PART 6 DELIVERING VALUE Chapter 15MARKETING CHANNELS & VALUE NETWORK
What is a Marketing Channel?A marketing channel system is the particular setof interdependent organizations involved in theprocess of making a product or service available for use or consumption.
Marketing Channels• Importance of Channels a. push strategy b. pull strategy• Channel Development• Hybrid Channels• Understanding Customer Needs a. Habitual Shoppers b. High-value deal seekers c. Variety-loving Shoppers d. High-involvement shoppers
The Role of Marketing Channels• Channel function flow• Channel Level a. producer and the final customer are part of every channel. b. zero level channel c. one level channel d. two level channel e. three level channel• Service Sector Channels
Channel-Design Decision• Analyze customer desired service output level a. lot size b. waiting and deliver time c. spatial convenience d. product variety e. service backup• Establishing objectives and constrains• Identifying and Evaluating Major Channel Alternatives
A. Types of intermediariesB. Number of intermediariesC. Terms & responsibilities of channel members
Numbers of Intermediaries I. Exclusive distribution II. Selective distribution III. Intensive distribution
Channel-Management Decisions• Selecting channel members• Training channel members• Motivating channel members• Evaluating channel members• Modifying channel members
Channel Integration and SystemsA. Vertical marketing systems a. Corporate VMS b. Administered VMS c. Contractual VMSB. Horizontal marketing systemsC. Multichannel systems
What is Channel Conflict?• Channel conflict occurs when one member’s actions prevent another channel from achieving its goal.• Types of channel conflicts:- – Vertical – Horizontal – Multichannel
What is a Marketing Channel? A marketing channel system is the particular set of interdependent organizations involved in the process of making a product or service available for use or consumption.
PART 6 :- Delivering Value CHAPTER 16:- MANAGING,RETAILING, WHOLESALING AND LOGISTICS
Retailing• Retailing includes all the activities in selling goods or services directly to final consumers for personal, non-business use• Any organization selling to final consumers is doing retailing• It doesnt matter how or where the goods or services are sold• A retailer or retail store is any business enterprise whose sales volume comes primarily from retailing
Levels of Service Retailers position themselves as offering one of four levels of service• Self service • Customers carry out their own locate-compare-select process to save money• Self selection • Customers find their own goods, although they can ask for assistance• Limited service • Customers need more information and assistance• Full service • Customers who like to be waited on prefer this type of store
Retailing categoriesStore Retailing Non Store Retailing • Direct Selling • Direct Marketing • Automatic Vending • Buying Service
The New Retail Environment• New Retail Forms and Combinations• Growth of Intertype Competition• Competition between Store-based and Non- Store –Based Retailing• Growth of Giant Retailers• Decline of Middle-Market Retailers• Growing Investment in Technology• Global Profile of Major Retailers
Marketing Decisions• Target Market• Product Assortment• Product Procurement• Prices• Services• Store Atmosphere• Store Activities And Experiences• Communication• Location
PRIVATE LABELS• A private-label brand Role Of Private Labels:- (also called a reseller, • It lowers the cost of store, house, or Research and distributor brand) is a development, brand that retailers and Advertisements, Sales wholesalers develop. promotion and physical distribution, etc.
The Private-Label Threat• In the deal between manufacturers and private labels, retailers gets many advantages and increasing market power.• Many supermarkets now charge a high fee for accepting a new brand, to cover the cost of listing and stocking it.• Manufacturers and retailers copy and duplicate the qualities of the best brands.• The continuous barrage of coupons and price specials(discounts) has trained people to buy on price.• This has led to a confusing amount of product.
WHOLESALING• Wholesaling includes all the activities in selling goods or services to those who buy for resale or business use.• wholesalers pay less attention to promotion, atmosphere, and location.• wholesale transactions are usually larger than retail transactions, and wholesalers usually cover a larger trade area than retailers.• the government deals with wholesalers and retailers differently ill terms of legal regulations and taxes.
Functions of Wholesalers• Selling and promoting• Buying and assortment building• Bulk breaking• Warehousing.• Transportation. Financing.• Risk bearing.• Market information• Management services and counseling.
Trends in Wholesaling• Wholesaler-distributors have faced pressures due to competition, demanding customers, new technologies, and more direct-buying programs by large industrial, institutional, and retail buyers. 1.They sought a clear agreement with their manufacturers about their expected functions in the marketing channel. 2. They gained insight into the manufacturers requirements by visiting their plants and attending manufacturer association conventions and trade shows. 3. They fulfilled their commitments to the manufacturer by meeting the volume targets, paying bills promptly, and feeding back customer information to their manufacturers. 4. They identified and offered value-added services to help their suppliers.G7
MARKET LOGISTICSMarket logistics includes planning the infrastructureto meet demand, then implementing and controllingthe physical flows of materials and final goods frompoints of origin to points of use, to meet customerrequirements at a profit.
Market logistics planning has four steps Deciding on the companys value proposition to its customers. (What on-time delivery standard should we offer? What levels should we attain in ordering and billing accuracy?) Deciding on the best channel design and network strategy for reaching the customers. (Should the company serve customers directly or through intermediaries? What products should we source from which manufacturing facilities? How many warehouses should we maintain and where should we locate them?) Developing operational excellence in sales forecasting, warehouse management, transportation management, and materials management Implementing the solution with the best information systems, equipment, policies, and procedures
Market-Logistics Objectives Means"getting the right goods to the right places at the right time for the least cost.“ Market-logistics costs interact and are often negatively related. For example:• The traffic manager favors rail shipment over air shipment because rail costs less. However, because the railroads are slower, rail shipment ties up working capital longer, delays customer payment, and might cause customers to buy from competitors who offer faster service.• The shipping department uses cheap containers to minimize shipping costs. Cheaper containers lead to a higher rate of damaged goods and customer will.
Given the market-logistics objectives, the company mustdesign a system that will minimize the cost of achieving theseobjectives. Each possible market-logistics system will lead to thefollowing cost: M= T+ FW+ VW+ 5where, M = total market-logistics cost of proposed system T = total freight cost of proposed system FW = total fixed warehouse cost of proposed system VW= total variable warehouse costs (including inventoly) of proposed system 5 = total cost of lost sales due to average delivery delay under proposed system
Market-Logistics Decisions The firm must make four major decisions about its market logistics: How should we handle orders (order processing)? Where should we locate our stock (warehousing)? How much stock should we hold (inventory)? How should we ship goods (transportation)?