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  1. 1. STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY By: Shivan B. Hassan OF KURDISTAN Aso Omer Salih Astak G. shafiq Hayat private university College of engineering Petroleum department Instructors: 3rd class Dr. Muhammad Sahir Mr.Mufidbahjad Mr. Hassan 0
  2. 2. Page number Page content1 introduction2 Dip and Strike3,4 MEASURING STRIKE AND DIP5,6 1st location:7 2nd location8 3rd location9 Difference between organic and chemical deposition10 4th location11 Recommendation12 conclusion1 | STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY OF KURDISTAN
  3. 3. IntroductionWe know that Kurdistan region is located in north of Iraq and southwest of Asia which is at Arabian plat near to Eurasian plate andAfrican plate. These all three plates gave it so many natural viewssuch as long valleys and high mountains. This geology is interestedfor study. The structural geology of Kurdistan simply isexcitable towork on it.Structural geology is the study of processes and products of rockdeformation. And Study of the form, arrangement and internal structureof rocks. Study of the 3-D configuration of bedrock unitsStructural geology is a critical part of engineering geology, which isconcerned with the physical and mechanical properties of natural rocks.Structural fabrics and defects such as faults, folds, foliationsand joints are internal weaknesses of rocks which may affect the stabilityof human engineered structures such as dams, petroleum engineering,road cuts, open pit mines and underground mines or road tunnels2 | STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY OF KURDISTAN
  4. 4. Dip and StrikeThe dip is a line on the plane of a layer or another geologicalbody that extends perpendicularly to the strike in thedirection of the inclination of the layer, which is the line ofgreatest steepness. The orientation of the dip line isdetermined by its azimuth and dip angleThe strike is a line formed by the intersection of thehorizontal plane with the surface of a layer of rock oranother geological body set in an inclined or verticalposition. The direction of the strike is expressed by itsazimuth.The azimuth is measured by a projection of the dip line onthe horizontal surface, and the dip angle is formed by the dipline and the horizontal projection of the dip lineStrike and dip are either measured by a dip compass ordetermined by geological maps, sections, boreholes, mineexcavations, geophysical data, or the aerial photographs oflayers3 | STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY OF KURDISTAN
  5. 5. MEASURING STRIKE AND DIPMeasuring strikeWe will begin by taking the strike of a bedding plane. For thesemeasurements we will use a Brunton compass. In order to measurethe strike, place the side or edge of the compass against the plane ofthe outcrop. Sometimes it is easier to put your field book against theoutcrop and then the compass against the book to get a smootherand/or a larger surface. Now, rotate the compass keeping the lowerside edge of the compass fixed, until the bulls-eye level bubble iscentered (the round tube; not the long narrow one). When the bubbleis centered, the compass is horizontal against the plane and parallelto the line of strike. Now, with the bulls-eye bubble centered, record the number that either end of the compass needle is showingIn other words- Place the bottom EDGE of the compass flat against the plane ofinterest-Adjust the compass orientation, making sure the bottom edge isalways flat against the plane, until the air bubble in the "Bulls eyelevel" is centered-Read either end of the compass needle to obtain the value of strike.Measuring DipTo measure the dip of the bedding plane, take your compassand put its side against the rock so that it points in the samedirection as the line of dip (The dip line is perpendicular to4 | STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY OF KURDISTAN
  6. 6. the strike line). Move the clinometer until the clinometerlevel bubble is centered. As we did when we found thestrike, record where the white tipped end of the clinometerneedle is pointing. Note the degrees and the direction. Recallthat the dip direction MUST always be perpendicular to thestrike direction (e.g., a strike of 40° could only dip to the SE or NW, never NE or SWIn other words-AFTER you determine strike, rotate the compass 90°-Place the SIDE of the compass flat against the plane- Adjust the lever on the back of the compass until the airbubble in the "Clinometer level" is centered- Read the dip directly from the scale in thecompass.1st location:Due to some tectonic movement and uplifting mountains wehave seen some hills and mountains as in figure below whichviews Sorik near Shaqlawa:5 | STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY OF KURDISTAN
  7. 7. Disconformity Reverse faultArea like this above we can analyze the structure of it bydeposition of the rocks from sea and oceans eons ago toform this dome.We can see red colored-rock layers which contain ironmaterial that comes from igneous rocks many years afterdeformation. Oxidation and erosion of iron made it red. Thischemical red layer doesn’t contain gypsum.We can also notice a white thin layer that is purely calciumcarbonate caco3,formed by the movement of the sea waves.Red and white layers show disconformity due to erosion.Also there was a reverse fault in that mountain that hangingwall has slipped up in comparison to the foot wall.6 | STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY OF KURDISTAN
  8. 8. 2nd location:In this location where it was near by the first one, we sawplunging and extension of the same limestone rocks of thefirst location.We have also seen inclination of the formation downwardand formed stream.You can see the colored layers in the picture. They refer tosome geological and chemical compositions of the materialslike Mg and Ca.If the ratio of calcium is more than magnesium its calleddolomite with a white color.If the amount magnesium is more than %50 in the rock, itscalled magnesium calcium and it has a dark purple color.7 | STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY OF KURDISTAN
  9. 9. 3rd location:This formation is an organic deposited because it containGypsum Sea depositional effects is more obvious here Here they bombed the mountain for manufacturing Gypsum8 | STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY OF KURDISTAN
  10. 10. Difference between organic and chemical calciumdeposition: Chemical deposition is usually not pure because of existence of some minerals like Mg. Calcium chemicallyformed from those minerals that come with rivers into oceans because the river is always moves but an ocean doesnt move thus they start depositing in oceans. After long time of depositing they formed giant layers of non-pure limestone that contains no water. Organic deposition is pure and contains only calcium Organic calcium formed from the living plants and animals that live in oceans such as (Pactin), that they use calcium for making a cover to protect themselves, after dying and decaying of organisms they formed different and big layers of limestone.9 | STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY OF KURDISTAN
  11. 11. 4th location:The picture shows joint fault caused by uplifting force thatforced those layers that have a thin base layers more thanthick part of the mountains.The layer below the fractured area is very thin thats why itfractured; it doesn’t resist the high pressure that faced.The fracture in the top is more open (fractured) than in thebottom because the strength at the top is very low comparedto the bottom.10 | STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY OF KURDISTAN
  12. 12. RecommendationAs this trip was our first geological trip for us, we didntexpect that much knowledge we learned. Scientific trips areso important for the students, those students that theirfuture career depends mainly on practical, concerning thistrip.As its clear for all, scientific trips will keep in students mindin their life time.So we suggest for the university to make this type of trips inthe future, for those lectures that are more practical thanother lectures, concerning important lectures such asregional geology, geophysics….etc.11 | STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY OF KURDISTAN
  13. 13. Conclusion:In this scientific trip we learned a lot of thing and it was veryimportant trip and we hope to have more trips in future.Students will likely have an educational experience that theynever could have had in the classroom. Because students areable tosee elements with their eyes rather than reading about itand believing what they are told because its in print.First weve learned how to locate our location in contourmap by using standard GPSR. That was our first experienceof using this modern instrument.Then we saw much geological structures that we studiedthem theoretically in class. Such as fault, folds, fractures anddeposition of layers and differentiate between them. Peace…12 | STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY OF KURDISTAN