Production & utilization of Garden Rue (Ruta graveolens. L)- Shivanand M.R (II-Seminar)

1,816 views
1,765 views

Published on

2 Comments
5 Likes
Statistics
Notes
No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,816
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
2
Likes
5
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Peter et al., 2010
  • Garden Rue plant with different parts
  • Rajat, 2002
  • Basavarju et al., 2010
  • ± Sem (Standard error mean)LSD- Least standard deviationBi - Biovolume indexQi - Quality index
  • Continued……
  • Comp1- 78.54 kg/ha; comp2-159.46 kg/ha; comp3-238.6 kg/ha
  • 0.1710.180774.261869.04
  • Prevailing market prices of economic produce of garden rue and coconutCropEconomic producePriceGarden rueDry herbRs. 22/kgCoconutNutsRs. 5/kg
  • -Numbers are millimeter-based. the Mean± (SD) diameter of halo was determined after three times repeats.-Diameter of each disk was 6 mm
  • A- normal metaphase spread from a control culture; B- endoreduplicated partial metaphase spread showingdicentrics, chromatid breaks, and tri-radial configurations; and C- an endoreduplicatedmetaphase with extensive chromosome fragmentations from Ruta-treated cultures.
  • A, human MGR1 brain cancer cells showing higher percentages of abnormal metaphases in H2O2- and Ruta 6-treated cells; B, normal human B-lymphoid cells showing more normal metaphases in Ruta-treated cultures and protection by Ruta 6 against H2O2
  • Figure 5. FACS analyses of MGR1 brain cancer cells and normal B-lymphoidcells for apoptosis after treatment with Ruta 6. Both cell types were treatedfor 72 h with the same dose of Ruta. Treated and control cells of MGR1 andB-lymphoid cultures were harvested and then stained with propidium iodideand subjected to flow cytometric analysis. The proportion of cells withsubdiploid DNA content in each treatment is indicated in the histograms.Similar results were obtained in two independent experiments
  • Fig 1: Antimicrobial activity of Ethanolic extract of Ruta graveolensstem
  • Fig 2: Antimicrobial activity of Methanolic extract of Ruta graveolensstem
  • Fig 3: Antimicrobial activity of Chloroform extract of Ruta graveolensstem
  • Fig 4: Antimicrobial activity of aqueous extract of Ruta graveolens L. stem
  • Values are mean ± S.E.MP<0.05, significantly different from ontrol
  • Carrageenan induced paw edema in rats
  • Thank You......
  • Production & utilization of Garden Rue (Ruta graveolens. L)- Shivanand M.R (II-Seminar)

    1. 1.  Nature >80,000 plants- medicinal value-only 2,000 plants known for curativevalue- 40 medicinal plants- commercial cultivation….. 90 % collection of medicinal plants from wild source Many useful species getting endangered….. India- richest in genetic resources of medicinal plants in world, stands 10thPGR rich countries, one among top 12 mega diversity nations and 2 out of18 hot spots WHO- 80% population in developing countries relay on traditionalmedicines for their primary health care Synthetic drugs – more side effects ……. Demand for plant based drugs is increasing… due to little side effects…. Rue is one such plant with various medicinal values getting importance now adays in drug & pharmaceutical industries ……(Peter, 2007)
    2. 2. 3Production and Utilization of Garden Rue (Rutagraveolens L.)Shivanand .M. R.UHS11PGM143Dept. of PMAKITTUR RANI CHANNAMMA COLLEGE OF HORTICULTURE, ARABHAVI -591 218
    3. 3. History of Rue Rue is first mentioned by Turner, 1562, in his Herbal Hippocrates specially commended it, and it constituted achief ingredient of the famous antidote to poison The Greeks regarded it as an antimagical herb, because itserves as remedy for indigestion In the Middle Ages and later, it was considered - in manyparts of Europe - a powerful defence against witches Pliny- reported Rue to be effective for the preservation ofeye sight (Heidi, 2010)
    4. 4. “Here in this placeIll set a bank of rue, sour herb of grace;Rue, even for ruth, shall shortly here be seen,In the remembrance of a weeping queen.”William Shakespeare-Mentioned about Rue in Richard III:
    5. 5.  Garden Rue (Ruta graveolens L.) Rutaceae , genus –Ruta in Latin, means “Bitter” and speciesgraveolens –means “strong smelling” Indigenous to Mediterranean region and distributed in SouthAmerica, China, India, Middle East and South Africa(Miguel,2003) Different authors accept between 8-40 species in the genus butmost common one are- R. graveolens, R. chelapensis… It is commonly known as - Rue/Common Rue/Garden Rue/Herb of Grace Aerial parts of the herb are used as economic part
    6. 6.  Herbaceous perennial evergreen medicinal shrub with blue-greenfoliage and grows up to 75 cm heigh Leaves are compound, shortly petiolate with ultimate segmentsobovate-oblong Flowers are yellow in colour with 4-5 petals Fruits are capsules and shortly pedicelled contains numerous seeds Rue contains about 0.5% of volatile oil, flavonoids, coumarins, andfuroquinoline alkaloids which are valued in pharmaceutical industry Responsible for the bitter taste is Rutin (7 to 8% in the dried leaves)(Warrier et al., 1996)
    7. 7. Garden Rue plant with different parts
    8. 8.  Internally as an antispasmodic, as a treatment for menstrualproblems, as an abortifacient, and as a sedative Anthelmintic, antidote, carminative, emetic, emmenagogue,expectorant, haemostatic, ophthalmic, strongly stimulant, mildlystomachic and uterotonic An essential oil is used in food flavouring industry (Anon, 1972) Cures several skin diseases like Psoriasis and Vitiligo (Massot,2000) Extracts of Rue used as an antidote for toxins of snakes andscorpion venoms (Sallal, 1996)Medicinal Uses
    9. 9.  The plant is useful in vitiated conditions of kapha and vata,fever, flatulence etc. The oil acts as a stimulant for uterine and nervous systems The fresh leaves are used for rheumatalgia The juice obtained from the leaves is given to children for helminthicinfections and is good for odontalgia and otalgia The dried leaves, powdered and combined with aromatics, are given asa remedy for dyspepsia and with the fresh leaves a tincture is madewhich is used as an external remedy in the first stages of paralysis(Nadkarni, 1998)
    10. 10. Rue makes arefreshingeyewash whensteepedin purified waterovernight(Heidi, 2010)
    11. 11. SoilGrows well in sandy-loam soils with medium fertilitySoils with well decomposed FYM found best forgermination and better survival of seedlings & productivitySoil pH : 6.0 to 8.0(Rajat, 2002)
    12. 12. ClimateIt requires mild cold and tropical climatesIt tolerates hot and dry conditions and prefers openspaces under bright sunlightOptimum temperature : 15-28 CRelative humidity : 60-75 % (Rajat, 2002)
    13. 13. PropagationCommonly by– Seeds & Stem cuttingsCommercially – Seeds, Viable- 2-3 yearsSeed rate: 250-300 g/ha (Rajat, 2002)
    14. 14. Table:1 Effect of PGRs alone and in combination on indirect shoot morphogenesis inleaf callus of R. graveolens, after 8 weeks of culture Ahmad et al., 2010, U.P
    15. 15. Table:2 Effect of auxins on in vitro root induction in tissue culture raised shootsobtained from indirect regeneration of R. graveolens on MS medium, after4 weeks of culture Ahmad et al., 2010, U.PValues represent mean standard error of 10 replicates per treatment in three repeatedexperiments. Means sharing by the same letter are not significantly different (P=0.05) usingDuncans multiple range test.
    16. 16. Fig:1 (A) Culture showing shoot bud emergence from leaf derived callus on MS+BA (7.5μM), after 4 weeks;(B) Multiple shoot buds induced on MS + BA (7.5 μM)+NAA (1.0 μM), after 8 weeks ofculture;(C) Transverse section showing organisation of meristematic zone (Bar=100 μm);(D) In vitro rooting in regenerated shoot on MS+IBA (0.5 μM), after 4 weeks.-Ahmad et al., 2010, U.P
    17. 17. Bed preparation:Bed height : 10-15 cmWidth of bed: Raised nursery bed of 1 m widthand convenient length Season:- April- MaySowing: Bold and healthy seeds, depth of 1.5-2.0 cm, coveredwith soil, water - rose can , seeds germinates – 20-30 days Transplanting: Seedlings of 20-25 cm height & 50- 55 daysold , Spacing – 40X40 cmNursery Management(Rajat, 2002)
    18. 18. Table: 3 Effect of sowing date and micronutrients fertilization on vegetative growth characters ofRuta graveolens plants Naguib et al., 2007, EgyptTreatmentppmSowing datePlant Ht.(cm)No . ofleavesNo. ofbranchesFresh weight (g /plant) Dry weight(g /plant)Leaves Stem Roots Leaves Stem RootsControl1 st date(1st Oct)38.3 58.4 4.3 10.2 4.7 2.7 3.3 2.5 3.3Fe 50 42.2 68.2 4.9 14.1 9.6 3.8 5.2 4.7 3.2Fe 100 44.8 58.2 4.7 11.9 8.5 3.3 4.4 4.1 2.8Mn 50 40.4 66 4.3 13.5 9.1 3.1 4.9 4.0 2.6Mn 100 39.3 61.2 4.4 13.1 8.2 4.0 5.0 4.0 3.6Zn 50 33.5 56.2 4.1 12.9 7.7 3.1 4.3 3.6 2.8Zn 100 37.4 51.8 4.3 16.3 10.6 4.3 3.4 2.8 1.7Mean of 1st date 39.4 60 4.4 13.1 8.3 3.5 4.4 3.6 2.6control2nddate(1st Nov)26.4 57 4.8 16.1 7.0 5.2 4.3 2.3 2.6Fe 50 27.4 63.8 5.6 15.4 7.8 5.9 4.9 2.9 2.8Fe 100 33.8 65.2 5.8 20.8 12.3 8.9 5.9 4.2 3.3Mn 50 33.3 63 5.7 18.2 10.5 8.5 5.2 3.5 3Mn 100 28.8 59.7 5.4 14.7 10.4 8.0 3.9 2.9 2.9Zn 50 28.8 59.3 5.2 12 6.8 7.1 3.7 2.4 2.7Zn 100 20.3 44.4 5.2 6.6 3.4 2.1 1.8 0.5 1.2Mean of 2st date 28.4 58.9 5.3 14.8 8.3 6.5 4.2 2.7 2.6ControlMean value ofmicronutrientfertilization32.4 57.3 4.6 13.2 5.9 4.0 3.8 2.4 2.5Fe 50 34.8 66 5.3 14.8 8.7 4.9 5.1 3.8 3.039.3 61.7 5.3 16.4 10.4 6.1 5.2 4.2 3.1Fe 100Mn 50 36.9 64.5 5.0 15.9 9.8 5.8 5.1 3.8 2.8Mn 100 34.1 60.5 4.9 13.9 9.3 6 4.6 3.5 3.0Zn 50 31.2 57.8 4.7 12.5 7.3 5.1 4.0 3.0 2.8Zn 100 28.9 48.1 4.8 11.5 7.0 3.2 2.6 1.7 1.5LSD sowing dates 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 N.S. 0.6 N.S. 0.6 N.S.LSD minerals 0.8 1.1 N.S. 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.1 N.S.LSD sowing dates mineral fertilizer 1.6 1.6 N.S. 1.5 1.7 2.4 N.S. N.S. N.S.
    19. 19. Table:4 Effect of sowing date and micronutrients fertilization on weight of flowers and essential oil contentin herb and flowers of Ruta graveolens plants Naguib et al., 2007, EgyptTreatment -ppm Sowing dateEssential oil/herb Flowers freshweight( g/plant)Essential oil /flowersOil % ml/plant oil % ml/plantcontrol1 st date(1st Oct)0.07 0.032 3.0 0.108 0.003Fe 50 0.056 0.025 3.3 0.111 0.006Fe 100 0.079 0.040 7.5 0.117 0.009Mn 50 0.066 0.020 4.6 0.136 0.006Mn 100 0.054 0.012 2.2 0.113 0.002Zn 50 0.074 0.023 3.3 0.037 0.001Zn 100 0.074 0.035 5.1 0.060 0.003Mean of 1st date 0.068 0.027 4.2 0.097 0.004control2nddate(1st Nov)0.107 0.022 3.4 0.110 0.004Fe 50 0.198 0.050 3.7 0.136 0.005Fe 100 0.136 0.040 2.8 0.143 0.004Mn 50 0.128 0.033 3.2 0.065 0.005Mn 100 0.167 0.02 2.6 0.156 0.002Zn 50 0.134 0.019 1.9 0.850 0.002Zn 100 0.219 0.020 1.8 0.075 0.002Mean of 2st date 0.156 0.029 2.9 0.110 0.003controlMean value ofmicronutrientfertilization0.089 0.027 3.2 0.109 0.004Fe 50 0.127 0.038 3.5 0.124 0.006Fe 100 0.128 0.040 5.7 0.138 0.007Mn 50 0.097 0.027 3.9 0.146 0.006Mn 100 0.111 0.016 2.4 0.089 0.002Zn 50 0.104 0.021 2.6 0.061 0.002Zn 100 0.147 0.027 3.6 0.068 0.003LSD sowing dates 0.003 N.S. 1.1 N.S. 0.001LSD minerals 0.006 0.005 1.3 N.S. 0.001LSD sowing dates mineral fertilizer 0.008 0.008 2.4 N.S. 0.002
    20. 20. Table:5 Effect of sowing date and micronutrients fertilization on rutin and coumarinpercentage of Ruta graveolens L. plantsNaguib et al., 2007, EgyptTreatment-ppmRutin % Coumarin %1 st date(1st Oct)2nd date(1st Nov)Mean1 st date(1st Oct)2nd date(1st Nov)MeanControl 0.895 0.945 0.920 0.018 0.200 0.019Fe 50 0.01 0.190 1.190 0.020 0.250 0.023Fe 100 1.016 1.080 1.048 0.020 0.026 0.023Mn 50 0.965 1.170 1.068 0.024 0.027 0.026Mn 100 0.945 0.020 0.983 0.022 0.020 0.021Zn 50 1.015 1.100 1.058 0.023 0.022 0.023Zn 100 0.940 1.070 1.005 0.025 0.024 0.025Means ofsowing dates0.964 1.082 - 0.022 0.023 -
    21. 21. Irrigation In lighter soils, more frequent irrigation is needed than that inheavy soils After establishment of plants irrigated as and when requiredweekly or fortnightly intervals Field should be kept free from weeds by manual hand weedings(Rajat, 2002)
    22. 22. Manures and FertilizersFYM: 10 tonnes /haNPK: 150:50:50 Kg/ha(50 % of N and full dose of P and K applied as basaldose before planting, another 50 % N is top dressed 45 daysafter transplanting) (Basavaraju et al., 2010)
    23. 23. Table:6 Influence of VAM fungi on growth of Ruta graveolens L. after 120 days ofinoculation (DAI)Prakash et al., 2011, AssamSl.No.TreatmentIncrease inHt. (cm)Rootlength(cm)Freshweight ofshoot (gm)Freshweight ofroot (gm)Dryweight ofshoot (gm)Dryweight ofroot (gm)%MycorrhizalcolonizationTotal VAMsporenumber(25gm/soil)1Glomusmosseae(Gm)13.5 4.13 12.5 1.0 70.0 4.1 25.0 0.8 30.3 0.8 12.3 2.6 85 8.9 713 9.22Acaulosporalaevis (Al)10.0 4.03 8.5 2.9 69.1 3.9 23.5 4.2 30.1 1.3 12.1 2.8 80 9.4 678 11.33Gigasporagigantea(Gg)8.5 2.14 8.5 3.2 60.0 1.4 22.5 1.8 30.0 2.1 11.1 3.4 60 7.6 611 8.94Gm + Al+ Gg14.0 1.14 12.8 3.0 70.5 2.1 25.5 3.2 30.5 3.0 12.5 2.9 98 6.4 735 10.85 Control 4.3 3.01 4.0 0.8 12.5 0.6 4.5 0.2 7.5 0.5 2.6 0.01 98 2.2 211 5.0SEm (Standard error of mean); data are Average of five replication each.
    24. 24. Table:7 Influence of VAM fungi on shoot and root biomass and P content of Rutagraveolens L. after 120 days of inoculation (DAI)Prakash et al., 2011, AssamSl.No.TreatmentBiomass/plant % P contentBi QiShoot Root Shoot Root1Glomusmosseae (Gm)56.71 4.8b 50.80 1.2b 0.48 0.6b 0.61 0.08b 6.5 0.742Acaulosporalaevis (Al)56.43 4.3b 48.51 1.4b 0.48 0.4b 0.63 0.001b 4.0 0.743Gigasporagigantea (Gg)50.00 2.8a 50.66 2.1a 0.46 0.9a 0.52 0.02a 2.55 0.634 Gm + Al + Gg 56.74 1.9b 50.80 2.3b 0.51 3.6b 0.63 0.007b 7.98 0.755 Control 40.00 0.8a 42.22 1.0a 0.32 0.9a 0.38 0.001a 0.84 0.626 LSD 8.28 8.45 0.14 0.15-SEm (Standard error of mean); LSD- Least standard deviation; Bi - Biovolume index; Qi- Quality index
    25. 25. Treatment details:Compost levels (4): Compost 0- 0 kg N/ha Compost 1- 78.54 kg N/ha Compost 2- 159.46 kg N/ha Compost 3- 238.6 kg N/haSowing distance (3): 30 cm distance between plants 40 cm distance between plants 50 cm distance between plants (row to row distance- 60cm fixed)Table: Influence of compost fertilizer and sowing distance on vegetativecharacters of Ruta graveolens L.Sherbeny et al., 2007, Egypt
    26. 26. TreatmentsPlantheight(cm)No. ofbranches/plantFresh weight (g/plant) Dry weight (g/plant)Leaves Stem Root Total Leaves Stem Root TotalA) Effect of compost:Comp 0 34.3 13.8 17.4 28.9 5.1 51.4 7.4 11.4 2.9 21.7Comp 1 38.5 13.6 14.0 25.5 5.4 44.9 8.7 12.5 3.3 24.3Comp 2 37.6 13.9 18.6 35.8 6.4 60.8 8.4 13.7 3.7 27.8Comp 3 41.1 13.2 25.9 46.9 6.5 79.2 9.0 18.5 3.5 31.4LSD 5% 1.4 NS 1.26 1.64 0.56 0.69 0.60 0.8 0.34 1.17B) Effect of sowing distances:30 cm 37.4 13.6 17.5 29.9 5.2 52.6 9.0 12.1 3.1 11.140 cm 40.5 13.2 20.4 31.4 5.9 57.7 8.1 14.9 4.3 27.350 cm 39.5 14.2 19.1 40.8 6.5 66.2 8.0 15.2 4.4 27.7LSD 5% 1.21 0.48 1.09 1.42 0.49 0.60 0.54 0.69 0.29 1.01Table:8 Influence of compost fertilizer and sowing distance on vegetative characters ofRuta graveolens L. Sherbeny et al., 2007, EgyptComp1- 78.54 kg N/ha; comp2-159.46 kg N/ha; comp3-238.6 kg N/ha
    27. 27. Treatmentsplantheight(cm)No. Ofbranches/plantFresh weight (g/plant) Dry weight (g/plant)Leaves Stem Root Total Leaves Stem Root TotalC) Effect of interaction between compost and sowing distance:Comp 030 cm 39.9 14.1 20.4 35.3 5.0 60.7 8.9 14.6 3.0 26.540 cm 40.1 12.5 16.6 25 4.9 46.5 6.7 9.6 2.9 19.250 cm 37.8 14.9 15.2 23.3 5.3 43.8 6.5 10.0 2.7 19.2Comp 130 cm 36.6 13.8 10.9 15.7 4.2 30.8 8.8 9.2 3.5 23.640 cm 39.9 14.5 15.7 31.5 6.2 53.4 8.2 14.9 3.4 26.550 cm 39.1 13.0 15.4 29.2 5.9 50.5 7.1 13.5 3.0 23.6Comp 230cm 34.1 13.9 17.4 28.9 6.4 52.7 8.3 11.4 3.5 23.240 cm 38.9 11.8 20.9 37.2 6.3 64.4 8.8 17.6 3.7 33.150 cm 39.8 14.9 17.6 41.2 6.4 65.2 8.0 12.2 3.9 27.1Comp330 cm 39.1 12.0 21.4 39.6 5.0 66 7.8 13.2 2.5 23.540 cm 43 13.8 28.2 31.8 6.3 66.3 10.9 17.4 4.3 30.550 cm 41.3 15.1 28.0 69.4 8.4 105.4 10.5 25.0 4.8 40.3LSD 5% 2.42 0.96 2.19 2.84 0.97 1.2 1.09 1.39 0.58 2.02Continued……Comp1- 78.54 kg N/ha; comp2-159.46 kg N/ha; comp3-238.6 kg N/ha
    28. 28. TreatmentsFloweryield/plant(g)Essential oil(%) Essential oil ml/ haLeaves Flower Leaves FlowersA) Effect of compost:Comp 0 39.2 0.119 0.131 517.22 1288.34Comp 1 36.2 0.112 0.109 425.00 1511.73Comp 2 44.6 0.103 0.135 510.46 1491.21Comp 3 64.8 0.121 0.164 712.93 1535.00LSD 5% 2.18 0.006 0.003 14.95 158.32B) Effect of sowing distances:30 cm 43.4 0.131 0.144 726.69 1711.9840 cm 45.6 0.110 0.133 538.63 1623.3750 cm 49.6 0.100 0.128 363.66 1034.35LSD 5% 1.89 0.005 0.004 12.95 137.09Table:9 Influence of compost fertilizer and sowing distance on flowers yield andessential oil of Ruta graveolens L. Sherbeny et al., 2007, EgyptComp1- 78.54 kg N/ha; comp2-159.46 kg N/ha; comp3-238.6 kg N/ha
    29. 29. TreatmentsFlower yield/plant(g)Essential oil(%) Essential oil ml/ haLeaves Flower Leaves FlowersC) Effect of interaction between compost and sowing distance:Comp 030 cm 40.0 0.099 0.123 637.82 1561.2340 cm 38.3 0.125 0.127 525.46 1233.7250 cm 39.3 0.134 0.143 388.42 1070.04Comp 130 cm 32.7 0.113 0.085 590.22 1707.2240 cm 39.1 0.116 0.163 462.01 1617.0250 cm 36.7 0.076 0.150 222.77 1049.10Comp 230cm 37.7 0.140 0.143 590.22 1710.3940 cm 42.1 0.100 0.172 530.55 1837.8850 cm 54.0 0.068 0.090 226.58 925.344Comp330 cm 63.3 0.171 0.180 767.93 1869.0440 cm 62.9 0.100 0.113 715.86 1804.8750 cm 68.3 0.123 0.128 654.98 1092.90LSD 5% 3.77 0.012 0.009 21.300 208.980Continued……Comp1- 78.54 kg N/ha; comp2-159.46 kg N/ha; comp3-238.6 kg N/ha
    30. 30. Table:10 Influence of compost fertilizer and sowing distance on rutin andcoumarin (%) of Ruta graveolens L. Sherbeny et al., 2007, EgyptTreatments Total Rutin(%) Total Coumarin(%)A) Effect of compost:Comp 0 1.31 0.0127Comp 1 1.43 0.0143Comp 2 1.51 0.0150Comp 3 1.52 0.0153B) Effect of sowing distances:30 cm 1.46 0.014540 cm 1.40 0.014050 cm 1.45 0.0145C) Effect of interaction between compost and sowing distance:Comp 0 (0 kg N/ha)30 cm 1.20 0.012040 cm 1.21 0.012050 cm 1.42 0.0140Comp 1 (78.54 kg N/ha)30 cm 1.50 0.015040 cm 1.51 0.015050 cm 1.31 0.0130Comp 2 (159.46 kg N/ha)30cm 1.51 0.015040 cm 1.42 0.014050 cm 1.52 0.0150Comp3 (238.6 kg N/ha)30 cm 1.61 0.016040 cm 1.51 0.015050 cm 1.60 0.0160
    31. 31. Table:11 Effect of nitrogen fertilizer on growth, yield and essential oil content in Rutagraveolens L. Kumar et al., 2006, SolanFertilizerdosesPlantheight (cm)No. ofbranchesLongestbranchlength(cm)Freshherbageyield (q/ha)Root yield(q/ha)Essentialoil content(%)Essentialoil yield(l/ha)N 0 Kg/ha 46.77 5.89 21.22 54.62 2.68 0.08 4.37N 20 Kg/ha 50.80 7.34 22.55 61.95 3.38 0.08 4.96N 40 Kg/ha 64.39 11.89 27.33 73.11 4.25 0.09 6.58N 60 Kg/ha 70.12 12.22 48.89 91.00 6.89 0.10 9.10N 80 Kg/ha 70.81 16.67 57.22 99.73 9.25 0.11 10.97N100 Kg/ha 71.52 17.00 62.60 114.7 11.29 0.12 13.76N120 Kg/ha 80.42 18.45 68.22 117.3 14.62 0.12 14.08CD at 5% 3.10 3.11 6.44 9.11 1.67 0.03 1.89
    32. 32. Table:12 Green and dry herb yield of garden rue as influenced by integrated nutrientmanagement practices in coconut garden Basavaraju et al., 2010, BangaloreSl.No.TreatmentsGreen herb yield (kg/ha) Dry herb yield (kg/ha)I Harvest II Harvest III Harvest Total I Harvest II Harvest III Harvest Total1Recommended practice(10 t FYM + 150:50:50NPK kg/ha)3121 6872 9925 19918 933 1824 2102 48592Recommended NPK(150:50:50 NPK kg/ha)2963 6358 8642 17963 871 1646 1852 43693 100 % N through FYM 2990 4376 7329 14695 898 1173 1424 34954100 % N throughVermicompost3035 4479 6416 13930 919 1166 1336 34215100 % N throughComposted Coir Pith2329 3323 4681 10333 693 878 988 2558650 % N through FYM +50 % NPK throughfertilizers2973 6626 9794 19393 892 1804 1972 4667750 % N through VC + 50% NPK through fertilizers2719 6375 8052 17147 837 1756 1678 427180 % N through CCP + 50% NPK through fertilizers2675 6128 8100 16903 809 1660 1613 4083S. Em 198 455 649 1142 56 106 106 240CD at 5 % NS 1380 1968 3465 NS 322 322 728
    33. 33. Table:13 Alkaloid content in dry herb and alkaloid yield per hectare of Garden rue as influenced byintegrated nutrient management practices Basavaraju et al., 2010, BangaloreSl.No.TreatmentsAlkaloid content % Alkaloid yield (Kg/ha)IHarvestIIHarvestIIIHarvestMeanIHarvestIIHarvestIIIHarvestTotal1Recommended practice(10 t FYM + 150:50:50NPK kg/ha)2.60 2.29 1.57 2.16 24.21 41.81 33.00 99.022Recommended NPK(150:50:50 NPK kg/ha)2.42 2.18 1.55 2.05 21.22 35.81 28.65 85.683 100 % N through FYM 1.95 2.08 1.52 1.85 17.6 24.35 21.74 63.694100 % N throughVermicompost1.91 2.05 1.51 1.82 17.56 23.85 20.09 61.55100 % N throughComposted Coir Pith1.71 1.94 1.53 1.73 11.86 17.00 15.12 43.98650 % N through FYM +50 % NPK throughfertilizers2.44 2.22 1.60 2.08 21.7 40.04 31.56 93.30750 % N through VC + 50% NPK throughfertilizers2.65 2.30 1.55 2.15 22.19 40.70 25.94 88.83850 % N through CCP +50 % NPK throughfertilizers2.59 2.28 1.56 2.14 20.61 37.90 25.14 83.65S. Em 0.15 0.08 0.03 0.08 1.7 3.11 1.83 5.44CD at 5 % 0.46 0.26 NS 0.24 5.16 9.44 5.56 16.5
    34. 34. Table:14 Economics of intercropping system of Garden rue in coconut garden as influenced byintegrated nutrient management practicesBasavaraju et al., 2010, BangaloreSl.No.TreatmentsEconomics of intrecrop Economics of intercropping systemGrossincome(Rs./ha)Cost ofproduction(Rs./ha)Netincome(Rs./ha)B:CratioGrossincome(Rs./ha)Cost ofproduction(Rs./ha)Netincome(Rs./ha)B:Cratio1Recommended practice(10 t FYM + 150:50:50NPK kg/ha)106892 31960 74932 3.34 151267 50850 100417 2.972Recommended NPK(150:50:50 NPK kg/ha)96118 26960 69158 3.57 140493 45850 94643 3.063 100 % N through FYM 76894 37420 39474 2.05 121269 56310 64959 2.154100 % N throughVermicompost75265 36230 39035 2.08 119640 55120 64520 2.175100 % N throughComposted Coir Pith56283 37160 19123 1.51 100658 56050 44608 1.8650 % N through FYM +50 % NPK throughfertilizers102682 33520 69162 3.06 147057 52410 94647 2.81750 % N through VC + 50% NPK throughfertilizers93960 32930 61030 2.85 138335 51820 86515 2.67850 % N through CCP +50 % NPK throughfertilizers89826 33390 56436 2.69 134201 52280 81921 2.579 Coconut alone 38125 18890 19235 2.02
    35. 35. Root Rot : Pythium and Phytophtora sp. Symptoms: The base of stems discolor and shrink, and leaves further upthe stalk wilt and die Leaves near base are affected first. The roots will turnblack and rot or break Management : Remove affected plants and their roots Only use fresh, sterilized soil mix Avoid over watering to plants and make sure that soil is well drained priorto planting Drenching Dithane M-45 (0.2%)Diseases(Rajat, 2002)
    36. 36. Citrus butter fly: Papilio demoleusManagement : Spraying of pongamia oil or neem oil 2%Spray with Methyl parathion @ 1ml/ L & Monocrotophos @ 2ml/ LAphid : Myzus persicaeManagement : Spraying of neem oil 2%Spray with Permethrin or Malathion @ 1 ml/ LPests(Rajat, 2002)
    37. 37.  Five to six months old plant can be harvested during fullflowering stage At this stage it contains maximum percentage of activeingredients (Essential oil, Rutin, Coumarin) The cut plant should be dried in shade and stored Average yield: 2.5-3.0 tonne / ha of dry herbHarvesting(Rajat, 2002)
    38. 38. UTILIZATION OF GARDENRUE….
    39. 39.  Anti-fungal (Hashemi et al., 2011) Anticancer (Pathak et al., 2003) Anti-inflammatory (Ratheesh et al., 2007) Antimicrobial (Pandey et al., 2011)
    40. 40. Anti-fungal………..
    41. 41. Table: 15 Diameter of halo in various amounts of the Ruta graveolensextract in Disk methodHashemi et al., 2011, Iran-Numbers are millimeter-based. the Mean (SD) diameter of halo wasdetermined after three times repeats-Diameter of each disk was 6 mm
    42. 42. Fig:2 Ethanolic extract of Ruta graveolens on Saprolegnia indisk methodHashemi et al., 2011, Iran
    43. 43. Table:16 Diameter of halo in various amounts of the Rutagraveolens extract in wells methodHashemi et al., 2011, Iran-Numbers are millimeter-based. the Mean (SD) diameter of halo wasdetermined after three times repeats-Diameter of each disk was 6 mm
    44. 44. Fig:3 Ethanolic extract of Ruta graveolens on Saprolegnia inwells methodHashemi et al., 2011, Iran
    45. 45. Anti-cancer…………
    46. 46. Fig:4 Metaphases from control and Ruta 6-treated MGR1 human brain cancercells showing mitotic catastrophe Pathak et al., 2003, West BengalA- normal metaphase spread from acontrol culture;B- endoreduplicated partial metaphasespread showing dicentrics, chromatidbreaks, and tri-radial configurations;C- an endoreduplicated metaphasewith extensive chromosomefragmentations from Ruta-treatedcultures.
    47. 47. Fig:5 Histograms showing percentages of mitotic index (MI) and normal and abnormal metaphasesof human brain cancer and B-lymphoid cells treated for 24 h with Ruta 6-high dose only, H2O2 onlyand in combination: Pathak et al., 2003, West BengalA, human MGR1 braincancer cells showinghigher percentagesof abnormal metaphasesin H2O2- and Ruta 6-treated cells;B, normal human B-lymphoid cells showingmore normal metaphasesin Ruta-treated culturesand protection by Ruta 6against H2O2
    48. 48. Fig: 6 FACS analyses of MGR1 brain cancer cells and normal B-lymphoidcells for apoptosis after treatment with Ruta 6.Pathak et al., 2003, West Bengal
    49. 49. Anti-microbial …………
    50. 50. Table: 17 MIC values of alcoholic, Chloroform and aqueous extracts of Rutagraveolens stem against tested bacterial strainPandey et al., 2011, M.PEscherichia coli , Salmonella typhimurium, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphyloccousaureus , Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa , and Aeromonas culicicola
    51. 51. Fig:7 Antimicrobial activity of Ethanolic extract of Ruta graveolens L. stemPandey et al., 2011, M.P
    52. 52. Fig:8 Antimicrobial activity of Methanolic extract of Ruta graveolens L. stemPandey et al., 2011, M.P
    53. 53. Fig:9 Antimicrobial activity of Chloroform extract of Ruta graveolens L. stemPandey et al., 2011, M.P
    54. 54. Fig:10 Antimicrobial activity of aqueous extract of Ruta graveolens L. stemPandey et al., 2011, M.P
    55. 55. Anti-inflammatory…
    56. 56. Table:18 Anti-inflammatory activity of the aqueous, ethanolic and methanolicextract of R. graveolens.Ratheesh and Helen, 2007 Values are mean S.E.m P<0.05, significantly different from control
    57. 57. Fig: 11 Carrageenan induced paw edema in experimented rats
    58. 58. Pharmaceutical products of Garden Rue
    59. 59. Conclusion For shooting and rooting of leaf segment derived callus of rue MSmedium with 7.5 µM BA and 0.5 µM IBA found better respectively Mixed consortium of G. mosseae, A. laevis and G. gigantea are the beststrains of VAM to get higher yield of biomass, P content, Bi and Qi Application of N at 120 kg/ha significantly superior to improve thegrowth, yield and quality parameters Ruta in combination with Ca3(PO4)2 could be used for effectivetreatment of brain cancers, particularly glioma Ethanolic extract from rue roots had good antifungal effects againstSaprolegnia spp.

    ×