for oral communication skills, quickness of thought, personality • Psychometric Tests... good for measuring candidates’ abilities/personality against objective criteria (and other candidates)
Selection Methods –Disadvantages • Application Forms.... measures ability to fill in form - not to do the job • Interviews... intensely subjective, they might not like the look of you • Psychometric Tests no good for seeing how an individual works with others
Characteristics of TestsAbility or Aptitude Tests• Under exam conditions• Usually timed• Right and wrong answers • Unusual to finish all questions• Results compared with norm group
Complete the following sentence with the appropriate pairof words belowAnswer - A, B, C, D or E (Time allowed 20 seconds) Early….………..of hearing loss is …….….….by the fact that the other senses are able to compensate for moderate amounts of loss, so that people frequently do not know that their hearing is imperfect. A. discovery & indicated B. development & prevented C. detection & complicated D. treatment & facilitated E. incidence & corrected
The driving time for a 100 mile trip from Townsville to Cityville wastwo and a half hours. The return trip was made by the same route butat an average speed that was 50% faster. What was the total amountof driving time for the entire round trip? (Time allowed 1 minute)A 3hrs 45 minutesB 4hrs 10 minutesC 4hrs 16 minutesD 4hrs 45 minutesE 6hrs 15 minutes
Answer B• 1st trip 100 miles in 2 hours 30 minutes = 40mph• 2nd trip 50% faster = 60mph• 100 miles at 60 mph = 1⅔ hours = 1 hour 40 minutes• 2 hours 30 minutes + 1 hour 40 minutes = 4hours 10 minutes Next specimen question
In the example given below, you will find a logical sequence of five boxes. Your taskis to decide which of the boxes in the bottom row completes this sequence. To giveyour answer, select one of the boxes marked A to E. (Time allowed 30 seconds) + ) [+ ) [ +) [ ) [ ) [+ + A B C D E + ) [+ ( [ ) [ ) [ +( [ + +
In the example given below, you will find a logical sequence of five boxes.Your task is to decide which of the boxes in the bottom row completesthis sequence.To give your answer, select one of the boxes marked A to E. (Time allowed 30 seconds) A B C D E
Characteristics of TestsPersonality or Interest Inventories• Not usually timed• No right and wrong answers• Contain internal checks for inconsistent answers• Results in the form of a profile should be shared with candidate
Personality or Interest Inventories Example question Mark the statement most (M) like you and the one least (L) like youa) I don’t feel that time is wasted on planningb) I feel uneasy in the company of unconventional peoplec) If I’m annoyed with someone I don’t show it
Personality or Interest Inventories Example questionPick the statement that best describes youfrom each paira) I try very hardb) I put everything in its placea) I want to be excitingb) I want to be successfula) I like to try new thingsb) I’d rather not work on my own
How to prepare• Practise as much as possible• Become familiar with test conditions• Brush up basic maths - percentages, ratios, etc• Use reference books in the Careers Service• Use examples and practice tests on SHL & others’ websiteshttp://www.manchester.ac.uk/careers/applicationsinterviewsandpsychometrictests/psychometrictests/• Profiling for Success – On-line tests licensed for Manchester students; free of charge.
CVs and Covering LettersThe purpose of theCV is...... ......to get an interview
The Market• It is very competitive• An organisation might receive up to 100 applications per vacancy• Typically, only about 10% to 15% gain an interview• You don’t get a second chance
C.V. Facts or the myth of the perfect C.V.• C.V.s should be _ pages long• C.V.s should be in chronological order• C.V.s should include referees’ names and addresses• C.V.s should include - date of birth nationality sex marital status• C.V.s take days to write and minutes to read
Task no: 1 - Self AssessmentWhat have you got to offer ?• Education• Work Experience• Activities and Interests
Task no: 1 - Self AssessmentWhat have you got to offer ?• Education Seminars Presentations• Work Experience Camp America Waiter, local restaurant• Activities and Interests Secretary - Badminton club Travel
Task no: 1 - Self Assessment What have you got to offer ?• Education Seminars - presentation skills, working in a team, influencing others• Work Experience Camp America - taking responsibility, patience, tact, sensitivity, creativity, leadership• Activities and Interests Secretary, organising, persuading, Badminton club- motivating, numeracy
Three advanced suggestions• Use strong words• Quantify• Stress personal involvement
Use strong words• Words like: created, started, managed, designed, devised...• NOT ‘My project was a study of local theatres’• BUT ‘ I organised an extensive survey of student use of local theatres. I arranged interviews with students, analysed the results and presented the information to my tutor
And ……Quantify‘ I organised an extensive survey of student use of local theatres, involving over 1000 questionnaires. I arranged interviews with 80 students, analysed the results using Microsoft Excel and presented the information to my tutor’
Stress personal involvement and results• NOT ‘We organised a charity fund raising event’• BUT ‘I was responsible for the publicity for a fund raising event which involved negotiating advertising with local companies and arranging posters on campus. We managed to raise £1000 for charity and over 800 students attended’.
Task no: 2 - What does theemployer want ?• Employers recruit against specific criteria• These are usually set out in brochures or on their websites• All require appropriate personal qualities• It is not enough to claim certain skills, you must provide the evidence
Key Skills Requested By GraduateRecruiters• Business focus, Drive and resilience, Task management, Career motivation, Leadership, Building relationships, Problem Solving, Making an Impact• Communication, Teamwork and collaboration, Adaptability, Creative problem solving, Drive to achieve, Customer focus, Trustworthiness, Taking ownership, Passion for Business• Customer focus, Achieving, Influencing, Thinking, Collaboration & Teamwork, Team Leadership, Self Management, Confidence, Commercial Awareness• Problem solving, Achieving results, Communicating and influencing, Leadership, Drive and motivation, Building relationships• Analytical Ability, Problem-solving skills, Communication skills, Interpersonal skills, Generic business awareness• KPMG - The Co-operative - HSBC - Cancer Research UK - IBM
Key Skills Requested By Graduate .RecruitersIBMCommunication, Teamwork and collaboration. Adaptability, Creative problem solving,Drive to achieve, Customer focus, Trustworthiness, Taking ownership, Passion for BusinessThe Co-operativeCustomer focus, Achieving, Influencing, Thinking, Collaboration & TeamworkTeam Leadership, Self Management, Confidence, Commercial AwarenessKPMGBusiness focus, Drive and resilience, Task management, Career motivation, Leadership,Building relationships, Problem Solving, Making an ImpactCancer Research UKProblem solving, Achieving resultsLeadership. Drive and motivation, Communicating & influencing, Building relationshipsHSBCAnalytical ability, problem-solving skills, communication and interpersonal skills and somegeneric business awareness.
Core skills employers look for• Communication skills• Organising ability• Problem-solving• Working in a team• Drive and initiative• Taking responsibility• Working under pressure
When to use a C.V.• When you are asked to !• When they say ‘apply in writing’• For speculative applications• When networking
Covering letters• This is your trailer to the main feature• One page, A4, quality paper• Should include two major themes: - Why you want the job (and organisation) - Why you are suitable
Covering letters• Write to a named individual, if possible• Tell employer what you are applying for (and where you saw it advertised)• Be positive• Emphasise your USPs, don’t simply copy CV• End letter with spirit of expectation
CV’sSPELL CHECKER – A WARNINGI like my new spell checker.It came with my PC.It plainly marques four my revue,Mistakes I can not sea.I’ve run these verses threw it,I’m sure your please two no.It’s letter perfect in its weigh,My checker tolled me sew.
Previous applications… “I enjoy practicing marital arts” “At secondary school I was a prefix” “In my spare time I enjoy hiding my horse” “I loathe filling in applications so much that I’ll give you details at the interview” “Special skills: Thyping” “Thank you for your consideration. Hope to hear from you shorty” “I have worked in the pubic sector……” “Hi I want 2 get a job with U”
Previous applications…“I am someone who knows my own destiny, but I have no definite long term plans”“I am a conscious individual”“I have excellent memory skills, good analytical skills, excellent memory skills”Reason for leaving last job. “They insisted that all employees get to work by 8.45 every morning. I could not work under those conditions.”Problems faced: “I had no support so I compiled a letter to the client using trial and error.”Influencing people: “Recently my flatmates came to ask about whether the heating should be on and for how long.”
Previous applications…“Being a Virgoan, my sense of assertiveness and resilience has prompted me to continue with my ambition to be a solicitor in a major city law firm. I am also a seventh generation descendant of a Chinese princess and a Sulawesian warrior, which makes me both an amiable and energetic person”
YOU SHOULD KNOW…• 50% of those interviewed are rejected at the first round, so … First impressions count! 51
INTERVIEW CONCERNS• How should I dress• Arrival / greeting• Taking items into the interview• How should I sit• To gesture or not to gesture• Difficult questions - (later) 52
YOU NEVER GET A SECOND CHANCE TO MAKE A FIRST IMPRESSION“I travelled down to London for an important interview.The train was a little late so I just had enough time to get to the building and rush in.The interview seemed to go well and I felt confident until I visited the washroom on the way out.I had been reading the newspaper on the train and in my nervous sweaty state the newsprint must have rubbed off onto my handsIt was now all over my face!”Chemistry Graduate 53
YOU NEVER GET A SECOND CHANCE TO MAKE A FIRST IMPRESSION - (CONTINUED)“One of my colleagues once found her interviewee asleep in the foyer. Getting enough sleep may be an important part of interview preparation, but this was taking it too far!On top of that the candidate demonstrated a sleepy laid back attitude throughout the interview, which didn’t go down very well either.”Geraldine Lyons - Mars 54
WHAT AN INTERVIEW IS ..• A conversation with a purpose• Adult• Two way• Science no, emotional yes 55
WHAT AN INTERVIEW ISN’T• A scheme to humiliate you• An interrogation• Perfect 56
DIFFERENT TYPES OF INTERVIEW• One to one • Conventional• Panel chronological• Sequential • Behavioural• Telephone • Situational • Combination of all of the above 57
STRUCTURED INTERVIEWS• Behavioural: Describe a time when you’ve ‘gone the extra mile’ in your dealings with another person• Situational: You have just arrived at a clients office, only to discover you have left all of your notes back at the office what would you do?
DIFFICULT QUESTIONS• Before the interview consider the following:-• Personality• The job• The company/ competition• Your achievements and skills / work experience• Your strengths• Your weaknesses• Your questions
WHAT EMPLOYERS WANT• Know what the employer wants• Usually easy to identify – Brochures, ads, presentations, company website. – Do your homework – many applicants don’t… Emphasis on Attitude as well as Aptitude – Being clever is not enough – Employers look for characteristics which define you as somebody they want
THE PATH TO SUCCESSKnow yourselfWhat can you offer an employer?Give a rounded view: Education / Work Experience/Activities & InterestsAssess critical incidents and identify what you havelearned, the skills you developedFocus on knowledge, skills, abilities and RESULTSHave specific examples in mind: EVIDENCE
WORK EXPERIENCE“One candidate, when asked what she found challenging about her previous work experience, said that working in a fast food restaurant had taught her to ‘work with stupid people with stupid problems.’ I did not really feel she had the patience to deal with the average lay clientSally MarsdenPannone & Partners - Solicitors
THE COMPETITION“ I was being interviewed for a job on the Daily Express. I rashly claimed that the paper was ‘unlike the Sun, because only morons work for the Sun.’ At which point one interviewer turned to the other and said; ‘it’s been almost a year since we worked there hasn’t it?’”English Graduate
WHAT’S THE QUESTION?• Interviewer: “Who would you most like to have dinner with; either living or dead.”• Applicant: “ Preferably someone living.”
SUMMARY• Prepare for success• Practice with a friend• Don’t underestimate the importance of first impressions• Don’t panic• They would like to give you the job• Leave a good impression• Be positive, enthusiastic, natural, honest, happy
The Networking Game…..Finding out aboutjobs & careers
Who is in the know ? –a look at the job market Adverts 6% 8% Agencies / Headhunters 22% Contacts 64% Internal moves & promotions
Creative Job ResearchWhat is Networking?• A way of asking for help – Information & advice• A key way to find jobs or leads for jobs• People do it all the time – Getting a decent plumber / builder – Getting help with an IT problem
NetworkingMost people want to help...• Most people like to be asked for their advice.. a sign of recognition• One good turn deserves another...you may be in a position to help them – your views / comments etc
Creative Information Hunting Networking leads to success.... • Its all about being proactive …Contact organisations you are interested in and arrange to speak to them or meet with employers who visit campus and pick their brains • Try it. It works. • It takes time to succeed.....but once set up this skill can be developed and serve you well for years
Networking:Good things to ask• How did you get into this occupation?• What attracted you to this occupation?• What is the progression of jobs from entry level to more senior positions?• What is a typical day like for you?• What skills, abilities and attitude do you need to be successful in this occupation?• What changes do you see in this field in the next few years?• How does your organisation tend to recruit?• Do they ever take people for voluntary projects?
Everyone has Contacts But I don’t know anyone ...• Friends / relatives / neighbours• Other students• Tutors• Work colleagues• Employers - recruitment events, presentations, insight courses, mentoring programmes, careers consultants!
What the Careers Service offers • Guidance appointments • Advice on CVs & applications • Talks • Insight courses • Careers Fairs • Mock Interviews • Practice psychometric tests • Mentoring • Blogs • facebook • Resource centre • Graduate directories and take away information • Vacancy service and lots more………..
Careers Resource CentreCrawford House –Entranceon Booth Street East(opposite the Aquatics Centre)AppointmentsPhone : 0161 275 2829 www.manchester.ac.uk/careers
THANKS FOR LISTENING!GOOD LUCK FOR THE FUTURE!