Presented By:Shivananda RaiUSN:4NM11MCA66VIII Sem
1. History of Android2. Introduction3. Architecture4. Application development5. ConclusionMain topics
1.History of Android•Android Inc. was founded in Palo Alto, California, United States•Developed by Andy Rubin, Rich Miner, Nick Sears and Cris White –October 2003•Google acquired Android Inc. August 2005•The Open Handset Alliance, a group of several companies was formed-November 2007•Android Beta SDK Released November 2007
2. Introduction (1)What is an Android?Android is an open source mobile operating system thatcombines and builds upon many different open sourceprojects.
2. Introduction (2)• We can write different apps to run on mobile phones• Android is Lightweight and full featured• Android is an Open Source Product, we can download SDK free• A SDK is available to build, compile, test and debug user applications• Android is developed by Google and later the Open Handset Alliance(OHA)• Allows writing managed code in the Java language• Good framework based on Java
2. Introduction (3)What is the Open Handset Alliance (OHA)?• Its a large group of companies.
Linux Kernel• Linux Version 2.6 as - h/w abstraction layer• Proven driver model• Security, Memory & Process Management• Efficient computing resource management• Stable and proven for mobile platform
LIBRARIES• Written in C/C++ - System C Library(libc)• Surface manager - composing different drawing screens• Display/Graphics(SGL)-for 2D graphics• OpenGLES – 3D Graphics Library• Media Libraries• SQLite –RDB engine-light weight• WebKit–web browser engine–embeddable web view
Content providerEnable applications access data from other applications ,sharing etc.Resource ManagerProviding access to non-code resourcesNotification ManagerEnables all applications to display alerts in the status barActivity ManagerManages the lifecycle of applicationsApplication Framework
Android RuntimeCore libraries• Includes a set of core libraries that provides most of thefunctionality-JAVADalvik VM• Every Android application runs in its own process• Uses its own bytecode, not Java bytecode.• Dalvik VM executes files in the (.dex) format• Device can run multiple VMs efficiently
At the top of Android Architecture we have all the applications,which are used by the final user.Application Layer
Application Building BlocksActivityUser interface component, which corresponds to one screen at time.Intent ReceiverWakes up a predefined action through the external event.ServiceA task, which is done in the background.Content ProviderA component, which allows sharing some of the data with other processesand applications.4. Application development (1)
Development requirements•Java(jdk).•Android SDK•Eclipse IDE4. Application development (2)
Android SDK•Class Library•Developer Tools dx – Dalvik Cross-Assembler aapt – Android Asset Packaging Tool adb – Android Debug Bridge ddms – Dalvik Debug Monitor Service•Emulator and System Images•Documentation and Sample CodeEclipse IDE + ADT (Android Development Tools)•Reduces Development and Testing Time•Makes User Interface-Creation easier•Makes Application Description Easier4. Application development (3)
Supported Operating Systems•Windows XP, Vista or later version.•Mac OS X 10.5.8 or later(x86 only).•Linux(tested on Ubuntu Linux, Lucid Lynx).•On Ubuntu Linux, Version 8.04 or later is required.4. Application development (4)
Programming Language(s)•Java – officially supported•C/C++ – also possible but not supported4. Software development (3)
Open - Android allows you to access core mobile device functionalitythrough standard API calls.All applications are equal - Android does not differentiate between thephones basic and third-party applications -- even the dialer or home screencan be replaced.Breaking down boundaries - Combine information from the web with dataon the phone -- such as contacts or geographic location -- to create new userexperiences.Fast and easy development - The SDK contains what you need to buildand run Android applications, including a true device emulator andadvanced debugging tools.Advantages
Security - Making source code available to everyone inevitably invites theattention of black hat hackers.Incompetence - Google’s dependence on hardware and carrier partners putsthe final product out of their control.Disadvantages
We can only hope that the next versions of Android have overcome theactual limitations and that the future possibilities became a reality.The first Android based official devices may well be launched sometime inthe early half of 2009. Obviously, thats an age away when it comes tohandset design, and Android may well find itself competing against theforthcoming Windows touch screen phones and maybe even the iPhone.Conclusion
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