Material inicial para alumnos de español


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Tip to survive in Cambaland!!!

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Material inicial para alumnos de español

  1. 1. APRENDAMOS A ORAR EN ESPAÑOLINICIO Padre Santo Señor Padre Bueno Señor Jesús Padre Nuestro Padre Celestial Dios y Señor NuestroALABANZA. Glorificado sea tu nombre Bendito sea tu nombre |Ensalzado sea tu nombre Alabado seas, Oh Dios Alabado sea tu Santo nombre Bendito seas Señor por siempre Digno eres Señor de todo honor, de toda gratitud, de toda alabanza, de toda gloriaACCIÓN DE GRACIAS Gracias Señor por... Quiero agradecerte Señor por... Te agradezco Señor… Te agradecemos Señor...PETICIÓN DE PERDÓN Perdónanos Señor por... Ten misericordia de nosotros… Te pedimos perdón por... Ten piedad de nosotros… Me arrepiento Señor de/por... Ten compasión de mí…PETICIONES PERSONALES Queremos pedirte Señor en este día, en este momento, en esta ocasión, en esta celebración, etc... Te pedimos que nos ayudes con... Te pedimos que nos guíes, que nos acompañes, que nos protejas, que nos dirijas... Ayúdanos con o en… Protégenos. Escúchanos. Dirígenos. Derrama Tu gracia sobre nosotros. Derrama Tu poder, Tu Espíritu, Tu bendición, Tu luz. Danos, concédenos, permítenos...INTERCESIÓN Y FINAL Protégelo, Ilumínalo, señálale el camino, sánalo, guíalo, dale Señor… TODO ESTO TE LO PEDIMOS EN EL NOMBRE DE NUESTRO SEÑOR JESUCRISTO.
  2. 2. Bolivian Customs A few suggestions to be mindful of...Handshakes and "Abrazos":Learn to be free with handshakes (apretón de manos) and abrazos, especially in small townsand with rural people. It is always proper to start every encounter at least with a handshake.Learn from others the abrazo (hug) until you can do it spontaneously. It involves thehandshake first, then the same right hand reaches out to pat the others shoulder, followedby the handshake again. Abrazos are used for greetings or good-byes and on specialoccasions such as congratulating others on their birthday, at Christmas, after New Year, etc.Introducing a Friend:As there are various levels of relationships, so too, there are several ways of introducingpeople. Among youth, there is a very informal manner that often does not include theexchanging of names. The person who knows each of the previously unacquainted partieswill simply introduce one as "a friend" (un amigo). The two parties generally nod their headwith a "hi" (hola) or "how are you?" (que tal?) and the conversation continues. In thissetting it is not impolite to ask at some later moment for the name of the person introduced.A second level would be a more formal level especially seen in rural settings or with peoplethat come from the campo. In this case, the person who introduces another does not give thenames of his friends. The person being introduced should give his own name whether hesays "How do you do?" or not. Just as in English, one may say, "How do you do?" whileanother says "Pleased (or glad) to meet you", so there are many forms in Spanish. Theessential is the surname, and if possible, a simple "Mucho gusto". At times, the one youmeet may be stringing off a "pleased to meet you, Jorge Mendez at your service, etc.", atthe same time you are saying your name. The main point is for you to get your name outclearly. The "mucho gusto" may precede or follow. Too long a speech would often be outof place.A third level would be the very formal level of business, etc. At this level it is most properto proceed as in North America, with the introducer giving the names of the parties beingintroduced. Upon shaking hands a "mucho gusto" is always appropriate.Meeting Your Friend:When you meet a friend on the street, do not ignore the friend he/she may have with them.It is rude to speak to one person and not acknowledge the other, whether you know him/heror not. In the same way, after you have chatted with your friend, you should not only takecareful leave of him/her, but also say goodbye or excuse yourself from the friend also.Be Interested In Others:In encounters with friends or co-workers, it is very appropriate to ask about the family.Even if the reply is very general, "Ahi está" or "Está bien, gracias", it is common courtesyto inquire about them.
  3. 3. To ask what they are doing is usually regarded as interest in them rather than curiosity,unless it would get to the point of prying into their personal affairs.In more rural settings, it is polite to ask ones age so do not be embarrassed to reply whenyou are asked to tell your age. Also, do not be embarrassed if you are told how fat you are!Robustness is a sign of health, and it is therefore a compliment. In the city, the situation ismore similar to North America where one would not necessarily ask anothers age. Incommenting on weight, the compliment would regard the loss of weight and not on gainingas in the rural setting.Goodbye:Good-byes are said according to when you expect to meet your friend again. The mostcasual is "Chau", the most common is "Hasta luego", and the most final goodbye is"Adiós". If you are going on a trip, your goodbye could be "Hasta la vuelta" (until thereturn). If you expect to see your friend tomorrow or soon following, you may say yourgoodbye as: Hasta mañana (Until tomorrow) Hasta el lunes (Until Monday, etc.)If you stop to talk again after saying goodbye, you should repeat the goodbye all over againwhen you do leave.Courtesy at the Table:When one comes into a room or to a table where others are eating, the greeting is regularly,"Provecho" (enjoy your meal), to which the one at the table replies "Gracias". A bit moreformal would be "Buen Provecho", and one may at any time say "Muchas Gracias".When one enters a restaurant where many are eating, it is also good to have the wordprovecho" on the tip of ones tongue. In this setting, "provecho" is offered to a friend thatone might encounter, to someone who by chance might catch your eye, and/or to the peoplein the immediate vicinity of the table. It would not be proper to try to offer "provecho" toeveryone in the restaurant.When one leaves the table while others remain seated (even though they may actually havefinished eating), "provecho" is said, and anyone who hears answers "gracias". It is alsonecessary to ask to be excused by simply saying "permiso" (permission).Remember to thank the hostess,for every single meal. She may simply tell you that you arewelcome or she may answer "provecho", when being thanked for the meal. In the campo,most hostesses will respond to thanks with an "Excuse me", (“Va a disculpar” or"Disculpe"). This means she is sorry she could not serve something better. The properresponse to her in this situation would be to assure her that the meal was fine ("No sepreocupe, estuvo rico").Regarding table etiquette, sometimes in the past it was considered more popular to stand upand reach for seconds or the salt and pepper rather than bother someone else in asking them
  4. 4. to pass it. It was also considered polite to use the border of the tablecloth to wipe-onesmouth when no napkins were provided. This is no longer the situation in either case. Tablemanners would be roughly the same as those observed in North America. One exceptionwould be that it is better to keep both hands on the table as you eat, rather than keeping onein your lap.Use of "Permiso":There is more than one way to excuse yourself in Spanish. The use of the word "Permiso"or more formal "Con su permiso" (with your permission) is all that is necessary to excuseoneself from anothers presence or conversation. The usual response to this is "Siga nomás" or "Adelante" ("Go ahead"). The other way to excuse yourself is with the worddisculpe, more closely related to the verb "to excuse". Disculpe is used more when you areleaving a conversation or encounter in a permanent sense, while permiso is askingpermission to leave for a short interruption (telephone call, etc.).Offering a Chair:It is important that you offer a chair to your guest as soon as he/she comes to visit. This istrue even if you are not yet sure for what motive he has come for. If the person is in a hurry,he might say "vengo apurado", and quickly relate his motive.Do not offer your guest a warm chair that has been in the sun, or one that you were justsitting on. If you have no other chair, it is proper to spread a bag or a blanket on the chair,or else (especially in the Bolivian tropics) to fan it a minute before giving it to your guest.Besides just offering a chair, it is also very appropriate to offer something to drink. Water,refresco (kool-aid), or coffee, depending on the weather will make the guest feel that one isglad to see him.Gifts:A friend bringing a chicken does not come and say, "Here is a gift for you." When onebrings a plate of food one usually says, "This is for you to try (para probar). A parting giftwould be called a remembrance or something to remember one by (un recuerdo) rather thana gift. The receiver may refer to it as a gift though the giver does not glorify it by that name(Examples to use: Algo para ti, Esto es para usted, Traigo algo para que usted pruebe.)Here in Bolivia it is not polite to open a gift in front of the giver unless specifically askedto. The giver is thanked, the gift is taken out of the limelight, and normal conversationensues.In some settings, wedding presents are not taken to the wedding or the reception, but to thehouse before or immediately after the wedding. In the city it is becoming more common totake the gift to the wedding. It is not common to include your name or a card on the gift.Use of "TenerYou should take care in using the possessive.pronoun (my, your, his, etc,) nor the verb“tener” with the words huevos, pan or leche, and in the lowland, pájaro. Evil mindsmisconstrue your meaning. It is more appropriate and safer to say, "Hay huevos?" or "Hay
  5. 5. pan?" In the lowlands especially, the verb haber is more commonly used in asking foritems in stores or restaurants.Speak Softly:North Americans are often regarded as very loud compared to Latin Americans and areencouraged to cultivate more modesty in public. It is important not to yell at your friend inpublic or call him over to you with a yell as you would a dog. If one sees a friend walkingon the sidewalk across the street, a small wave or nod of the head is appropriate. Even tospeak two words, one should cross the street in order to converse at close range with thefriend. Do not yell in order to catch the attention of a friend. It is insulting to yell friends orguests into the house at dinnertime, instead of either sending for them or going out afterthem.Bartering Over Prices:In Cochabamba and in La Paz, it is more customary to barter (come to an agreement on aprice) in the marketplace, but do not go overboard with always trying to get the bargain.You should not carry this into other stores where prices are set. In the markets in SantaCruz, most prices are set and if one wants to get a bargain, one should compare prices ofsimilar items in various stalls, and not by bartering. This is also true in drugstores, hardwarestores, etc. When buying larger items such as guitars or household items, it is all right toask politely if there is a final offer or discount sin factura (without the tax receipt).Turning your back on someone ("Dar la espalda"):If, in talking to someone, you turn your back on someone else, be sure and turn your bodyenough so that you include the other person in your conversation. Even when someone elseenters the room, it is considered more polite to do this.Feet:There is some sensitivity regarding feet. They are considered unclean and smelly. It is notconsidered polite to take your shoes off in public places (meetings, buses, airplanes,restaurants, etc.), not to mention putting your feet on the table, shod or not. In most circles,people try to keep their shoes washed or polished.Revised January 2005 • Offering an invitation (the use of the verb querer) • Offering one´s seat on the bus • Religion