Definition of soil
Causes of soil
Effects of soil
Solutions for soil
We would like to express my special thanks of
gratitude to my teacher Indu Mam who gave us the
golden opportunity to do this wonderful project on
the topic Soil Pollution which also helped us in doing a
lot of Research and we came to know about so many
1. Deforestation : It is the removal of a forest or stand of trees where
the land is thereafter converted to a non-forest use . Deforestation
also loosens the soil and hence leads to soil erosion , Land that is
once converted into a dry or barren land, can never be made fertile
again. Hence deforestation is one of the major reason to soil
2. Agricultural activities: With growing human population, demand for
food has increased considerably. Farmers often use highly toxic
fertilizers and pesticides to get rid off insects, fungi and bacteria from
their crops. However with the overuse of these chemicals, they result
in contamination and poisoning of soil.
Pesticides being sprayed
3. Unskilled irrigation: Water logging may occur when the
drainage system of the agricultural field is not maintained
scientifically. Water logging closes the passage of air to the
soil, stops the growth of soil organisms and makes the soil
4. Overcrowded landfills: Each household produces tones of garbage
each year. Garbage like aluminum, plastic, paper, cloth, wood is
collected and sent to the local recycling unit. Items that can not be
recycled become a part of the landfills and hence pollute the soil.
5. Mining Activities : Mining is also a source of land pollution. Huge
holes are dug in mining, and these holes form can pose a hazard to
us as they form deep mining pools. Metals like cadmium and lead
will be deposited, which are toxic, contaminating the soil. This will
leave the mining land barren and unable to use again .
6. Shifting cultivation: In it, the forest is burnt to use the land for
cultivation, until the soil loses it’s fertility. Once the land
becomes inadequate for crop production, it is left barren and
hence it leads to soil erosion. This method is mostly used by
example of Shifting
7. Acid rain : Soil is also affected by acid rain as it
converts the neutralized soil to acidic one. Hence
making it barren and unproductive.
1.Soil erosion : soil erosion leads to loss of top cover
of the soil and hence leads to loss of fertile land for
agriculture, forest cover, fodder patches for grazing
2. Change in climate patterns: The effects of soil pollution
are very hazardous and can lead to the loss of ecosystems.
When land is polluted, it directly or indirectly affects
the climate patterns.
3. Contamination of underground and surface drinking water.
4. Environmental Impact: When deforestation is committed, the tree cover is
compromised on. This leads to a steep imbalance in the rain cycle. A
disturbed rain cycle affects a lot of factors. To begin with, the green cover is
reduced. Trees and plants help balance the atmosphere, without them we
are subjected to various concerns like Global warming, the green house
effect, irregular rainfall and flash floods among other imbalances.
Inadequate rain fall , global
warming , greenhouse
5. Effect on human health: The land when contaminated with
toxic chemicals and pesticides lead to problem of skin
cancer and human respiratory system. The toxic chemicals
can reach our body through foods and vegetables that we
eat as they are grown in polluted soil.
soil leads to :
6. Cause Air pollution: Landfills across the city keep on
growing due to increase in waste and are later burned
which leads to air pollution. They become home for
rodents, mice etc which in turn transmit diseases.
Distraction for Tourist: The city looses its attraction as
tourist destination as landfills do not look good when you
move around the city. It leads to loss of revenue for the
And hence city
8. Effect on wildlife: The animal kingdom has suffered mostly in the past
decades. They face a serious threat with regards to loss of habitat and
natural environment. The constant human activity on land, is leaving
it polluted; forcing these species to move further away and adapt to
new regions or die trying to adjust. Several species are pushed to the
verge of extinction, due to no homeland.
Animals are forced to leave their home and are
mostly killed by vehicles
Animals on verge of extinction
9. Global Warming : soil pollution also leads to global
warming as the one of the main cause of soil erosion is
deforestation and due that there is a imbalance in the ratio
of oxygen and carbon dioxide . Hence there is a rise in
temperature leading to Global Warming.
10. Biomagnification : The discharge of
chemicals on land, makes it dangerous for the
ecosystem too. These chemicals are
consumed by the animals and plants and
thereby make their way in the ecosystem. This
process is called bio magnification and is a
serious threat to the ecology.
1. Make people aware about the concept of
Reduce, Recycle and Reuse
2.Reduce the use of pesticides and fertilizers in
3. Use biofertilizers and natural pesticides
Shift to biofertilizers
4. People should be encouraged to go for
5. Proper treatment of liquid wastes from industries and mines must be done.
liquid waste treatment of plant
6. As plastics are non-degradable so, We should
stop using plastic bags and switch over to
paper and cloth bags.
7. . Ensure that you do not litter on the ground and do proper disposal
8.Create dumping ground away from residential
9. Faulty sanitation practices must be improved.
10. Polluted soil can be treated by bioremediation. It
uses microorganisms (yeast, fungi or bacteria) to
breakdown, or degrades hazardous substances into
less toxic or non-toxic substances (such as CO2 and
We walk and survive on land. It is literally
the base of our ecosystem. It is in our
good interest to take care of it and
Made by : Bhaumik Patel
Jagjit Singh Bhamra