CFADW PRESENTATION(Music sampling in hip hop)

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CFADW PRESENTATION(Music sampling in hip hop)

  1. 1. Shirlon Charles<br />April 13, 2011<br />MUSIC SAMPLINGIN HIP HOP <br />
  2. 2. TABLE OF CONTENTS<br />Introductionof Hip Hop<br />History of Hip Hop music and sampling<br />Definition of Sampling<br />Types of Sampling Machines<br />Sampling and Hip hop<br />Legal Implications of Sampling<br />Conclusion<br />References<br />
  3. 3. WHAT IS HIP HOP <br />It is a culture that involves art, dance, fashion and language, "Ebonics”<br />Originally centered around drums, with a heavy baseline with the addition of a few keyboard notes mixed in with someone talking in rhymes or “rapping” in timing to the beat<br />Hip Hop overtime has evolved to be more than justa culture or a way of life.<br />It has emerged from basements of the boroughs of New York, to an undeniable force that is pretty much forefront of pop culture <br />
  4. 4. History of Hip Hop <br />Hip Hop evolved from Jamaica's dub music by a Jamaican immigrant Clive “Hercules” Campbell or DJ “Kool Herc”, <br />Kool Herc was already familiar with “toasting” a reggae artist talking in rhymes over an instrumental section of a record. <br />Kool Herc, started making that music with two turntables out of breakbeats (the instrumental breaks of a song that focused on the rhythm section, the favourite part of the song for most dancers), <br />Theodore "Grand Wizard" Livingstone was accidentally discovering “scratching". <br />A technique used to produce distinctive sounds by moving a vinyl record back and forth on a turntable<br />
  5. 5. HISTORY OF HIP HOP CON’T<br />The precursors of rap were disc-jockeys, or "spinners", who used the technique to comment on the song or to incite to the crowd to dance. <br />The idea of altering the instrumental score originated from the need to provide non-stop dance tracks, but it evolved as disc-jockeys began to pronounce more pretentious slogans that became the equivalent. In hip hop this is where “sampling “started<br />
  6. 6. SAMPLING<br />Definition:<br /> In music sampling is the act of taking a portion or sample of one sound recording and reusing it as an instrument or a different sound recording of a song. <br />http://www.sciencefriday.com/program/archives/201101287<br />
  7. 7. SAMPLING<br />Example:<br />Often "samples" consist of one part of a song, such as a break, used in another, for instance the guitar riffs from Foreigner's “Hot Blodded” in Tone-Loc's “Funky Cold Medina”<br />DJs originally repeated the breaks from songs, via mixing and scratching.<br />http://www.sciencefriday.com/program/archives/201101287<br />http://www.whosampled.com/artist/Jay-Z/<br />
  8. 8. Sampling and Hip Hop<br />The bulk of the samples used in hip hop were from the years 1970-1975, the most being 872 different songs from 1973, making it “The Funkiest Year Ever”. <br />Some of 1973s most sampled songs include; Barry White’s “I’m Gonna Love You Just a Little More, Babe”, which was sampled 33 times, Kool and the Gang’s “Jungle Boogie”, which was sampled 45 times, <br />http://libraryofvinyl.blogspot.com/2005/11/and funkiest-year-ever-was.html<br />
  9. 9. SAMPLING MACHINES<br />Tape replay keyboards<br />Digital Sampler<br />Computer memory based samplers<br />Sampling Synthesizers<br />Music Workstations<br />
  10. 10. Sampling machines con’t<br />The E-mu Sp- 1200 percussion sampler progressed Hip Hop away from the drum machine sound upon its release in August 1987, ushering in the sample-based sound of the late 1980s and early 1990s. Akai pioneered many processing techniques, such as crossfade looping and "time stretch" to shorten or lengthen samples without affecting pitch and vice versa.<br />
  11. 11. Sampling machine con’t<br />The modern-day music workstation usually uses sampling, whether simple playback or complex editing that matches all but the most advanced dedicated samplers, and also includes features such as a sequencer<br />Using digital techniques various effects can be pitch-shifted and otherwise altered in ways that would have required many hours when done with tape.<br /> (link to video on you tube no longer than 2 minutes)<br />
  12. 12. Legal Implications<br />Sampling has been an area of contention from a legal perspective. <br />Early sampling artists simply used portions of other artists' recordings, without permission; once rap and other music incorporating samples began to make significant money the original artists began to take legal action, claiming copyright infringement. <br />Some sampling artists fought back, claiming their samples were fair use (a legal doctrine in the USA that is not universal). http://english.turkcebilgi.com/Sampling+(music)<br />
  13. 13. SUMMARY<br />While sampling music has evolved over the years from vinyl records with E-MU and Akai boxes in the mid 1980sto digital computerize software today.Sampling has become mainstream not only in hip hop but other genres of music.<br />It is about finding that perfect beat…<br />However, bands like The Beatles have made it a nightmare for any hip hop artists to use elements of their songs for their own. The Beatles’ case, they just don’t want their songs ruined by over-exposure in poor formats, or through mediums that have not had their oversight.<br />
  14. 14. CONCLUSION<br />Pros<br />It allows old music that has been created in the 50s, 60s and 70s that might not have being heard on mainstream radio or media to be brought to the spot light. <br />It also allows the original artist or copyright holders to earn royalties on the music. <br />
  15. 15. CONCLUSION CON’T<br />Cons<br />It takes away the authenticity of the original recording and makes hip hop music even more unoriginal. <br />
  16. 16. REFERENCES<br />http://www.lavelysinger.com/digital_sampling.pdf<br />http://www.sciencefriday.com/program/archives/201101287<br />(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sampling_(music)<br />www.wikipedia.org/DJ<br />http://english.turkcebilgi.com/Sampling+(music)<br />
  17. 17. THANK YOU!<br />Are there any questions?<br />

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