Free Software Introduction


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Gives awareness about free software. by Vaibhav Gupta.

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Free Software Introduction

  1. 1. Abhijit A.M. [email_address] Free (dom) Software Lokayat Free Knowledge Initiative
  2. 2. I bet you know this… How many times have you banged your head at this screen? The Windows Blue Screen of Death
  3. 3. VISTA !
  4. 4. Have you ever read the license agreement?
  5. 5. It’s business!
  6. 6. Software Piracy is Illegal <ul><li>Software Piracy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Certain software are not allowed to be copied
  7. 7. You can be put behind the bars for the same </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Can you “own” a copy of Windows Vista ? <ul><li>No!
  9. 9. You just “license” it
  10. 10. Once the license expires, you can not use it
  11. 11. So what to do? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pay Microsoft to renew the license
  12. 12. Even when you have already paid once! </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Software is Costly Well, writing a CD/DVD costs Windows Vista Rs. 7000 Microsoft Office Rs. 25000+ (variable) Adobe Photoshop – CS, CS3 Rs. 15000+ Tally.erp9 Rs. 13500 Corel Draw 12 Rs. 20000 + only Rs. 15
  14. 14. Did you know? <ul><li>There is an alternative to Windows OS
  15. 15. Which is available FREE of cost
  16. 16. Which can be copied without anybody's permission
  17. 17. You can see, study and modify the source code of that Operating System </li></ul>It's called Linux Or rather GNU / Linux
  18. 18. Welcome to the World of GNU / Linux The World of “ Free” Software
  19. 19. “ Free” (!!)? <ul><li>Free as in “Freedom”, and not Free as in “Free food” </li></ul><ul><li>We are talking of Users being Free to use the software </li></ul><ul><li>Well, most of “free software” is actually available “free of cost” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>But that's another interesting story! </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. So what's “Free Software” ? <ul><li>Software that respects the User's Freedom </li></ul>Freedom What is it? 0 Run the program for any purpose 1 Study and Modify the program 2 Copy the program so you can help your neighbor 3 Improve the program, and release your improvements to the public, so that the whole community benefits
  21. 21. Hmmm, Free Software really gives us freedom But that's not enough! There is a deep thought behind the 4 rules of free software…
  22. 22. The 4 Freedoms Explained <ul><li>0: Run the Program </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Having control of your own computer
  23. 23. Use your bike for anything that you want </li></ul></ul>1: Study and Modify <ul><ul><li>Knowledge is free </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How else you can have control of your computer, and run it for “any” purpose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If the software does not run for some purpose, you should be able to make it run
  24. 24. Modify your bike to look like a sport bike ! </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. The 4 Freedoms Explained <ul><li>2: Copy for friends </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who is more important: friend, or software agreement?
  26. 26. Breaking the social solidarity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t you share a bike with your friend? Why make software an exception? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Law does not mean “good” always
  27. 27. The lesser evil: Do wrong to the one who did wrong </li></ul></ul>3: Redistribute improvements to all <ul><ul><li>Being a party of community, give back
  28. 28. Helping each other, community and co-operation </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Why academic institutes should use Free Software <ul><li>Schools have a mission </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teach society to be capable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Teach students “Freedom” and not “Dependence”
  30. 30. Moral education </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The spirit of helping other people around them in society </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Why Colleges should use Free Software <ul><li>Moral education </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The spirit of helping other people around them in society </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This means that the academic institutions must promote free software ! </li></ul>
  32. 32. Hmmm, so “who” wrote Linux? <ul><li>Any guess? </li></ul><ul><li>People! </li></ul><ul><li>Initiated by Linus Torwalds </li></ul><ul><li>Later improved by software developers all over the world </li></ul><ul><li>Linux runs using GNU utilities </li></ul><ul><li>Linux is “Free Software” </li></ul>
  33. 33. What is GNU? <ul><li>G NU is N ot U nix </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A recursive acronym </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why should I know GNU? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>That's where the Free Software Movement Started </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wanna know more about the history of GNU and Free Software Movement ? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Let's meet RMS </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Richard M Stallman <ul><li>American software freedom activist </li></ul><ul><li>The Hero of Free Software Movement </li></ul><ul><li>Hacker (programmer), Software developer (wrote emacs, and tons of other software)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>Sept 1983: GNU Project and the free software movement </li></ul>
  35. 35. GNU / Linux <ul><li>Linux on your box runs with </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A Linux Kernel
  36. 36. Other GNU utilities (gcc, ld, …) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Linux was released under a GPL developed by GNU </li></ul><ul><li>Hence it must be called GNU / Linux </li></ul>
  37. 37. What is GPL? <ul><li>GNU General Public License </li></ul><ul><li>License: A legal instrument </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Governs the usage or redistribution of copyright protected software </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A software published under GPL is “Free” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We can copy, study, modify, redistribute </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All further releases by anyone must be under GPL only </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Open Source <ul><li>Quite a popular term </li></ul><ul><li>So what's the difference between Open Source & Free Software? </li></ul><ul><li>Open Source = Free Software - “Talk of 4 freedoms” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Giving away the source, but not talking of the 4 freedoms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Benefits of having source for commercial interests, ignoring the moral aspects
  39. 39. Talk about technical benefits only </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Open Source And Free Software <ul><li>Not enemies </li></ul><ul><li>Not “Vs” but “And” </li></ul><ul><li>Free & Open Source Software = FOSS </li></ul>
  41. 41. Advantages <ul><li>Freedom! </li></ul><ul><li>Fundamental control and flexibility </li></ul><ul><li>Not being dependent on a sole-source company </li></ul><ul><li>Better quality </li></ul><ul><li>Higher reliability </li></ul>
  42. 42. Free Software Success <ul><li>GNU / Linux: Favorite OS for Servers </li></ul>- Survey, April 1999 Operating System Market Share Composition GNU / Linux 28.5% GNU / Linux Windows 24.4% All Windows combined (including 95, 98, NT) Sun 17.7% Sun Solaris or SunOS BSD 15.0% BSD Family (FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD, BSDI, …) IRIX 5.3% SGI IRIX
  43. 43. Apache beats all… Apache is the highest used Web Server in history
  44. 44. Reliability, Failure Rates
  45. 45. Proprietary Vs Free Software <ul><li>What about software that are available on Windows, but not on Linux? </li></ul><ul><li>Wrong to compare! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Making Guns is easier than Houses, but do we want to? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proprietary Software is Immoral, why do immoral things </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Well, as a matter of fact there are alternatives on Linux for almost everything on Windows </li></ul>
  46. 46. How does proprietary software get established ? <ul><li>Proprietary Software – Only for Profit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows, Office, Adobe, Corel, Macintosh, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Supported by License agreements and </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Copyright Laws
  47. 47. Patent Laws </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Both Copyright & Patent laws talk about “Intellectual Property” and promoting innovation </li></ul>
  48. 48. Intellectual Property <ul><li>One who gets an idea first owns that idea </li></ul><ul><li>Right to earn money on the basis of ideas that one gets
  49. 49. Can knowledge be an individual property ? Lets discuss... </li></ul>
  50. 50. Why knowledge can't have owners … Who owns the idea of ’Wheel’ ? Who owns the idea of ’Writing’ ? Who owns the idea of ’Cooking’ ? Society has developed most of its knowledge through co-operation and sharing There was no individual ownership of knowledge for most of human history
  51. 51. Free Knowledge <ul><li>Any invention is always built on top of socially owned knowledge </li><ul><li>adding a drop to the ocean of knowledge </li></ul><li>“ I could see farther because I was standing on the shoulders of Giants” - Albert Einstein
  52. 52. What is the cost of knowledge ?
  53. 53. Patents are privatising and monopolising knowledge </li><ul><li>Claim over the whole ocean </li></ul></ul>
  54. 54. Patents: Innovation Killers <ul><li>More innovation if more people have knowledge and can use it </li><ul><li>30,000 varities of rice in India before green revolution
  55. 55. Now less than a hundred ! </li></ul><li>Patents: Restrict the knowledge to the corporate labs </li><ul><li>Only those with money can use a patent
  56. 56. Profit machines for the companies </li></ul></ul>
  57. 57. Why some people claim Ownership? <ul><li>False notions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Copyright protects Author’s natural rights
  58. 58. Leads to more production
  59. 59. The Law </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Actual motive is – Profit making </li></ul>
  60. 60. What’s wrong with Patents? <ul><li>Monopoly </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We can not use an invention, until we pay money </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some ideas can’t have alternatives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Molecules for medicines </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Very hard for individuals to get a Patent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Costs lot of money
  61. 61. Only big companies can own it </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cost of using a patent is very high </li></ul><ul><ul><li>So most of the people can’t use it </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Case of Haldi and Neem Patents </li></ul>
  62. 62. Patents & Copyright <ul><li>You register an invention in your name, called ”Patent” </li></ul><ul><li>Anybody who uses your idea / product can be charged for it </li></ul><ul><li>Patents are in public domain, so anybody can see them </li></ul><ul><li>Hence it is said that they’ll spread knowledge and the world can use it </li></ul><ul><li>Copyright covers a work of Authorship. A Patent covers an Idea… </li></ul>
  63. 63. Software Patents are even Worse… <ul><li>Well, patents are anyways bad! </li></ul><ul><li>Software Patents are like Land Mines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You never know when you used somebody else’s idea </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Large programs require many ideas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most of the ideas are mundane, trivial, common sense
  64. 64. Some company would have already patented them </li></ul></ul>
  65. 65. Morally Speaking… <ul><li>Freedom of all the People is more important than Profits of Few </li></ul><ul><li>The 4 freedoms of software talk of Ownership of the Community and not an individual </li></ul>
  66. 66. Let's Fight <ul><li>Against the Monopolisation of Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>The Patent Laws </li></ul><ul><li>The Copyright Laws </li></ul>
  67. 67. The World is adopting Free Software <ul><li>Venezuela: A free software law in January 2006 </li></ul><ul><li>Republic of Peru: &quot;Free Software in Public Administration” bill </li></ul><ul><li>Kerala: Landmark decision to switch all school computers in 12,500 high schools from Windows to GNU / Linux </li></ul><ul><li>Maharashtra: Judiciary and BSNL
  68. 68. Nearly a hundred FSUGs (Free Software Users Group) and LUG (Linux Users Group) in India ! </li></ul>
  69. 69. Fall-out of the Free Software Movement <ul><li>The Free & Open Source Software (FOSS) movement demonstrates how </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Labour can self-organise production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Even compete with some of the worlds largest firms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>As proved by the free Operating System GNU / Linux </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>A different kind of activism that promotes development of technology from below </li></ul>
  70. 70. What are you waiting for? Start Your Own FSUG !
  71. 71. Join Us! <ul><li>To know more about Linux </li></ul><ul><li>To become a Free Software Activist </li></ul><ul><li>To fight against Copyright and Patent Laws </li></ul><ul><li>To work for a world where Knowledge is Free! </li></ul><ul><li>We meet every Sunday from 4-7 pm at: </li></ul>Lokayat, Lenovo Building, Opp Syndicate Bank, Law College Road, Nal Stop, Pune Join the googlegroup: [email_address]
  72. 72. Thank You!
  73. 73. <ul><li>Jurassic Park
  74. 74. Cisco Case
  75. 75. Elephant's Dream
  76. 76. Send Information Screenshot </li></ul>
  77. 77. References <ul><li>
  78. 78.
  79. 79. Hacking Capitalism
  80. 80. Cathedral and the Bazaar
  81. 81. Why OSS/FS? Look at the numbers !
  82. 82. Richard Stallman: Wikipedia Entry
  83. 83. The internet is full of material about FS! </li></ul>
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