2. WHY THE NEW SET OF TOOLSTo structure the brainstorming processSimplifyRemove fearTo help create a comfort fit (minimaldependence on statistics)Improve penetrationIncrease application
3. LIST OF TOOLSAffinity DiagramInterrelationship diagraphTree DiagramMatrix DiagramsMatrix AnalysisPDPC, process decision program chartsArrow diagrams
4. AFFINITY DIAGRAMDefinitionAn Affinity Diagram is a special type of brainstorming process that is used for organising large groups of information into meaningful categories. It helps us to clarify and make sense of a large or complex problem
5. AFFINITY DIAGRAMProcess Record each idea on cards or notes Look for ideas that seem to be related Sort cards into groups until all cards have been used.
6. AFFINITY DIAGRAMExample
7. INTER RELATIONSHIP DIAGRAPHDefinitionThis tool displays all the interrelated cause-and-effect relationships and factors involved in a complex problem and describes desired outcomes. The process of creating an interrelationship diagraph helps a group analyze the natural links between different aspects of a complex situation.`
8. INTER RELATIONSHIP DIAGRAPHProcess Agree on the issue or question. Add a symbol to the diagram for every element involved in the issue. Compare each element to all others. Use an "influence" arrow to connect related elements. The arrows should be drawn from the element that influences to the one influenced. If two elements influence each other, the arrow should be drawn to reflect the stronger influence. Count the arrows. The elements with the most outgoing arrows will be root causes or drivers. The ones with the most incoming arrows will be key outcomes or results.`
9. INTER RELATIONSHIP DIAGRAPHExample
10. INTER RELATIONSHIP DIAGRAPHExampleThe inference is that Potential causes for late delivery are: ‘Poor scheduling practices’ (6 outgoing arrows), ‘Late order from customer’ (5 outgoing arrows), and ‘Equipment breakdown (3 outgoing arrows).
11. TREE DIAGRAMDefinitionThis tool is used to break down broad categories into finer and finer levels of detail. It can map levels of details of tasks that are required to accomplish a goal or task. It can be used to break down broad general subjects into finer and finer levels of detail. Developing the tree diagram helps one move their thinking from generalities to specifics.
12. TREE DIAGRAMProcess Develop a statement of the goal Ask a question that will lead you to the next level of detail. Brainstorm all possible answers. Write each idea in a line below. Show links between the tiers with arrows. Do a “necessary and sufficient” check. Are all the items at this level necessary for the one on the level above? Each of the new idea statements now becomes the subject: a goal, objective or problem statement. Continue to turn each new idea into a subject statement and ask the question, till you reach a root cause Do a “necessary and sufficient” check of the entire diagram. Are all the items necessary for the objective?
13. TREE DIAGRAMExample
14. MATRIX DIAGRAMDefinitionThis tool shows the relationship between items. At each intersection a relationship is either absent or present. It then gives information about the relationship, such as its strength, the roles played by various individuals or measurements. Six differently shaped matrices are possible: L, T, Y, X, C, R and roof- shaped, depending on how many groups must be compared.
15. MATRIX DIAGRAM ExampleA personnel department wanted to improve social activity within the company in orderto increase loyalty levels. A theory was put forwards that soft-skills training contributed significantly towards this in-house socializing. The personnel manager consequently decided to use a Matrix Diagram to investigate this. The steps taken were: Objective: Investigate effect of soft-skills training on social activity. Matrix: T-matrix, with people on main stem, in-house training courses to left, attendance of social clubs to right, plus an extra column for years of service. Comparison: In-house training - tick for attendance within last three years; social clubs - three bands corresponding to under 30%, 30% to 70% and over 70% attendance in the same period.
16. MATRIX DIAGRAMExample
17. MATRIX DIAGRAMExampleThe resultant matrix, showed that people with higher levels ofsocial training also tended to be more committed members ofsocial clubs. It was also noticed that there seemed to be aparticular increase in commitment after going on the team-buildingcourse. The length of service showed no particular pattern. As a result, the training was expanded, and people were given more encouragement to attend (particularly the team-building course). This resulted in a steady increase in social activity and a reduction in attrition rates.
18. PRIORITISATION MATRIXDefinitionThis tool is used to prioritize items anddescribe them in terms of weightedcriteria. It uses a combination of tree andmatrix diagramming techniques to do apair-wise evaluation of items and tonarrow down options to the most desiredor most effective.
19. PRIORITISATION MATRIXExampleProblemTo identify the most important factors effecting motivation ina team
20. PRIORITISATION MATRIXExample
21. PDPCDefinitionA useful way of planning is to break down tasksinto a hierarchy, using a Tree Diagram. ThePDPC extends the tree diagram a couple oflevels to identify risks and countermeasures forthe bottom level tasks. Different shaped boxesare used to highlight risks and identify possiblecountermeasures (often shown as clouds toindicate their uncertain nature). The PDPC issimilar to the Failure Modes and EffectsAnalysis (FMEA) in that both identifyrisks, consequences of failure, and contingencyactions; the FMEA also rates relative risk levelsfor each potential failure point.
22. PDPCProcess From the bottom level of some activity box, the PDPC adds levels for: •identifying what can go wrong (failure mode or risks) •consequences of that failure (effect or consequence) •possible countermeasures (risk mitigation action plan)
23. PDPCExampleA dress production team at a clothes manufacturer wasimproving the cutting-out process in order to minimizematerial wastage. They decided to use PDPC on the workbreakdown structure to identify potential problems and waysof avoiding them.As the most expensive element is the material itself, theydefined a significant risk as, Anything that might cause thecut cloth to be ruined, and viable countermeasures as,Anything that will reduce the risk, and which costs less than100 pieces of cloth .
25. PDPCExample As a result of this, the cutting was tested on cheapermaterial, resulting in the material clamp being redesigned toprevent drag, a start notch provided for the cutter and thegeneral area being inspected for sharp corners to minimizesnag problems. The cutting operator was involved in thePDPC process and the subsequent tests, resulting in her fullyunderstanding the process. The final cutting processthereafter ran very smoothly with very little error.
26. ACTIVITY NETWORK DIAGRAMDefinitionThis tool is used to plan the appropriate sequence or schedule for a set of tasks and related subtasks. It is used when subtasks must occur in parallel. The diagram enables one to determinethe critical path (longest sequence of tasks). (See also PERT diagram.)Two Types•Arrow on Node•Arrow on Arrow
27. ACTIVITY NETWORK DIAGRAMProcess In the activity on arrow (AOA) diagram each activity is represented by an arrow connecting two circles (nodes) The nodes represent transitions between activities – referred to as events The duration of an activity is written by the arrow representing it. Example shows activity (A), the duration of which is four days, between events 1 and 2.
28. ACTIVITY NETWORK DIAGRAM Process AOATime is denoted on AOA diagrams in the top and bottom right-hand quadrants of the nodes, thus: Earliest Start (ES) Time for any activity leaving event 3 Event Number Latest Finish (LS) Time for any activity entering event 3 (without putting the project as a whole behind schedule)
29. ACTIVITY NETWORK DIAGRAMProcess In the activity on node (AON) diagram, each activity is represented by a rectangular box – the arrows merely indicate precedence. AON networks do not need dummies to maintain logic of precedence. More information is normally included on the AON diagram. Most computer packages for project planning and control tend to use AON notation.
30. ACTIVITY NETWORK DIAGRAMProcess AONAON notations do vary, but below is the most commonly used Earliest Earliest Start time Duration finish time Activity Number and Activity description ES d EF Latest Total Float Latest Activity Start time finish time LS TF LF Shorthand notation