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  1. 1. ELECTRONIC PAPER<br />By Avinash Arun<br />
  2. 2. contents<br />Past and the future…<br />What is e-paper?<br />Desirable features of E-paper and it’s advantage over LCD display<br />Comparison of displays<br />Various E-paper technology and companies designing frontplane and backplane of e-paper<br />1) Electrophoretictechnology<br />2) Cholesteric Liquid Crystal Display Technology<br />3) Electrowetting Technology<br />4) Electrochromic Technology<br />5) Interferometric Modulator Technology<br />6) Photonic crystal technology<br />7) REED(Reverse Emulsion electrophoretic Display) Technology<br />What urged researchers to design E-paper?<br />Required future developments<br />Current state of research<br />applications<br />
  3. 3.
  4. 4. What is e-paper?<br />An Electronic Paper Display is a display that possess <br /><ul><li>a paper-like high contrast appearance
  5. 5. ultra-low power consumption
  6. 6. a thin, light form.
  7. 7. It gives the viewer the experience of reading from paper, while having the power of updatable information. </li></li></ul><li>Features of E-paper……<br />Advantage over LCD display<br /><ul><li>LCD display- back-lit</li></ul>E-paper-uses ambient light.<br /><ul><li>LCD display- monostable</li></ul>E-paper display-bistable<br />Power requirement.<br />
  8. 8. Comparison of displays<br />Mobility<br />Readability<br />+<br />+<br />BB<br />E-reader<br />PDA<br />Paper<br />Phone<br />Paper<br />E-reader<br />PC<br />Laptop<br />Laptop<br />BB<br />PDA<br />PC<br />Phone<br />Paper<br />PDA<br />Laptop<br />E-reader<br />BB<br />PC<br />Phone<br />+<br />Actuality/interactivity<br />
  9. 9. Various e-paper frontplane technology<br /><ul><li>Interferometric Modulator Technology
  10. 10. Qualcomm
  11. 11. Photonic Crystal Technology
  12. 12. Opalux
  13. 13. REED Technology
  14. 14. Zikon</li></ul>Electrophoretic Technology<br />E Ink<br />SiPix<br />Bridgestone<br />Cholesteric LCD Technology<br />Fujitsu<br />Hitachi<br />Kent Display<br />Kodak<br />Nemoptic<br />ZBD Display<br />Electrowetting Technology<br />Liquivista<br />Electrofluidic Technology<br /><ul><li>Gamma Dynamics
  15. 15. Electrochromic Technology
  16. 16. Acreo
  17. 17. Aveso
  18. 18. Ntera
  19. 19. Siemens</li></ul>Companies designing backplane of e-paper are<br />HP<br />NEC<br />Plastic Logic<br />Polymer Vision<br />Prime View International<br />Ricoh<br />Samsung<br />Seiko Epson<br />
  20. 20. 1) Electrophoretic technology<br />Works on the basic principle of electrophoresis<br />
  21. 21. 2) Cholesteric Liquid Crystal Display Technology<br /><ul><li>It uses chiralnematic Liquid Crystal (LC) molecules confined between two parallel substrates to define the liquid crystal cell.
  22. 22. Bistable liquid crystal phases exists
  23. 23. The planer texture reflects the light of specific wavelength
  24. 24. The conical texture weakly reflects the light.
  25. 25. Multicolored Ch-LCD can be used by using layers of three primary colors stacked on the top of each other</li></ul>Planer texture<br />Conical texture<br />
  26. 26. 3) Electrowetting Technology<br />With no voltage applied, the (colored) oil forms a flat film between the water and a hydrophobic (water-repellent), insulating coating of an electrode, resulting in a colored pixel. Applying voltage between the electrode and the water causes the interfacial tension to change, which causes the water to move the oil aside. The result is a partly transparent pixel; if a reflective white surface is used under the switchable element, a white pixel results.<br />
  27. 27. 4)Electrochromic Technology<br />Change in colour due to oxidation or reduction state.<br />Polyaniline and polyethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT) are examples of electrochromic materials.<br />High contrast because it absorbs some colours and reflects others<br />5) Interferometric Modulator Technology<br /><ul><li>Reflects light at a specific wavelength and gives pure, bright colors like those in a butterfly’s wings
  28. 28. MEMS are used to switch the display on and off.</li></li></ul><li>6) Photonic crystal technology<br /><ul><li>Photonic crystals
  29. 29. Changing the pattern of molecules in the crystal causes a change in the color of light that the crystals reflect</li></ul>Disadvantages<br /><ul><li> When pixels change from long wavelength colors to shorter ones the speed decreases
  30. 30. Its dependence on the flow of electrolyte in response to electricity</li></li></ul><li>7) REED(Reverse Emulsion electrophoretic Display) Technology<br />uses nano-droplets of a polar liquid dispersed in a non-polar liquid<br />use less energy<br />faster switching speeds<br />video possible<br />Can be produced using LCD manufacturing technique.<br />
  31. 31. What urged researchers to design E-paper?<br />Lack of a useable e-reader<br />Most reading devices use LCDs, which use backlights<br />High power, hence low battery life<br />Fatigue due to screen flicker<br />Most reading devices are small. <br />Difficult to read<br />Can not maintain original content layout<br />If not, they are heavy.<br />Laptop, computers<br />
  32. 32. Required future developments<br />Full color implementation<br />Implementation of video on it.<br />Flexibility of the e-paper such that it can be rolled or folded<br />Develop it in the such that it will reflect infra red rays and the documents can be read by using night vision camera only. So that it can be used by military. For security purpose. <br />LCD has a backplane lightning which consumes much power.<br />So , in case of low power state the same LCD screen can be made to work as a E-paper with no back light on.<br />Current state of research<br />
  33. 33. applications<br />Education: digital schoolbooks<br />Wristwatches<br />Newspapers<br />Cell phones-Motorola's low-cost mobile phone, the Motorola F3, also uses an alphanumeric black/white electrophoretic display.<br />
  34. 34. The commercial goods with full color display are expected to be in market within a decade.Thank you<br />