Crop improvement of patchouli & basil by Shivanand M. R
University of Horticultural Sciences, BagalkotKittur Rani Channamma College of Horticulture, Arabhavi CROP IMPROVEMENT OF PATCHOULI & BASIL
INTRODUCTION Botanical name: Ocimum species L. Family :Lamiaceae (Labiatae) Local names: Hindi- Babuitulsi. Sanskrit:Barbari. English-sweet basil/ French basil. Kannada- Kamakasturi. Origin: Africa, South America and Asia.
DISTRIBUTION AND HISTORY France, Italy, Bulgaria, Egypt, Hungary, South America, Comoro Islands, Malagasy Republic, Thailand, India, Haiti and Guatemala. Ocimum consisting about 160 species spread over tropical, subtropical and western temperate regions. Ocimum basilicum is commercially and extensively cultivated for essential oil. Cultivated for at least by 3,000 years by Europeans and Asians for folklore and religious rituals and got established.
BOTANY Basil is an erect herb grown height of 30-90cm. Leaves ovate to lanceolate. Flowers are borne in long terminal racemose inflorescence. Cross pollination It bears clusters of small flowers. Seeds are ellipsoid.
AREA AND PRODUCTION India the plant cultivated on 3200 ha of land to produce 200-250tonnes of oil annually. In world production is about 2500tonnes of oil annually. Egypt is the major producing county of essential oil. Source: Sharma et al.1996.
USES Basil is used in some perfumes and for scenting of soaps of high quality. In flavouring of toothpaste and various food products. Basil oil is extensively used as flavouring agent in confexanery, baked foods, sauces, ketchup, pickles, fancy vinegars, spice meats, sausages and beverages. Dental and oral preparations. Notably jasmine blends to import strength and smoothness. Insecticidal and insect repellent properties; it is effective against houseflies and mosquitoes.
contd… Leaf juice has narcotic effect and gives relief in irritation of throat and also for ring worm. Plant is used in homoeopathic medicine. Alcoholic extracts of leaf and flowers possess antibacterial activities against micrococcus progenies var. aureus. Seeds possess demulcent, stimulant, dieuretic, diaphoretic and cooling properties, effectives in piles and constipation.
SPECIES AND VARIETIESCommon name Botanical Part used Variety Characters name Vikarsudha Methyl chavicol 78% Kushmohak Methyl chavicol 37%, linalool 45% CIM- Short duration(60-80 days), Saumya Methyl chavicol 62%, linalool 24%Sweet basil Ocimum Herb basilicum RRL-07 Hybrid developed by multiple cross technique from O. americanum 2n=48 Yields 200kg /ha of oil & Citral 75- 80%. RRL- 11 Hybrid from two different varieties of O. basilicum. Yield 50t/ha green herb/ha with oil yield of 320kg/ha. Methyl chavicol 35%, linalool 40%. Ocimum basilicum var. minima Eugenol 40-50%, Geraniol 20-30% Ocimum basilicum var. cripsa Methyl chavicol 40-50%, Linalool 25-30% Ocimum basilicum var. glabratum Methyl chavicol 40-50%, Linalool 20-25%
CIM- Ayu Eugenol 83%,Holy basil β- elemene 7.47%(Krishna tulsi) Ocimum Herb sanctum CIM- Angna Eugenol 40% 2n=32 (Shyama Kanchan Methyl eugenol rich 70 %, tulasi ) β- caryophyllene 15.7%, β- elemene 7.6% Ocimum Recurrent selections from gratissimum heterogeneous population of O.Clocimum Shrub RRL-08 graticimum and hybridization 2n=40 by polycross technique. Yields 40t of green herb/ha &160kg/ha oil yield. Eugenol 75-80%.Heavy basil Ocimum Herb RRL-01 Selection made from O.canum canum introduced from West Africa. Yields 200kg /ha of oil. 2n=24 Linalool 70-80%
Ocimum viride Shrub RRL-09 Seln. from the genetic variation obtained 2n=40 from the population of O. viride. Yield 42t green herb/ha & 20kg oil/ha.Thymol 65-70% Ocimum americanum Herb RRL-02 Selection from O. americanum, yields 2n=72 41t /ha of green herb with 185kg/ha of oil. Methyl chavicol 70-75%Camphor Ocimum Shrub - - basil kilimandscharicum 2n=26 Ocimum suave 2n=64 Shrub - - Ocimum carnosumck Shrub - - 2n=48 Ocimum micranthum Shrub - - 2n=48
SOIL AND CLIMATE Medium to light loam soils with good water holding capacity. pH range of 4.3-8.3 are ideal. Can cultivated in less fertile soils and under rainfed conditions. Long days and high temperature have been found favourable for plant growth and higher oil production. Day temperature above 300 c is considered optimum for good plant growth. Rain fall 75-100cm and RH from 75-90% reported to be favourable. Grown successfully from sea level to an attitude of 1800m. It can adjust to a wide range of temperature stress.
PROPAGATION: Propagation is done through seeds. seeds sowing in nursery beds is done in may-June and seedlings are transplanted in main field July-august.Direct sowing : Seeds of 200-250g/ha are mixed with sand to ensure to an even distribution. Field are marked into rows 50-60cm apart. Seed is sown by hand or drilled and cover with soil seed remains depth of about 2cm in the soil if seed sown deeper fail to germinate. seeds
Contd… Field is irrigated after 24 hours depending on soil moisture. Germination starts with in 10-15 days. After 20-25 days the seedlings are 10-15cm tall thinning and weeding is carried out.Trans planting: Seeds are sown in nursery towards end to march in raised bed. Seed start germinating 3 days after sowing Germination is complete in about 7-10 days . Seedlings with 4-6 leaf stage and 6-10 cm tall become ready in about 6-7 weeks for transplanting. Seedling may transplanted at spacing of 40-60cm in rows. Fields are irrigated both prior to and after transplanting.
MANURE AND FERTILIZER At planting time 10-15 tonnes of compost or FYM is applied. Fertilizer dose of 40:40:40 kg / ha of N, P2O5 and K2O is recommended for economic yield . Though good response is received up to 120:100:100 kg /ha.
IRRIGATION AND WEEDING Irrigation is required once a week when it is raised as a summer crop . Field should be kept weed free for first 20-25 days till crop canopy completely covers ground. Weeding is usually carried out once or twice.
HARVESTING Sowing to harvesting takes about 90-100 days in case of direct sown and 75-90 days in the transplanted crop. Plant is in full bloom and lower leaves start turning yellowish. Leaves and inflorescence are main source of essential oil. Oil content and major oil constitutes maximum during flower initiation and seed setting stage. 1st harvest flowering tops are harvested and its give very fine oil . 4 -5 crops are obtained per year. Harvesting generally done on bright sunny day for better quality of oil.
Contd… Plants are cut 20-25cm above ground level in the 1st year, 20- 30cnm level in 2nd year and 35-45cm level in the 3rd year. Cutting below 20cm will be injurious to plant. Immediately after harvest field has to be irrigated. 2nd and 3rd harvests are taken at 50-60 days interval. The last harvest entire plant is harvested. Harvest is taken in month of September-October and plants cut close to ground.
YIELD Average yield of 15-20 tonnes of herbage and floral harvests yield 3-4 tonnes per ha in each cutting. Total yield of 50 tonnes per year per ha. Essential oil content in whole plant ranges between 0.25-0.47% on fresh weight. Young inflorescence contains 0.3-0.5% and whole herb 0.10- 0.25%. Oil yields of 30-40 kg flower oil and 20-25 kg whole plant oil per ha.
DISTILLATIONEssential oil is extracted by hydro distillation or steamdistillation.Two grades of oil are obtained, flower oil and herb oil.Flower oil has a superior note and more expensive.Steam distillation is preferred.Distillation is carried out for one to one and half hour.
DISEASESName of Causal symptoms Controldisease organismsLeaf spot Corynespora Water soaked spot Diathane M-45 cassicola on leaves Blight Alternaria Circular brown Diathane M-45 alternata spot on the leaves and Diathane Z-28Die back Colletitrichum Small chlorotic Diathane M-45 gleosporioides spots on the leaves Zineb 0.2% scab Elsinoe axis Defoliation with Diathane M-45 Pluckering of leavesNematodes M. incognita Suppression of Carbofuran 3G foliage and root Neem cake growth
PESTS Name of Causal symptoms Control disease organisms Bug Monanthia Leaf curling globulifera PhosphamidonLeaf folder Syngamia feeding 40SL 0.05% abruptalis chlorophyll with in leaf folds
• Patchouli, an aromatic herb is distributed in the Indo-Malaysian and Sino-Japanese regions.• The shade dry leaf upon steam distillation yields the Patchouli oil of commerce, which is used in perfumery, cosmetics, processed food and is imported into India every year in large quantities.• The essential oil is one of the best fixatives for heavy perfumes, which imparts strength, strong character, alluring notes and lasting qualities.• Natural fragrances like sandalwood, rose, jasmine, vetiver, agar wood and patchouli are complex mixtures of organic molecules, which cannot be reproduced in the laboratory.• Thus, patchouli enjoys an additional importance as aromatic oil. In fact, it is a perfume by itself and is highly valued in perfumes, soaps, cosmetics and flavour industries.• Patchouli alcohol (C15H26) will have long-lasting fragrant aroma when blended with other aroma chemicals.
• Patchouli is native to The Philippines and grows wild and also cultivated in Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore, China and India.• The crop was introduced into India by Tata Oil Mills as early as 1942.• However, systematic cultivation was started by the CIMAP regional centre at Bangalore in 1962. Now, it is cultivated in Bangalore and the coastal areas of South India, Bengal and Assam.• Leaves constitute the economic part, which contain the oil glands.• The plant, an erect, well-branched, pubescent, small aromatic bushy herb attains a height of about 0.5 – 1.2 m. that yields fragrant leaves containing very sweet smelling oil.
Commercial Importance Patchouli oil is an essential ingredient and used as a ‘base’ material in perfumery industry. There is no synthetic substitute for patchouli oil, which increases its value and demand in the perfumery market. Consumption of Patchouli oil in the world is about 2000 tonnes per annum. In India due to increase in chewing tobacco and pan masala industries, consumption has gone up to about 300 tons per annum while the production is below 50 MT. Hence, the country mostly depends on import mainly from Indonesia and on reconstituted oil. Oil production in India is negligible (100- 150 kg/year). India is importing over 20 t of oil annually from Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore.
Soil and Climate The land selected for patchouli should be well-drained, loamy fertile soils, rich in organic matter. The land should not be subjected to water stagnation even for a shorter period. Heavy clay and sandy soils with poor water holding capacity are not suitable for its commercial cultivation. Acidic soil with pH value from 5.5- 6.2 is reported to be the ideal. It is advisable to avoid nematode infested areas. Patchouli prefers warm and humid climate. The crop can be grown successfully on a fairly heavy and evenly distributed rainfall ranging from 1500 –m 3000 mm per annum. A temperature of 24 – 28OC and an average RH of 75 % are taken to be ideal. It grows successfully up to an altitude of 500 m above the mean sea level.
Land preparation: The main field for transplanting is thoroughly tilled. Neem cake application @ 100- 150 kg/acre is recommended. The plot is then laid out into ridges and furrows. The ridges should be 25 cm high and 45 cm broad, with 60cm row to- row distance. The beds should be irrigated a day before transplanting.Variety selection: The cultivated varieties are named after countries of origin viz. cv. Java, Singapore etc. The others are cv. Johore and Malaysia with harsh odour.Indonesian type- promising selection and well adapted in Assam conditions.Propagation: Patchouli is propagated either through seeds or cuttings. Since crops raised from seeds show wide variation in the leaf characters and oil yields, vegetative propagation through cuttings is preferred. The leaves can also root under intermittent mist and adventitious plantlets can be obtained from these leaves. Cuttings with shorter internodes are preferable.
Nursery raising Since the crop is highly susceptible to nematode attack, it is advisable to adopt phytosanitary measures at the nursery stage it self. Seed-pans or polythene bags are filled with well heated sand which can be made by passing steam through it for about one hour. If this is not practicable for a grower, the sand should be treated with a suitable nematicide like Furadan (3% a.i) at the rate of 20 kg/ha. Shade is essential for raising a nursery and it can be raised at any time of the year. Stem cuttings from 9-month-old branches of 10-12 cm length, consisting of 4-5 nodes especially with the terminal bud and a crown of 2-3 leaves are quite suitable.
The basal end of the cutting should be neatly cut in oblique from just about 1 cm below the node. Treatment with 1,500 ppm IBA to the basal end encourages rooting. The cuttings should then be planted in seed-pans, nursery beds or in polythene bags with the help of a dibbler at a spacing of about 10 cm. Aeration, partial sha.de and regular watering are essential for early rooting. The plants should be removed from the shade about 10 days before transplanting. The cuttings take about 30-35 days for rooting in the nursery and, in about 8-10weeks, they are ready for transplanting.
Transplanting The rooted cuttings are transplanted to the main field at a spacing of 60 cm x 60 cm. Transplanting during August-October gives about90% establishment. Crops can also be raised by direct planting of the cuttings in the main field. For this, 15-20 cm long cuttings are required. During the early stages, partial shade and sufficient moisture are essential. Cuttings planted at an angle give better results compared to those planted erect. When there is a scarcity of cuttings, single-node cuttings can also be raised, but the initial rate of growth of these cuttings is slow and the percentage of success is lower.
Manures & Fertilizers• Patchouli requires rich soil.• If the soil is of low fertility it should be supplemented with suitable doses of fertilizers.• About 20 t/ha of FYM is added while preparing the main field and is mixed well.• At the time of transplanting, normally a basal dose of 25 kg N, 50 kg P20S and 50 kg K20/ ha, is given in the form of urea, super phosphate and muriate of potash.• Thereafter nitrogen is applied in 5 split doses after every harvest, in such a way that the crop receives the first dose just after the harvest and another about 2 months later.• In total 50 kg/ha/yr of N is applied to the crop.• The crop is sensitive to manganese (Mn) deficiency which can be corrected by spraying MnS04 at 5.5 to 11.0 kg/ha.
Cultural Practices• Compaction of surface soil particularly around root zone is avoided. This is achieved by racking with dry land weeder twice or thrice. Forking and raking besides weeding is found to be beneficial in developing a strong root system. Incorporation of urea with soil is done by racking and hand weeding.Irrigation: Sprinkler irrigation is advocated. Immediately after planting light watering daily up to 3-4 days and thereafter irrigation at 10-15 days interval should be applied. Saturation of poly bags before planting in field eliminates watering for 2-3 days. Surface drainage is more important than irrigation in high rainfall plains.Inter-culture: The crop may require weeding after about six weeks of transplanting and one hoeing after each harvest. During the first 2 to 3 months, the field should be kept weed-free. Patchouli is a shade loving plant. It can be grown as an intercrop with coconut, arecanut, rubber, coffee, banana and other plantation crops.
Detopping / Tipping:• Tips should be removed after 20-30 days of planting to encourage early branching.• This can also be done at the time of planting. When the age of seedlings exceeded by 45 days in the nursery, then the top is removed in the nursery itself.• Cutting back the main stem leaving 3-4 nodes above ground surface at 45- 60 days of planting is done enabling branching from lower sides of the crown. This will give a bushy architect of the plant.Mulching:• After 2nd hand weeding and top dressing apply mulch in adequate quantity at 45- 60 days of planting when planting is done during Sept-October.• Mulching with organic waste (like patchouli spent after distillation) or any other organic matter gives best results.• In case of March-June planting, post monsoon (October) mulching is beneficial for rainfed crop.• In termite infested field anti-termite drenching is necessary.
Harvesting The stage at which crop has to be harvested is very important for a good yield and better quality of oil. The first harvest of the crop is obtained after about 6 months of transplanting. It is harvested when the foliage becomes pale green to light-brown when the plant emits the characteristic patchouli odour which can be easily smelt by a passer-by, especially in the morning hours. Subsequent harvests can be done after every 3-4 months, depending much upon the local conditions and management practices. The length of cut tops ranges from 40-60 cm. It is necessary to leave 4-6 juvenile sprouting buds at the basal region for rapid regeneration. Harvesting is done with the help of a small, sharp shear or secateur. The first 2 or 3 harvests of the new plantation give good yield and high- quality oil. The crop can be maintained for about 3 years.
Yield• A good crop yields about 1000-1500 kg of dry leaves /annum.• On an average a oil recovery of 3.0 to 3.5 % is obtained which varies largely on drying procedure, leave : stem ratio and curing.• An yield of 30 to 45 kg/ha of oil.Post Harvest Technology:Drying (Curing): The harvested material is spread out under the shade in thin layers and is turned periodically to ensure proper drying, which is of great importance for obtaining maximum yield and oil of good quality. Drying normally takes about 3 days. During the process, the material should be frequently turned over in order to promote even and thorough drying and to prevent fermentation. Later, completely dried material is pressed into bales and stored in a cool, dry place till distilled.
Distillation of oil The shade-dried patchouli leaves are subjected to steam-distillation for obtaining the oil of patchouli. The dried herb can be immediately distilled or could be stored for sometime, according to convenience. The distillation equipment consists of a boiler, distillation still, condenser and receiver. The herb is loaded into the distillation still which has a perforated metal sheet at the bottom and is made of mild steel. The lid of the still can be swung aside during loading and unloading. It is important that the herb should be evenly packed inside the still, otherwise steam channels may form during the distillation resulting in poor yield. The condenser, made of copper or stainless steel, is provided with an inlet and an outlet for the circulation of cooling water which cools the hot vapours consisting of steam and essential oil vapour which will flow out into the receiver.
The oil being lighter than water and insoluble floats on the top in the receiver which consists preferably of two compartments, and only the water gets drained out. The oil can be drawn off separately at the end of the distillation. The duration of the distillation varies from 6-8 hours. Prolonged distillation gives higher yield and better quality of oil. But if it is distilled for too long, the oil will have a disagreeable odour.Oil content & Chemical constituents: The oil is found mainly in the leaf and a small quantity is present in the tender parts of the stem. Squiterpene constitutes 40-45% of the oil out of which patchouli camphor or patchouli alcohol, called patchoulol, represents 35-40% of the oil. It is found that one or more satellite components of patchouli may be responsible for the characteristic odour.
Storage of oil Immediately after distillation, all free water in the oil should be completely removed. The remaining traces of water can be removed by adding anhydrous sodium sulphate @ 20-30 g/I and stirring the contents. This chemical can be left in the oil for 4-5 hours and the oil is filtered to remove this and other sediments which might come during distillation. Untreated oil develops high acid value and low ester value, resulting in deterioration of the oil. The purified oil is stored in clean, dry aluminium containers which are free from any chemical and odour. Oil is filled to the brim of the containers which are air tight, otherwise air can also deteriorate the oil quality. Only metal corks are used for closing the mouth of the containers. The oil containers are then kept in a cool place. The odour of the oil improves on ageing; oil preserved well for some months possesses a finer and fuller odour than fresh oil, and is highly esteemed by perfumers.
Plant ProtectionDiseases:Leaf blight: (Cercospora spp.) The disease is characterized by the appearance of brown spots near the margin or at the apical region of leaves which enlarge irregularly, coalesce, cover the entire lamina and create drying. It is seen in one year-old plants and is less serious than the root-knot nematode.Control: It can be controlled with two sprays of Dithane or bavistin, (0.5%) at one month interval. The other diseases reported on this crop include, wilt caused by Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium solani and Pythium aphanidermatum and virus diseases of which pogostemon virus- I, yellow mosaic virus and tobacco necrosis virus (TNV) are important. Yellow mosaic virus is transmitted by white fly (Bemisia tabaci).
Pests:Leaf Roller (Pachyzacia stultalis): Larvae of patchouli leaf roller characteristically roll a few leaves and feed inside causing browning and drying of infested parts. Infestation is high when the crop is raised under plantation having more than 30 % shade and causes considerable damage to the crop. Sometimes the entire leaves are infested particularly during October to December. Collection and destruction of rolled leaves followed by spraying of 2-3 rounds of methyl parathion @ 1 ml or fenvalerrate 0.5 ml/lit water will control the pest.Myriad bug (Pachipeltis spp): This bug makes small holes all over the leaf surface. The insect can be controlled by spraying Dimethoate 30 EC (Rogor, Tara 909 etc) or Monocrotophos (like Nuvacron) at 1 ml/litre of water or Malathion 30 EC once or twice.Mite: Ethion or Kelthane (Acaricide) may be sprayed once or twice to control mites .Nematode: On appearance of nematode symptoms apply Furadan granule @ 2.5 g/plant following ring method. Furadan should be mixed in the soil before filling in poly bags @ 1 kg per 100 kg soil medium. Use of adequate decomposed cow dung and organic matter keeps down the population of the pest. Avoid nematode infested areas for patchouli cultivation. Marigold can be planted in field and also in field boundaries as trap crop greatly reduces the infestation.