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Synthetic seed production By- Parvati Pujar
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Synthetic seed production By- Parvati Pujar


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  • 1. Parvati PujerUHS11PGM123
  • 2. INTRODUCTION Many fruit crops are difficult to multiply by conventional propagation methods and improve through traditional breeding programmes Among the innovative techniques of micro propagation, the concept of somatic embryogenesis with synthetic seed production or artificial seed technology is very promising Synthetic seed is referred to as encapsulated somatic embryos, which functionally mimic seeds and can develop into seedling under suitable conditions
  • 3. Contd…… Besides, research has also been focused on the use of vegetative propagules like axillary buds, adventitious buds, shoot-tips, cormels, bulbs and protocorms for production of synthetic seeds In general, for seed propagated crops outstanding hybrids can be multiplied through tissue culture and propagated by using synthetic seeds rapidly
  • 4. Advantages Direct delivery of tissue cultured plants to the field Propagation of desirable genotypes with genetic uniformity Reduction in cost of vegetative propagated elite plants Preservation of germplasm and convenience in germplasm exchange Reduction in dormancy period Large production identical embryos in short time It can be produced through out the year
  • 5. Synthetic Seeds Synthetic seeds: It is living seed-like structure derived from somatic embryoids in vitro culture after encapsulation by a hydrogel. Such seed are encapsulated by protective gel like calcium alginate against microbes and desiccation
  • 6. Fig 2: Flow diagram presenting the procedure of synthetic seed production
  • 7. Fig 3: Different stage of embryo development
  • 8. Table 1: Effect of endosperm and encapsulation on zygotic somatic embryo germination and conversion Embryos Form Germination Conversion % % Non 100 100 Zygotic encapsulated Encapsulated 100 93.3 Non 93.3 93.3 Somatic encapsulated Encapsulated 100 100
  • 9. Artificial seed coat Somatic embryoArtificial endosperm Fig 4 : The concept of Artificial Seed
  • 10. Table 2: Artificial seed production and plant conversionIn vitro propagules for Cropencapsulation Papaya, Brinjal, Mango, Carrot,Somatic embryos Sandalwood, Brassica, Alfalfa, Lettuce, Celery,Auxiliary buds/ Vitis, Eucalyptus, Citrus, PineappleAdventitious budsShoot tips Banana, Cardamom, Apple, Kiwifruit
  • 11. Table 4: Encapsulation for Synthetic Seed Gel (Concentration) Complexing Concentrat (% w/v) Agent ion (µM)Sodium alginate (0.5-5.0) Calcium Salts 30-100Sodium alginate (2.0) Calcium chloride 30-100with gelatin ( 5.0)Carrageenan (0.2-0.8) Potassium chloride 500 Ammonium chlorideLocust Bean Gum (0.4-1.0)Gelrite (0.25)
  • 12. Encapsulation methods for synthetic seedA) Dropping procedure1) The most useful encapsulation system. Drip 2-3 % sodium alginate drops from at the tip of the funnel and the somatic embryos are inserted2) Keep the encapsulated embryos complex in calcium salt for 20 min3) Rinsed the capsules in water and then stored in a air tight container
  • 13. B) Automate encapsulation processThis is the quick method of artificial seed productionA) Alginate solution with embryo is feed from supply tankB) Alginate capsules were planted in speeding trays using a vacuum seeder.C) The capsules are planted in the field using a stanhay planterD) A hydrophobic coating is required for mechanical handling
  • 15. Fig 5: Various developmental stages during plant regeneration via artificial seed in Carica papaya L. A- Somatic embryos in liquid culture after 30 days in maturation medium. B- Somatic embryo at the cotyledonary stage. Castillo et al., 1998
  • 16. C - Artificial seeds encapsulated in 2.5% sodium alginate.D - Germinating artificial seed. Castillo et al., 1998
  • 17. E - A plantlet germinated from an artificial seed on growth regulator- free basal MS medium.F - A plantlet showing normal development after germination from an artificial seed. Culture tubes were 2.2 cm in diameter. Castillo et al., 1998
  • 18. Fig.8 : Plant regeneration from encapsulated somatic embryos of banana cv. Rasthali. A- Somatic embryos used for encapsulation. B- Encapsulated somatic embryos in 5% sodium alginate. Ganapathi et al., 2001
  • 19. C- Emergence of shoots after 2 week of culture from encapsulated somatic embryos.D- Plantlet development from encapsulated somatic embryos on MS basal medium after 6 week of culture.E-Two month old hardened plants derived from encapsulated somatic embryos growing in the polybags. Ganapathi et al., 2001