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Soil
 

Soil

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  • 1. Alluvial Soil in IndiaThey are by far the largest and the most important soil group of India. They are composed of sediments deposited by rivers and the waves. Their chemical composition makes them one of the most fertile in the world. Usually deficient in nitrogen and humus ( thus fertilizers are needed ).Occupy the plains ( from Punjab to Assam ) and also occur in the valleys of Narmada and Tapti in M.P. & Gujarat, Mahanadi in the MP and Orissa, Godawari in A.R and Cauvery in T.N.Can be divided into Khadar ( new ) and Bhangar ( older, more clayey and kankary ) alluvium.2. Black Soil in IndiaAlso called Regur and is ideal for cotton crop. These soils have been formed due to the solidification of lava spread over large areas during volcanic activity in the Deccan Plateau, thousands of years ago.They are black due to compounds of iron and aluminium ( also because of titaniferous magnetite ).Mainly found in Deccan Plateau – Maharashtra, Gujarat, M.P, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu.Apart from cotton cultivation, these fertile soils are suitable for growing cereals, oilseeds, citrus fruits and vegetables, tobacco and sugarcane.They have high moisture retention level.Lack in phosphorus, nitrogen and organic matter3. Red Soil in IndiaThey are mainly formed due to the decomposition of ancient crystalline rocks like granites and gneisses and from rock types rich in minerals such as iron and magnesium. The term ‘red soil’ is due to the wide diffusion of iron oxides through the materials of the soil.Covers almost the whole of Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, S.E. Maharashtra, Chhatisgarh, parts of Orissa, Jharkhand and Bundelkhand.Generally deficient in nitrogen, humus and phosphorus, but rich in potash.Suitable for rice, millets, tobacco and vegetables ( also groundnuts and potatoes at higher elevations ).4. Laterite Soil in IndiaFound in typical monsoon conditions – under conditions of high temperature and heavy rainfall with alternate wet and dry periods. The alterations of wet and dry season leads to the leaching away of siliceous matter and lime of the rocks and a soil rich in oxides of iron and aluminium compounds is left behind.Found in parts of Western Ghats, Eastern Ghats, Rajmahal hills, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Kerala, Orissa, West Bengal, Assam, Tamil Nadu, etc.Poor in nitrogen and minerals.Best for tea, coffee, rubber, cinchona, coconut and suitable for rice and millet cultivation if manured.5. Forest and Mountain SoilsSuch soils are mainly found on the hill slopes covered by forests. The formation of these soils is mainly governed by the characteristic deposition of organic matter derived from forest growth.In the Himalayan region, such soils are mainly found in valley basins, depressions and less steeply inclined slopes. Apart from the Himalayan region, the forest soils occur in higher hills in south and the peninsular region.Very rich in humus but are deficient in Potash, phosphorous and lime and needs fertilizers.Plantation of tea, coffee, spices and tropical fruits.6. Arid and Desert SoilsA large part of the arid and semi – arid region in Rajasthan and adjoining areas of Punjab and Haryana lying between the Indus and the Aravallis receiving less than 50 cm of annual rainfall is affected by desert conditions.This area is covered by a mantle of sand which inhibits soil growth.The phosphate content of these soils is as high as in normal alluvial soils. Nitrogen is originally low but its deficiency is made up to some extent by the availability of nitrogen in the form of nitrates. Thus the presence of phosphates and nitrates make them fertile soils wherever moisture is available.The changes in the cropping pattern in the Indira Gandhi Canal Command Area are a living example of the utility of the desert soils.7. Saline and Alkaline SoilsIn the drier parts of Bihar, Up Haryana, Punjab, Rajasthan and Maharashtra, are the salt – impregnated or alkaline soils. Known by different names : Reh, kallar, USAR, etc.Some of the salts are transported in solution by the rivers and canals, which percolates in the sub – soils of the plains.The accumulation of salts makes the soil infertile and renders it unfit for agriculture.8. Peaty and Marshy SoilsOriginate in the humid regions as a result of accumulation of large amounts of organic matter in the soil. They contain considerable amounts of soluble salts and 10 – 40% of organic matter.Peaty soils are found in Kottayam and Alappuzha districts of Kerala, where it is called Kari.Marshy soils, high in vegetable matter, are found in northern Bihar, coastal parts of Orissa, Tamil Nadu and West Bengal and parts of UP
  • Nutrient cycling is an extremely important function of soils. Living plants contain all the nutrients essential for plant growth. When crops are harvested some of those nutrients are removed, but many remain behind in plant litter. When the litter falls onto the soil or is plowed under, those nutrients are returned to the soil. Some of the nutrients in plant litter dissolve into the soil water like salt would. Most of the nutrients in plant litter are bound up in complex organic molecules and are not available to plants. The litter must first be broken down, or decomposed, by soil microbes. The ferocious looking critters in this cartoon are meant to be soil microbes. These are actually microscopic organisms and cannot be seen with the naked eye. Nor do they look anything like this under the microscope. Hungry soil microbes, mainly bacteria and fungi, use the carbon in the litter for food. They consume some of the nutrients in the litter and release what they don’t need into the soil water. The feeding of soil microbes turns fresh plant litter into stable soil organic matter. When the microbes die the nutrients in their bodies are also released to the soil water and are available for plants to take them up again.
  • Nutrient cycling is an extremely important function of soils. Living plants contain all the nutrients essential for plant growth. When crops are harvested some of those nutrients are removed, but many remain behind in plant litter. When the litter falls onto the soil or is plowed under, those nutrients are returned to the soil. Some of the nutrients in plant litter dissolve into the soil water like salt would. Most of the nutrients in plant litter are bound up in complex organic molecules and are not available to plants. The litter must first be broken down, or decomposed, by soil microbes. The ferocious looking critters in this cartoon are meant to be soil microbes. These are actually microscopic organisms and cannot be seen with the naked eye. Nor do they look anything like this under the microscope. Hungry soil microbes, mainly bacteria and fungi, use the carbon in the litter for food. They consume some of the nutrients in the litter and release what they don’t need into the soil water. The feeding of soil microbes turns fresh plant litter into stable soil organic matter. When the microbes die the nutrients in their bodies are also released to the soil water and are available for plants to take them up again.
  • Farmers routinely add nutrients to soils to boost crop yields. Commercial chemical fertilizers like urea, ammonium nitrate, triple super phosphate, and muriate of potash are designed to be in a form that plants can take up and use. Most fertilizers are also designed to be very soluble, that is they quickly dissolve and release nutrients into the soil water.Lime is added to “sweeten” the soil as the old timers used to say. Lime increases soil pH by neutralizing acidity in the soil. As it reacts the lime dissolves and releases calcium and magnesium into the soil water.Farmers also add organic nutrient sources such as manures, composts, sewage sludge and others. These materials are similar to plant litter in that many of the nutrients are not available to crops. The materials must first be decomposed by soil microbes. As they decompose the nutrients are released into soil water.Notice that with each of these various nutrient sources I have repeated the phrase “nutrients are released into the soil water.” So we have all these nutrients moving into the soil water. What happens to them now?

Soil Soil Presentation Transcript

  • …seminar…Barkatullah University Institute of Technologyon Presented by: Shivam Tiwari Mech Engg. III sem.
  • Soil is the unconsolidated coverWhat on the surface of the earth. Soil is made up of mineral is particles, organic particles, air, and water.soil? Soil is capable of supporting plant growth.
  • Whatis aSoilProfile?• A soil profile is a view of a cross section of soil.
  • Functions of agricultural soils • Anchor plant roots • Supply water to plant roots • Provide air for plant roots • Furnish nutrients for plant growth • Release water with low levels of nutrients
  • There are five components of soil:• 1. Rock• 2. Sand• 3. Silt• 4. Clay• 5. Humus• Can you match each type of soil to its picture?
  • RockRock is solid and made of minerals
  • SandSand is tiny grains of worn down rock. It doesn’t hold water or have many nutrients.
  • SiltSilt is very small, broken pieces of rock. It is larger than clay, but smaller than sand. It is powdery when dry. Sand ------------Silt---------------Clay
  • CLAY Clay holds water well. It is sticky and can be shaped when it is wet. But, it is very hard when dry.Clay has many nutrients. Clay is used for adobe or brick houses.
  • HumusHumus is made of leaves, twigs, small animals, or other decayed substances.Humus adds many nutrients to the soil.Humus is in the topsoil.
  • TYPES OF SOIL Indian Council of Agricultural Research ( ICAR ) has divided Indian soils into eight major groups :1.Alluvial Soil2.Black Soil3.Red Soil4.Laterite Soil5.Forest Soil6.Desert Soil7.Saline Soil8.Marshy Soil
  • Soil StructureThe arrangement of sand, silt, and clay particles toform larger aggregates. • Organic matter is the glue that holds the aggregates together • Large pores (spaces) between aggregates are filled with air in a moist soil. • Small pores are filled with water in a moist soil. Even smaller pores inside the aggregates (not shown) are also filled with water. 1/10 inch
  • Supplying Plant Nutrients Nutrients that plants obtain from the soilMacronutrients: Micronutrients:(needed in large amounts) (needed in small amounts)• Nitrogen (N) • Chlorine (Cl)• Phosphorus (P) • Cobalt (Co)• Potassium (K) • Copper (Cu)• Calcium (Ca) • Iron (Fe)• Magnesium (Mg) • Manganese (Mn)• Sulfur (S) • Molybdenum (Mo) • Nickel (Ni) • Zinc (Zn)
  • Where do plant nutrients come from?• Decaying plant litter• Breakdown of soil minerals• Addition by humans – Commercial fertilizer – Manure – Lime – Other
  • Recycling plant nutrients
  • Breakdown of soil minerals Water Acid Zn Ca K Ni Mg Cu
  • Nutrient additions by humans• Commercial fertilizers – Nutrients are in a form that is available to plants – Dissolve quickly and nutrients go into soil water• Lime – Dissolves slowly as it neutralizes soil acidity – Releases calcium and magnesium• Organic nutrient sources – Manure, compost, sewage sludge – Decay and nutrient release is similar to crop litter
  • Characteristics of the Soil Horizons• 0 Horizon-located on surface, mostly O.M.• A Horizon-Called Topsoil, good amounts of O.M. and minerals.• B Horizon- Known as Subsoil, Less O.M.• C Horizon- Mostly parent material, does little for plant growth.