Green coffee scale: Coccus viridis (Coccidae: Homoptera)• The green scale is a serious sucking pest of coffee, particularly on Arabica.Identification of the pest : Nymphs : – pale yellow colour Adult: - flat, oval, light green, blackish spots on dorsum & measure about 2 to 3 mm long, sedentary & leads its whole life in one place. Often found concentrated on leaf veins and tips of new shoots. Reproduction is parthenogenetic. Summer pest proliferating during hot dry weather.
• Damaging Stage: Nymphs & Adults• Nature of damage& Symptoms:• Nymphs and adults sucks sap from undersurface of the leaves, green shoots, spikes and berries.• Upward curling and tender twigs drop• Honeydew excrete – development of sooty mould fungus• Heavy loss of the sap causes debility or even death of the plant• Defoliation of badly affected trees
Management:Preventative :• Collection and destruction of infested plant parts.• Control of ants (Chlorpyriphos/ Malathion dust 5%)• Remove and burn weeds which harbour the scale.• The natural predators of coffee scale such as wasps, ladybird beetle and Verticillium fungus.Chemical:• Spraying of oils at 10 ml/L water applied as a spray to affected plants.• Only spray if 10 or more leaves are infested & spray must completely wet and cover the scales.
• Carbaryl wettable powder at 2 g/ L.• Spraying NSKE 4-5%.Traditional:• 1 kg strong tobacco per 2 L water.• Soak for 2 nights, remove add 500 g of washing powder and make up to 20 L& spray weekly until scales disappear.
Stem Borers• There are two species• Red & white stem borer.• Red stem borer : Zeuzera coffeae (Cossidae: Lepidoptera)• Identification of the pest :• Adult - orange colour, medium sized mothThe adult has white and black spotted wingsThe larva is red coloured
Life cycle : Eggs are usually laid singly on the bark Eggs hatch in 8 – 12 days and larval development takes 3 – 4 months Pupation takes place inside the stem and the adult emerges in about 2 months Adult is a nocturnal moth
• Damaging Stage : Larva• Nature of damage & Symptoms of damage:• Caterpillar bores into the stem or branches & feeds on the wood.• In early stages of attack, young plants or braches show wilting.• Pellet-like excrement of the larva hangs out and accumulates at the base of the plant.• In advanced cases, the branch dries up.
Management• Affected plants or twigs - cut and burnt.• Providing good shade to plantation.• Growing coffee at higher altitudes (above 800 MSL)• Field release of white muscardine fungus B. bassiana and braconid parasite Amyosoma zeuzerae.• Spraying NSKE at 4 percent.
White stem borer : (Xylotrechus quadripes, Cerambicedae: Coleoptera)• Identification of the pest:• Adult - slender, long beetle (2.5 cm).• Forewings are black with white bands.• Males are generally smaller than females.• Head :• Male beetle - possesses distinctly raised black ridges.• Female beetle these ridges are inconspicuous• The lifecycle of both pests is completed during the rainy season, but often damage is more evident during the dry season.• Grub: White or yellowish in colour, club shaped.• Damaging stage: Grub
Nature of damage and Symptoms of attack• Larvae enter into the hardwood and make the tunnels may extend even into the roots.• Tunnels - tightly filed with the excreta of the grubs.• Infested plants show visible ridges around the stem.• Yellowing and wilting of leaves.• Affected branches are easily broken off.• Young plants (7 to 8 years old) attacked by the borer may die in a year.
BiologyFemale lays eggs in crevices of bark of stem.Fecundity: 50-100 eggsIncubation: 8-10 DaysLarval period: 8-9 monthsPupal period: 25-30 DaysPupation is in stemPeak Activity: April- May & Oct- Nov
Management Maintain optimum shade in the plantations Trace the infested plants – prior to flight periods (i.e, during March and September) Every year - looking for ridges on the main stem and thick primaries. Collars prune the infested plants, uproot and burn the affected parts. Remove the loose scaly bark of the main stem and thick primaries using coir glove or coconut husk – kill the eggs Scrubbling during flight periods - kills the eggs and grubs present in the bark region. Deep scrubbing should be avoided ( sharp implement may injure the green wood and eventually kill the plant)
Swab the main stem and thick primaries - Lindane 20 EC @ 6.5 ml per litre of water along with any wetting agent. Spraying the main stem and thick primaries with NSKE 4% may afford good control of the pest. Field release of predators Apenesia sps for effective control of white stem borer. Apenesia Male Female
Field release of white muscardine fungus Beaveria bassiana.Beaveria bassiana – infection,
Coffee berry borer Coffee berry borer : (Hypothenemus hampei, Scolytidae: Coleoptera) It is causing significant damage in field & in storage, with perhaps as high as 50% yield loss. Damaging Stage: Adults & Grubs Identification & Nature of Damage: The adult is a small black beetle (about 2.5 mm long) and covered in thick hairs. Males are smaller The female beetle bores into berries through the navel region. Cherries are attacked in various stages by larva & feeds on beans making small tunnels. Beetles in the cherries either on the plant or on the ground, can survive for more than five months.
Life cycle: Eggs: Lays in batches of 8 – 12 in the tunnel, hatch in 8 – 9 days Larvae: Apodous, white colored with a brown head, period ranges from 15 – 18 days Pupa: Present inside the berry & it lasts 7 – 8 days Adult: Female is black in colour and measure 2.5mm in length In a population females are more numerous than male, capable of flying whereas males are not. Life of the male is spent totally inside the berry.
Damaging SymptomsPin hole at the tip of the berries (novel region)Severe infestation - two or more holes may be seen.Powdery substance pushed out through the holesFruit drop of young, green cherries.Cherries that do not drop often have defective, damaged beans.
ManagementProper adoption of cultural practices and phytosanitary measuresTransportation of infested coffee to uninfected areas is the main reason for spread (Quarantine)Crop bags should be fumigated before delivery to estates to avoid cross infestation.Timely harvest of berries.Gleaning - spreading gunny bags or polythene sheets on the ground after picking the berries - minimize gleaning.Maintain optimum shade and good drainage.
Dipping infested berries in boiling water for 2-3 minutes kills all the stages inside.Drying of coffee beans – prevents breeding of beetles in stored coffee based on moisture content level. Arabica (10% moisture content) Robusta (11% moisture content)Install attractant trap to collect and kill the beetles Attractant trap
• Install multiple funnel trap and pitfall trap to collect and kill the adults. Multiple funnel trap Pitfall trap
Chlorpyriphos @ 2ml/L of water along with wetting agent applied at early fruit set (2 mm cherry size) and later 120 to 150 days after fruit set if required. Cypermetrin and Deltametrin, pyrethroids (0.01%) at 26 ml/15L of water are used as an alternativeField release of Cephalonomia stephendarix and phymastichus coffea for effective control these pests.Applications of white muscardine fungus, Beauveria bassiana effectively reduce the borer attack.
Field application of Beauveria bassiana:Mix 500 ml of groundnut oil with 500 ml of any agricultural wetting agent thoroughly.Add this suspension to 20 l of water and three bags of Beauveria culture the above solution mix well and strain through a muslin cloth.Application of spore suspension on the infested coffee bushes using a bakpak sprayer, targeting the berries.After 5 days application spores germinate and kill the insect.
Mealy bugs( Planococcus spp. )• Mealy bugs are the most important sucking pests of coffee.• Planococcus.citri (Risso) and P. lilacinus (Cockerell) are the most common species infesting coffee.• They are small sucking insects (about 3 mm long) covered with a white mealy wax that feed on young shoots and young roots.• They are generally more of a problem in the dry season.
Identification of the pest• Males - smaller and winged.• Female - wingless, oval body
Nature of attack and Symptoms of damage• Young plants – susceptible for heavy infestation.• Infest tender branches, nodes, leaves, spikes, berries and roots• Both nymphs and adults suck the sap from the leaves.• Severe infestation - Chlorotic leaves, aborted flower buds and small berries• Honey dew excrete – development of sooty mould fungus (affects photosynthesis)
The black mould is often Cherry infestationpresent with mealy bugs
ManagementMaintain adequate shade.Destroy nests of red ant and cocktailed ant.Control ants by dusting Quinalphos 1.5% or methyl parathion 2% or Malathion 5% around the base of coffee and shade trees.Spray the affected patches with Quinolphos 2ml/LInfested roots - drench the soil near the root zone with Chloropyriphos 2.5ml/LIn the case of young plants (2-4 year old) drenching with dimethoate 30 EC @ 3 ml/L.
• Field release of two introduced natural enemies viz., the predatory lady bird beetle Cryptolaemus montrouzieri and the parasitoid Leptomastix dactylopiiAdult of C. montrouzieri feed on Grub of C.mealy bug montrouzieri feed on Leptomastix dactylopii mealy bug
Leaf minerLeaf miner: (Leucoptera coffeina, Agromyzidae: Diptera)• It is often present, especially in shaded coffee.Damaging Stage: LarvaNOD: The larva feed in between the epidermal layer of tender leaves.Symptoms:• Appearance of white silvery serpentine mines on the leafControl:1. Collection & destruction of infested leaves.2. Spray NSKE@ 5%3. Spraying of Trizophos @1.5ml/L, methyl demeton@ 1.3ml/L, or cypermethrin @ 0.5ml/L
TermitesTermites :(Macrotermes spp.) can be a problem on older coffee and shade trees with dead wood• It infests leaves & cause curling of leaves.Management:• Plant coffee in clean ground where all tree parts, including roots have been removed.• Termites cannot survive as there is no dead wood on which to feed ,remove all dead wood from the coffee plantation.• Effective pruning of dead wood on coffee trees.• Flooding the plantation
Typical Termite infestation on dead wood encourages termites to build nests
Cockchafers/ white grubs, (Holotrichia spp.)• Damaging stage: Adults• Adults feeds on leavesIdentification of the pest:• Grub - C-shaped, dirty white with dark brown head.• Adults - reddish brown beetles
Symptoms of damage• Young plants (1 to 5 years old) attacked by white grubs• Yellowing of leaves• Stunted growth• Wilting of plants and die (summer period).• Attacked plants can be easily pulled out
• Field sanitation• Collect and kill the grubs• Install light traps and kill the trapped adults (March – June)• Affected plants – soil drench around the root zone with lindane 20 EC @ 750 ml in 200 L of water.• In white grub-infested areas – at the time of planting apply phorate 5 G 10 g or carbofuran 3G 10 g into the soil in the pit.
Coffee bean beetle ( Araecerus fasciculatus)• It affects coffee berries in the field and of beans in storageSymptoms of damage:Severe infestation occurs only in storageInfested coffee beans shows circular holes (bigger than made by the coffee berry borer)Attacked fruits in the field shrink and become black.Infestation results in loss of weight increase in triage and reduction of market value.
Identification: This compact beetle is 1.5-4 mm long, dark brown with light brown spots and long antennae. The footless slim larvae is curved and hairy and grows to a length of 5-6 mm.
Management• Maintain optimum temperature, relative humidity and moisture content (less than 8%)• Fumigate the stored coffee with a 1:1 mixture of ethylene dibromide and methyl bromide.• Impregnate the gunny bags with a mixture of malathion 50 EC at 10ml + pyrethrum colloid at 2 g per litre of water.
Snail ( Ariophanta solata )Identification of the pest:• Adult - medium sized snail, long and covered with a cream coloured spiral shell• Application of fish manure may attract snails.Nature of damage:• The snail feeds on the leaves of Arabica coffee and bark of tender braches & skin of fruits.• Causes deformation of leaves• Drying of stems
Management• Keep the estates clean• Hand picks the snails and dip in hot water or salt solution• Use heaps of leaves to trap the snails.• Broadcast the poison bait ‘snail kill’ (Metaldehyde 2.5%) of 25-35kg per hectare• Spreading of lime and wood ash - repels snails.