Riparian plants part 3 display version

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Shorline Plants of Pigeon Lake - Shoreline health is critical for a healthy lake. This is is a 3-part presentation filled with photos from Pigeon Lake on to steward the shoreline plants.

Shorline Plants of Pigeon Lake - Shoreline health is critical for a healthy lake. This is is a 3-part presentation filled with photos from Pigeon Lake on to steward the shoreline plants.

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  • Two weeds with similar flowers. Ox-eye Daisy, however, has simple leaves; Scentless Chamomile has much divided, feathery ones. Look for the leafy shoots of Scentless Chamomile before the flowers appear. Ox-eye daisy leaves form rosettes of leaves hugging the ground before the flowers appear.\n
  • Photo taken at Crystal Spring Beach. The two species are not even related, belonging in different families entirely. \n
  • Purple Loosestrife is a rare weed of wetlands and stream or river edges in the West. In eastern Canada it has been known to completely overwhelm wetlands, so any infestations should be removed as soon as detected. It can be readily distinguished from Fireweed by its spike of more closely clustered flowers which each have 4-7 narrow pink petals – Fireweed has larger flowers and only four large petals. Also, in Purple Loosestrife the leaves are opposite or in rings of three along the stem whereas in Fireweed they are alternate. Fireweed is always found in more upland (drier) sites than Purple Loosestrife. \n
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  • Now to take a look at some troublesome species that are perennial and proliferate especially in grassy places and meadows. \nLeafy Spurge is poisonous to cattle. The milky latex it contains can be an irritant, so wear gloves when removing it. \n
  • I noticed a good deal of Caraway (white flowers in umbels and feathery, carrot-like leaves) in fields adjacent to Pigeon Lake. Caraway is an aggressive weed that should be pulled as it approaches the flowering stage. It is a biennial, meaning it forms a rosette of leaves only the first year, and flowers and fruits the second year. \nMost people do not notice smooth brome grass: it is ubiquitous and extensive. But if you find a patch on or near the shore or on your property you should remove it by herbiciding it (e.g., using Roundup). It forms extensive patches, crowding out native species. \n
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Transcript

  • 1. Riparian / Shoreline Plants in the Pigeon Lake Area What’s a Wildflower? What’s a Weed? Part 3 of 3 1
  • 2. Parts, Sections & Content: Slides1 I. Riparian / Shoreline Areas 4 - 13 II. Native Trees & Shrubs for Riparian Areas 15 - 23 III. Native Grass, Reeds, Sedges & Bulrushes 23 – 342 IV. Native Wild Flowers for Riparian Areas 6 - 203 I. Weeds found in Riparian Areas 1 – 23 I. Other Resources Near End Part 3 II. Acknowledgements End of Each Part Also: 2 • Valuable & Interesting Tidbits Throughout
  • 3. Throughout the presentation the bad, non-native, invasive plants are bordered by RED; the Fireweed Himalayan Balsam Creeping (Canada) Thistle 3
  • 4. V. Weeds!This section has information about many of thenon-native plants found around Pigeon Lake.Included is:•Some of our more invasive plants weeds.•Comparisons of some of the easily confusedplants, including some native plants.•Tips for dealing with the weeds.Tip #1 - Practise EDRR!EARLY DETECTION of non-native plant speciesthat are known to be invasive – followed byRAPID RESPONSE in removing them before theybecome established. 4
  • 5. Weeds! … so what?• Native plants have lived in and adapted to the local climate and soils for 1000s of years carving out ways to live as part of a whole community of interconnected life. Each species has a role contributing to, and being kept in check, by “the neighbours”.• Weeds are alien plant species, brought from other countries.• Weeds tend to flower earlier than natives and often have a have a prolonged flowering season.• Weeds are not adapted to our natural area. They offset established balances, seldom give to their “neighbours” and having no natural Himalayan Balsam 5
  • 6. • Healthy zones rarely give weeds the opportunity to get established.• Weeds are mostly found in disturbed habitats that have had their natural or native vegetation removed.• In disturbed areas the weeds move into the bare ground and spread quickly, by seeds or vegetative means such as rhizomes and runners.• If native vegetation is nearby a disturbance Perennial Sow-thistle 6
  • 7. A botanist visited several beaches around the lake to find outwhat the local weed problems are. The following weeds, startwith some of our most urgent to remove. Crystal Springs Beach, Pigeon Lake, July 2009 7
  • 8. Remember, NEVER compost invasive weeds with seeds. When indoubt, bag, seal and put in garbage. Crystal Springs Beach, Pigeon Lake, July 2009 7
  • 9. In 2009, this relative new comeraggressively took over great swathsof shoreline to the extent that thePLWA launched a campaign tobring it under control. As of 2011most Summer Villages are makingsome effort to eradicate it. Thiswill take vigilance!Disposal: Easily pulled.Ideally, pull plants before the seedpods develop.Do not compose them!Bag, seal and garbage.Also see the AB Invasive PlantsWinter 2009 Newsletter.www.invasiveplants.ab.ca/Invader.htm 8
  • 10. In 2009, this relative new comer aggressively took over great swaths of shoreline to the extent that the PLWA launched a campaign to bring it under control. As of 2011 most Summer Villages are making some effort to eradicate it. This will take vigilance! Disposal: Easily pulled. Ideally, pull plants before the seed pods develop. Do not compose them! Bag, seal and garbage. Also see the AB Invasive Plants Winter 2009 Newsletter. www.invasiveplants.ab.ca/Invader.htmHimalayan Balsam 8
  • 11. Our native Touch-me-not or Jewelweed, left, is of the same Patience genus as theHimalayan Balsam! Both have explosive seeds. Being non-native there is nothing tocontrol the pink, beautiful yet aggressive weed. Go to the PLWA to find information onthe campaign to remove it from the Pigeon Lake area. 9
  • 12. Canada Thistle also known as Creeping Thistle ...Extremely invasive. Spreads by underground stems (rhizomes) and fluffy seeds. Formsextensive patches that crowd out native species .Disposal: Repeated mowing through the growing season gradually depletes the foodenergy stored in the root system. Repeated hand pulling in loose soils can also effectivelystress the root system. To succeed, several years of effort must be committed. More info:www.invasiveplants.ab.ca/Downloads/FS-CanadaThistle.pdf 10
  • 13. Butter-and-Eggs or ToadflaxA bad one because it can form extensivepatches.Control:Mowing and hand pulling beforeflowering will prevent seed production, butre-sprouting will occur. Repeated handpulling in loose soils, getting as much rootas possible, and repeated for a few yearscan control/eradicate small infestations.Don’t tolerate it just because it’s pretty!More info: www.invasiveplants.ab.ca/Downloads/FS-DalmatianToadflax.pdf 11
  • 14. Perennial .Sow-thistle . .A very common weed of wet places. Although not extremely bad in thePigeon Lake area, it is present. Allinfestations should be quickly removed.Disposal: Seedlings can be easily hand-pulled.Mowing and cutting can prevent seedproduction, but the plant’s long floweringperiod necessitate many cuts.More info: www.invasiveplants.ab.ca/Downloads/FS-PerennSowthistle.pdf 12
  • 15. Perennial Sow-thistleA very common weed of wet places. Although not extremely bad in thePigeon Lake area, it is present. Allinfestations should be quickly removed.Disposal: Seedlings can be easily hand-pulled.Mowing and cutting can prevent seedproduction, but the plant’s long floweringperiod necessitate many cuts.More info: www.invasiveplants.ab.ca/Downloads/FS-PerennSowthistle.pdf 12
  • 16. Don’t confuse these plants! Some weeds, and even some natives andweeds, are easily confused. Common Tansy Crystal Springs /Zeiner Campground – July 09 Biennial Sagewort 13 Grandview Beach - July 09 (an Artemisia species)
  • 17. A closer look at the Common TansyDisposal: Repeated mowing or hand cutting and encouragingcompetition from native vegetation.Repeated stem removal depletes the food energy stored inroots. If fully established a herbicide may be necessary. 14
  • 18. A possibly confusing pair of weeds. Control: Hand-pulling or digging before flowering is effective, but it is Control: Hand-pulling can prevent spread into new important to remove as much of the areas and is effective on small infestations. Pulled fibrous roots and rhizomes as plants should be bagged and sent to the landfill. Also possible. Repeated efforts will be see: www.invasiveplants.ab.ca/Downloads/FS- required – throughout the growing ScentlessChamomile.pdf season and in subsequent years. Also see: Scentless Chamomile (above) www.invasiveplants.ab.ca/Downloads/FS- OxeyeDaisy.pdf Much divided feathery leaves. Look for the leafy shoots before theOx-eye Daisy (above) flowers appear.Simple leaves 15Rosettes of leaves hug the ground before the flowers appear.
  • 19. Common Stinging Nettle favours moist places, especially if rich in nitrogen, and is not tobe confused with Marsh Hedge-nettle, native and harmless. 16
  • 20. Don’t confuse Purple Loosestrife, left (a weed that must be removed) with the much commoner nativeFireweed. It can be readily distinguished from Fireweed by its spike of more closely clustered flowerswhich each have 4-7 narrow pink petals – Fireweed has larger flowers and only four large petals.Also, the Purple Loosestrife leaves are opposite or in rings of three along the stem whereas theFireweed alternate. Fireweed is always found in more upland (drier) sites than Purple Loosestrife. 17
  • 21. Purple Loosestrife is a rare weed ofwetlands and stream or river edges inthe West. In eastern Canada it hasbeen known to completely overwhelmwetlands.Control: Pulling young plants by handis easy and can eradicate smallinfestations. Shoots of mature plantscan be cut – if done late season therewill be reduced re-sprouting, howeverthere is the risk of spreading seed.Efforts will need to be sustained over afew years.Be careful to bag, seal and dispose ingarage .For more info see: www.invasiveplants.ab.ca/Downloads/FS-PurpleLoosestrife.pdf 18
  • 22. Perennial Sow-thistleCommon Groundsel Stinkweed Annual Hawk’s-beard These annual weeds may thrive in moist sand and mud. All annuals are easily pulled or easily mown before they have gone to seed. 19
  • 23. Leafy Spurge is another bad rhizomatous weed that should be 20removed before it forms extensive patches.
  • 24. White flowers in umbels and feathery, carrot-like leaves seen in fields adjacent to Pigeon Lake. It is a biennial, (forms a rosette of leaves only the first year then flowers and fruits the second year). Most people do not notice smooth brome grass: it is ubiquitous and extensive forming patches that crowd out native species. More on next slide …Caraway - An aggressive weed.Found in fields adjacent to Pigeon Lake,usually of upland grassy areas 21
  • 25. Wild caraway is very difficult to detect when not in flower. Learn to recognize the caraway rosettes – early detection is important for eradication. Hand pulling pre-bloom can be effective, especially in soft soils. After flowering the plants are very fragile and seeds are easily scattered – at this stage a plastic bag can be carefully placed over the mature plant, and closed tightly around the stem. Collected seed should be disposed of in landfill-bound garbage. Several years of pulling may be required to deplete the seed bank.Caraway - Also see: www.invasiveplants.ab.ca/Downloads/FS-WildCaraway.pdf 22
  • 26. Hawkweed is also a very invasive perennial ingrasslands and has been found around PigeonLake. The yellow (Meadow Hawkweed) mayalso be present. Please help control both.Control: Mowing will prevent seedproduction but strongly encourages vegetativereproduction. Hand-pulling or diggingbefore flowering can be very effective onsmall infestations. Remember to remove asmuch root as possible and repeat efforts insubsequent years. This plant was found at Zeiner Park. Also see: www.invasiveplants.ab.ca/ Downloads/FS-OrangeHawkweed.pdf 23
  • 27. Resources & References• Alberta Agriculture and Rural Development Canada – Weed Survey On-line map - www.agric.gov.ab.ca/app68/listings/weeds/weeds_map.jsp• Alberta Invasive Plant Council - www.invasiveplants.ab.ca• Alberta Native Plants Council - www.anpc.ab.ca/content/index.php• Alberta Sustainable Resource Development - www.srd.alberta.ca/• Alberta Weed Control Act - www1.agric.gov.ab.ca/$department/deptdocs.nsf/all/acts6156• Association of Alberta Agricultural Fieldmen - www.aaaf.ab.ca• Canadian Biodiversity Web Site - The Redpath Museum of McGill University - http:// canadianbiodiversity.mcgill.ca/english/index.htm• Invasive Alien Species in Canada Hinterland Whos Who - www.hww.ca/hww2.asp?id=220• Invasive Plants of Canada (IPCAN) - National Botanical Services - www.rbg.ca/cbcn/en/ projects/invasives/index.htm 24
  • 28. Acknowledgements• Patsy Cotterill – Botanist, Edmonton Nature Club Patsy has taken a great interest in the plants around Pigeon Lake and has visited numerous times, documenting the plant life. She has sometimes investigated weed reports. Patsy has generously given PLWA the use of her native plants and weed pictures along with a presentation on the plants – the basis of this modified version.• Alberta Invasive Plant Council for information and some pictures. They have a wealth of information on each weed. See their site for more information. www.invasiveplants.ab.ca• Susan Ellis – A PLWA Member & Volunteer, whose family has enjoyed pigeon lake for over 40 years. Susan modified Patsy’s presentation with permission for PLWA use. 25