INTRODUCTION:- Button mushroom (Agaricus spp) is the mostpopular mushroom variety grown and consumedthe world over . These are produced almost throughout theyear in small and large farm adopting differentlevels of technology. The species being grown in most form is thewhite button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) andanother species (Agaricus compestries)
Cultivation of white button mushroom initiation in Europearound 17th century Netherlands is the leading exporter Country which cultivated on a large scale –Europe ,northAmerica ,China ,Korea ,India The national production of mushroom is 50000 tones
Scientific Classification :- • Kingdom – Fungi • Phylum _ Basidiomycota • Class _ Agaricomycetes • Sub class _ Homobasidiomycetidae • Order _ Agaricales • Family _ Agaricaceae • Genus _ Agaricus • Species _ Agaricus bisporus
BOTANICAL DISCRIPTION: Vegetative mycelium is composedof many inter woven sepatate hypea Reproductive phase is initiated byformation of small knob like swelling Fruit body Basiodiocarp is whitishin color Thick short Stipe with an annulus The Stipe support the Pileus whichappear as hat like expansion Underside of the Pileus gills orlamella are present
ECONOMICAL IMPORTANCE:- Proteinaceous . Sold as fresh mushroom canned or made intosoups, sauces, food products. 60-70% digestibility having medicinalproperty. High amount retene antagonistic effect onsome form of tumors.Lowers the blood glucose and cholesterol levels. It contains sodium, potassium, phosphrus,linoleic acid.
Important steps in cultivation of white buttonmushroom:- Spawn production Compost preparation Spawning Spawn running Casing Crop management
Spawn production :- Spawn is produced from fruiting culture orstocks of selected strains of mushroom understerile conditions. Stock culture may be produced in the lab. Fruiting culture is mainly imported fromvarious places. Spawn should be of good quality in terms offlavor, texture size and longer self life. STOCK CULTURE
COMPOST PREPARTION:- LONG METHOD (it require 30days) SHORT METHOD(it require 16 days)LONG METHOD:- In this method straw of different cereals successfullyutilizedStraw is composted with the help of inorganic fertilizer. A pile is prepared using wooden mold .compost for 25trays as mention below-
Ingredients required for compost making in longmethod of composting:- Sr. no ingredients Long method (kg) 1 Wheat straw 300 2 Wheat bran 30 3 Ammonium 9 sulphate 4 urea 3.6 5 Sulphate of potash 3 6 Super phosphate 3 7 gypsum 30 8 Lindane 1 9 Poultry manure -
Long method:- Disinfect the compost platform 2% formalin Soaking chopped wheat straw (300kg)for 48 hrs mixining the fertilizer 6 kg ammonium sulphate, 2.4kgurea, 3 kg sulphate of potash, 3 kg super phosphate in 15 kg wheat bran. Mix the soaked wheat straw and fertilizer Prepare stack on cement platform in open space(0day)
7th turning(25th day add Lindane 0.5% in1kg) 8th turning(28th day) Stacked into pile of 1.3m height Filling into tray TRAY OF COMPOST
Short method :- Sr. Sr. no. no. Ingredients Short kg method kg 1 Wheat straw 300 2 Wheat bran 21.6 3 urea 4.5 4 gypsum 9 5 Lindane 1 6 Chicken 120 manure
Short method:- Soaking 300kg chopped wheat straw Stack of wheat straw 2.5m broad and 9m high(oday) Add chicken manure and wheat bran Turning,tramping,stacking in anaerobic condition(2nd day) Prepare heap add urea 4.5kg
Give 1st turning (6th day) watering to dry patch 2nd turning add gypsum (8th day) 3rd turning (10th day) 4th turning(12th day) 5th turning(14th day) Compost fill in tray(16th day)
Filling and pasteurization:- Disinfect the tray 5%cuso4 Filling of the tray (100x50x20)by compost Pasteurization of room by formalin spray Stacking of the tray one above the other Switch on the heating coil at 60 oc temp
Maintain this temperature for24 hoursMoisture of the compost after pasteurization should be 60- 70% Cooling the compost by opening the ventilators 1/3rd
Spawning :- spawning means sowing of tray or bed withspawn of fungus. there are three types of spawning :1) Surface spawning2) Layer spawning3) Thorough spawning
1) Surface spawning: - Remove upper layer of compost (2.5)cm and spawn isbroadcasted into compost then cover it with compost.2) Layer spawning :- The tray are filled into 1/3rd of their capacity and layerof grain spawn is mixed in it second layer of compostdeposited on the spawn now the tray filled to 2/3rd of theircapacity again place layer of spawn and compost in the tray.3) Thorough spawning :- In this case mix the grain spawn evenly. throughoutthe compost .200gm spawn per tray .after spawning cleannewspaper sheet sterilized by dipping in 2%formalinesolution.
Casing : - The process of application of casing layer on the compostsurface is called casing. Casing layer is nutrient deficient. Casing providingphysical support to fruit bodies. Prepare casing layer (sand+F.Y.M. 1:1 proportion). Sterilized casing soil chemically or autoclaving . Bed surface exposed by removing newspaper. Casing soil spread uniformly on this surface 3-4cm thicklayer. Maintain the temperature 250c relative humidity 85-90%for 3-4 day.
Spawn run :- The best mycelial growth is 23-25 0c temperature. Favorable humidity 90.35%. To control the temperature fresh air is required. MYCELIAL GROWTH ON TRAY
Crop management : - The pinhead start appearing after 12-15 day of fruiting. when pinhead develop to pea size give a little moistwater spraying. After appearance of pinhead it require 8-10 day toattain marketable size. Harvest the mushroom once or twice a day.
Clean them with brush. Pack them in polythene bags preferably 200gmmushroom per bag or in plastic box. Button mushroom can be canned either in brine or citricacid solution.Yield: - Yield obtained about 3kg /tray 15-20kg form one bed