Evolution

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Evolution

  1. 1. Mechanism of speciation Macro evolution Phylogeny & systematic
  2. 2. What is a species? <ul><li>group of populations whose individuals can interbreed and produce fertile offspring </li></ul><ul><li>Carolus Linnaeus , Developed the binomial system of naming organisms (Genus & species) base on physical characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Taxonomy : The branch of biology concerned with naming and classifying the diverse forms of life </li></ul>
  3. 3. Macroevolution <ul><li>Species concept </li></ul><ul><li>Biological (reproduction) </li></ul><ul><li>Morphological (structures) </li></ul><ul><li>Ecological (adaptation) </li></ul><ul><li>Phylogenetic (genetic History) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Geographic isolation <ul><li>allopatric speciation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A population is geographically divided, and new species often evolve </li></ul></ul><ul><li>sympatric speciation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New species may arise without geographic isolation (polyploid) </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Macroevolution <ul><li>Fossil record </li></ul><ul><li>Geologic record </li></ul><ul><li>Radiometric dating </li></ul><ul><li>Tectonic & continental drift </li></ul><ul><li>Mass extinction & diversification </li></ul>
  6. 6. Phylogeny <ul><li>Study the evolutionary history based on homologous structure and </li></ul><ul><li>molecular sequences that provide evidence of common ancestry </li></ul><ul><li>Homology : similar body structure caused by common ancestry </li></ul><ul><li>Analogy: similar body structure caused similar environments </li></ul><ul><li>Convergent evolution : in similar environments, natural selection may result in similar body structure </li></ul>
  7. 7. Systematic <ul><li>Study the diversity of life and evolutionary relationships between organism </li></ul><ul><li>binomial system for each species </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Name of genus and name of species </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Homo sapience </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Felis catus </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Molecular systematic <ul><li>DNA comparisons; DNA sequence for rRNA </li></ul><ul><li>Molecular clock: number of mutation is proportional to the time of branching </li></ul><ul><li>Genome evolution: comparing the whole genome </li></ul>

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