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Eugenio S Final Presentation Material Results Of Annotated Bibliography Apr12

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5-slide presentation on my Annotated Bibliography on Theories and Literature on CMCs & POB.

5-slide presentation on my Annotated Bibliography on Theories and Literature on CMCs & POB.


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    • 1. ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY (A Presentation) By Shirin Eugenio DBA720D - Advanced Research Method April 12, 2010
    • 2. Media richness H3 Content of CMCs H1 Development of H6 Improved Work POB States Performance Form of H2 Self-Efficacy, Hope CMCs Optimism, Resiliency H4 H5 Flexibility Interactivity CMC POB Steinfeld (1992) Luthans & Avolio (2009) Pickering & King (1995) Roberts, Spreitzer, Dutton, Quinn, Heapy & Barker (2005) Soukop (2000) Avey, Wernsing and Luthans (2008) Miller (2003) Frederickson (2004) Scolari (2009) Yousseff & Luthans (2007)
    • 3. THEORIES SUPPORTING THE CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK: Organizational Behavior Modification Theory by Kreitner & Luthans (1975, 1985) Available source: STAJKOVIC & LUTHANS (1997) Relationship Development Theory by Walther, J. (1992) Available Source: WALTHER (1995) Social Construction of Reality Theory by Lee, A. (1994) Available Source: LEE (1994)
    • 4. ON ONLINE INTERVENTIONS: LUTHANS, F., AVEY, J. B. & PATERA, J. (2008). ☺ Experimental analysis on web-based training intervention to develop positive psychological capital SITZMANN,T., KRAIGER, K., STEWART, D., WISHER, R. (2006). ☺ The comparative effectiveness of web-based and classroom instruction: a meta-analysis. RITTERBAND, L.M., GONDER-FREDERICK, L.A., COX, D.J., ☺ CLIFTON, A.D., WEST, R.W., & BOROWITZ, S.M. (2003) Internet interventions: in review, in use, and into the future. BERNARD, R.M., ABRAMI, P.C., YI, P.L., & BOROKHOVSKI, E. ☺ (2004). How does distance education compare with classroom instruction? a meta-analysis of empirical literature.
    • 5. ON ONLINE INTERVENTIONS: LUTHANS, F., AVEY, J. B. & PATERA, J. (2008). ☺ Most literature on Experimental analysis on web-based training intervention to develop positive psychological capital online/web-based SITZMANN,T., KRAIGER, K., STEWART, D., WISHER, interventions R. (2006). ☺ point to experimental The comparative effectiveness of web-based and classroom instruction: a meta-analysis. studies done in RITTERBAND, L.M., GONDER-FREDERICK, L.A., COX, D.J., CLIFTON, A.D., WEST, R.W., & BOROWITZ, S.M. (2003) the fields of ☺ psychology and Internet interventions: in review, in use, and into the future. educational BERNARD, R.M., ABRAMI, P.C., YI, P.L., & BOROKHOVSKI, E. ☺ (2004). research. How does distance education compare with classroom instruction? a meta-analysis of empirical literature.
    • 6. SOME OBSERVED THEMES, PATTERNS, GAPS and ISSUES: The effectiveness of CMCs (in influencing an OB construct) is normally evaluated using the established tents of Media Richness & Social Presence Theories; FtF vs CMC. Emerging CMC theories tend build their arguments from perspective. KOCK (2004) on media naturalness; MILLER (2003) on connected presence SOUKOP (2000) on directions for new CMC theories CMCs and their contribution to OB is typically generalized from studies on individuals and groups/teams in organizations, and not on organizations as a whole. Group norms, group decision-making POSTMES, SPEAR, LEA (2000); EL-SHINNAWY, M. & VINZE, A.S. (1997). BARKER (1993) Email & Chat Applications as still the most prevalent forms of CMCs studied in researchers in organizational communication. VAN DE HOOFF, B., GROOT, J., & DE JONGE, S. (2005).; HEWITT, P. (2006). SMITH, B., ALVAREZ-TORRES, M.J., & ZHAO, Y. (2003); LEE (1994)
    • 7. SOME OBSERVED THEMES, PATTERNS, GAPS and ISSUES: Interactivity of CMCs as a very complex construct. Most researches tend define it from one of three perspectives: as an attribute of technology systems, the communication process, and user-perception QUIRING (2009) Benefits of CMCs vs Qualities of CMCs More research literature on qualities/attributes of CMCs need to be obtained in order to understand how those qualities can affect organizational behavior. SMITH, B., ALVAREZ-TORRES, M.J., & ZHAO, Y. (2003).
    • 8. SOME OBSERVED THEMES, PATTERNS, GAPS and ISSUES: Interactivity of CMCs as a very complex construct. Most researches tend define it from one of three perspectives: as an attribute of technology systems, the communication process, and user-perception QUIRING (2009) Benefits of CMCs vs Qualities of CMCs More research literature on qualities/attributes of CMCs need to be obtained in order to understand how those qualities can affect organizational behavior. SMITH, B., ALVAREZ-TORRES, M.J., & ZHAO, Y. (2003). Thank you for your time.
    • 9. SOURCE OBJECTIVES TYPE OF PAPER SUBJECTS/ FINDINGS & INSIGHTS IMPLICATIONS FOR MY RESEARCH & UNIT OF (with page number) PAPER (with page number) METHODOLOGY ANALYSIS 3 STEINFELD, C. To introduce two Theory paper Organizations -Provides the concrete forms Another literature that discusses (1992). Computer- new theoretical of CMCs “electronic mail/e- alternative paradigms to information mediated approaches that mail, voice-mail, computer richness in CMC theories -- critical communications in focus on the social bulletin boards, computer mass and social influence. organizational context in which settings: emerging CMCs are conferencing and group conceptual embedded, which decision support systems. (p. Steinfeld is a good source on the frameworks and explain the 349) increased empirical research on directions for adoption, use and organizations using CMC systems in research. impact of CMCs Managerial work, which ways unanticipated by the dominant Management contain higher proportion of theories. CMCs in organizations have Communication To recommend non-routine tasks can be grown in its social uses, broadcast Quarterly, 5(3), three avenues to characterized as relatively uses, political uses and in conflict 348-365. which CMC theories can unanalyzable. Thus resolution. (p.353) expand to, ambiguous communication --> For review of literature; information addressing situations will arise more that can build argument on the applications to frequently, resulting to either in contribution of CMCs in organizations. telecom and a marked preference for richer information communication medium, or --> Steinfeld’s recommended avenues technology among lower performance. (p.351) for CMC research reinforce the organizations increasing criticality of CMCs in New avenues for research - organizations. CMC systems as: 1)Interorganizational --> Steinfeld agrees with previous communication medium research that research must look 2)one of a set of information further beyond just the physical services available over a features of new media, but rather telecom structure understand how systems come to be 3)a tool for achieving strategic used and consequences of such use organizational objectives in organizations. and competitive advantage
    • 10. SOURCE OBJECTIVES TYPE OF PAPER SUBJECTS/ FINDINGS & INSIGHTS IMPLICATIONS FOR MY RESEARCH & UNIT OF (with page number) PAPER (with page number) METHODOLOGY ANALYSIS 1 PICKERING, J.M. & To provide an Theory paper + Organizations Defines CMCs - Computer- Discussions in this paper provide new KING, J.K. (1995) explanation to the Review of mediated Communication refers insight on the contribution of CMCs to Hardwiring Weak growth of Inter- theoretical to person-to-person ‘weak ties’ that exist in organizations (as Ties: organizational CMC development communication, often in text or theorized by Granovetter). Interorganizational (ICMC) to date graphic form, over computer Computer-Mediated networks. (p. 479) ICMC supported weak ties are probably Communication, often maintained to gather information and Occupational CMC infrastructure appears to be facilitate problem solving. (p. 481) Communities, and most strongly supported, at least Organizational in this early stage, among As new communications technologies and Change. organizations dependent on the other elements of information Organization maintenance of external weak infrastructure become available and Science, Vol. 6, No. social ties among employees who ubiquitous, the costs of communication 4, pp. 479-486 are members of professional, will drop and access to information will dispersed occupational grow dramatically. (p.484) communities. This can be seen in the experience of research- --> These insights on the development of oriented organizations. CMC among occupational communities and the pressure of lowering cost will add Two strong forces-the credence to the need to optimize the use professionalism of key of CMCs within the organizations. occupational communities seeking autonomy, and a persistent desire by organizations to reduce fixed costs and organizational size-are posited as encouraging growth of ICMC infrastructure. As the capabilities and price/ performance characteristics of CMC technologies improve, we expect to see explosive growth in use of these technologies both within organizations and between organizations. But because of tension between the welfare of individuals and the organizations they work for, growth of ICMCu se is not likely to be uniform across classes of organizations.
    • 11. SOURCE OBJECTIVES TYPE OF PAPER SUBJECTS/ FINDINGS & INSIGHTS IMPLICATIONS FOR MY RESEARCH & UNIT OF (with page number) PAPER (with page number) METHODOLOGY ANALYSIS 4 SOUKOP, C. (2000). To analyze, critique Theory paper + Theories/Current Provides concrete forms of Literature review provides good Building a theory of and integrate Review of body of literature CMCs - “email, bulletin discussion on supporting the multi-media CMC: an contemporary CMC theoretical on CMCs boards, user groups, advantages of CMCs that increases analysis, critique and theory and research development chatrooms, webpages, etc” ; the ‘personal-ness’ argued to be integration of computer-mediated To explore the news groups, email, list missing (as is always argued from the communication theoretical serves, chatrooms and multi- ‘reduced cues approach). theory and research. implications of user domains. (p.408) New Media Society, increased audio, The insights in this paper point to 2(4), 407-425. video and multi- --> His findings point to him what new theory on CMCs must: dimensionality in that ‘text-based’ concept of -explore a multi-media perspective, cyberspace internet is diminishing, moving instead of pure text-based to multi-media, three- perspective dimenstional, multi-sensory -view CMC as a unique communication in cyberspace communication context with audio-voice interaction, -view CMC as highly dynamic visual-video interaction... (p. -view CMC as a full and rich 409) communicative context - approach CMC as a rhetorical Soukop cites Walther’s context. (p.421) Relational Theory -- Walther establishes that although -These conclusions expressed by CMC may lose some relational Soukop can establish the cues (visual/auditory), CMC assumptions we have to take in gains alternative cues (textual/ developing in CMC that is relevant verbal) today. It strengthens the argument that CMC should not be measured up Good quote by Walther (cited against the elements/features/context by Soukop) -- see p.413 and processes in FtF communication.
    • 12. SOURCE OBJECTIVES TYPE OF PAPER SUBJECTS/ FINDINGS & INSIGHTS IMPLICATIONS FOR MY RESEARCH & UNIT OF (with page number) PAPER (with page number) METHODOLOGY ANALYSIS 18 MILLER, V. (2008) This article will Theory + New media Through a consideration of The discussions on new media and New Media, demonstrate how Conceptual objects the new media objects of the changing culture of individuals Networking, and the notion of Paper blogs, social networking (due to usage and participation in Phatic Culture. ‘phatic profiles these media) has given rise to a new Convergence: The communion’ has and microblogs, along with kind of presence -- ‘connected International become an their associated practices,the presence’. This kind of presence is Journal of increasingly author argues that the social spurred on by the type of Research into New significant part of contexts of ‘individualization’ communications that is prevalent in Media digital media and ‘network sociality’, new media. Technologies, culture alongside alongside the technological 14(4), p.387-400. the rise of online developments associated with --> This new construct is a new networking pervasive communication and argument against the idea of “social practices. ‘connected presence’ has led presence” (a theory built on mass to an online media culture media and not today’s new media). increasingly dominated by While new media today can be phatic communications. That deemed as low in social presence is, communications which (based on the theory), this research is have purely social (networking) arguing that, a new kind of ‘presence’ and not informational or is formed and it is influential in the way dialogic intents. people behave and form relationships with other people. This behavior can He concludes with a have implications in the workplace. discussion of the potential nihilistic consequences of such a culture. Phatic messages are not intended to carry information or substance for the receiver, but instead concern the process of communication. These interactions essentially maintain and strengthen existing relationships in order to facilitate further communication (Vetere et al., 2005). p.394
    • 13. SOURCE OBJECTIVES TYPE OF PAPER SUBJECTS/ FINDINGS & INSIGHTS IMPLICATIONS FOR MY RESEARCH & UNIT OF (with page number) PAPER (with page number) METHODOLOGY ANALYSIS 5 SCOLARI, C.A. To reflect on the Theory paper + Theories/Current New media, old theories VS He veers away from naming all the (2009). Mapping current state of Review of body of literature new media, new theories. possible forms and structures of conversations about digital theoretical on CMCs CMCs, but instead uses the word new media: the communication development Theories on new media/ ‘digitalization or digital theoretical field of studies digital communications must communications’. digital reflect on: communication. To describe the 1.the changing This is a more operational term to New Media & transformations communication production encompass the technological Society, 11(6), that the process process the reduces the text to 943-964. appearance of digital technology 2.content -- development of something that can be easily has generated in meta-products combining “fragmented, handled, linked and communication traditional mass distributed.” (p.946). processes. communication language --> digitalization allows multi-media, in an interactive collaborative and interactive environment communications. 3.consumption and interaction --> Since digitalization implies digital outputs processed through Illustrated map of digital the mediation of computers, CMCs communication theoretical naturally inherit the process of conversations -- p.960. digitalization. --> good categories The dimensions of digital communications that modern theory must consider may be the ‘levers’ to which CMCs must be used in to facilitate a change in behavior. More specifically, these ‘levers‘ given an appropriate quality can influence POB.
    • 14. SOURCE OBJECTIVES TYPE OF PAPER SUBJECTS/ FINDINGS & INSIGHTS IMPLICATIONS FOR MY RESEARCH & UNIT OF (with page number) PAPER (with page number) METHODOLOGY ANALYSIS 4 LUTHANS, F. & To identify and make Position Paper Questions being answered in the A very focused article discussing why POB AVOLIO, B.J. a deep inquiry into (Point/ article: deserves attention, thought and (2009). The the major issues and Counterpoint) 1. Exactly what is POB and what is investigation among academics and questions it not? theorists. “point” of positive surrounding positive 2. What role, if any, did positive organizational organizational psychology play in establishing “In other words, even though POB in some behavior. Journal behavior (POB). POB? ways is either “old wine in old bottles or old of Organizational 3. How does POB differ from OB in wine in newer bottles,” we would argue that Behavior, 30, general? POB is still being examined today in what 291-307. 4. How does POB differ from other may be called a “new restaurant.” What we current positive approaches such mean by this metaphor is that even though as strength-based management workplace positive notions are certainly not and positive organizational new, the environmental context and positive scholarship (POS)? constructs in POB are generally quite 5. Given limited resources, if we different from the past and that in and of focus on POB, what role does the itself warrants inquiry negative play? (not advocacy).” (p.296) 6. How does POB contribute to advancing the science and practice This article streamlines what is the inclusion of what we know about related criteria: fields such as leadership? 1. Must be based on theory, research, and valid measurement; Definition: 2. Must be “state-like” (as opposed to more “the study and application of fixed “trait-like”) and thus be open to positively oriented human resource development; strengths and psychological and capacities that can be measured, 3.Must have performance impact. (p.299) developed, and effectively --> This establishes the theoretical gaps managed for performance and that still exist in the development of POB. improvement in today’s workplace.” (p.298). --> Good discussion on the difference between POB & POS (positive organizational scholarship); deviance-continuum explanation vs state-trait continuum. (see p. 302)
    • 15. SOURCE OBJECTIVES TYPE OF PAPER SUBJECTS/ FINDINGS & INSIGHTS IMPLICATIONS FOR MY RESEARCH & UNIT OF (with page number) PAPER (with page number) METHODOLOGY ANALYSIS 14 ROBERTS, L.M., To introduce an Conceptual Managers Managers who build up This article puts in perspective the SPREITZER, G., assessment tool Paper their strengths can reach significance of a ‘positive approach DUTTON, J., (Reflected Best their highest potential. This in feedback’ -- which is important in Self) that can positive approach does not building up strengths, and not just QUINN, R., help managers pretend to ignore or deny correcting weaknesses. HEAPY, E., & in building the problems that traditional BARKER, B. unique strengths feedback mechanisms This article puts the idea of positive (2005). How to of individuals identify. organizational behavior as play your something that can be achieved through a unique form of ‘feedback’ strengths. Rather, it offers a separate - one that is sought by the manager Harvard Business and unique feedback for himself. Review. 83(1), experience that counterbalances negative It puts a specific direction to what 75-80. input. the content and structure CMCs should adapt in order to influence It allows managers to tap the development of POB states into strengths they may or (self-efficacy, hope, optimism, and may not be aware of and so resiliency). contribute more to their organizations. (p.76)
    • 16. SOURCE OBJECTIVES TYPE OF PAPER SUBJECTS/ FINDINGS & INSIGHTS IMPLICATIONS FOR MY RESEARCH & UNIT OF (with page number) PAPER (with page number) METHODOLOGY ANALYSIS 7 AVEY, J., To investigate Empirical Individuals / (a) Their psychological Developing positive psychological WERNSING, T.S. & whether a research + Employees capital (a core factor capital and positive emotions LUTHANS, F. process of Survey consisting of hope, may indeed be important (2008). Can employees’ efficacy, optimism, and contribution to positive positive employees positivity will have resilience) organizational change. help positive an impact on organizational relevant attitudes was related to their change? The and behaviors in positive emotions that in --> This study relates POB to a Journal of Applied the organization turn were related to their new construct -- organizational Behavioral attitudes change behavior. Science, 44(1), (engagement and 48-70. cynicism) and behaviors --> The findings can be use to (organizational citizenship strengthen the advantageous and deviance) relevant to contribution of POB to organizational change; performance of employees in an organization. (b) Mindfulness (i.e., heightened awareness) interacted with psychological capital in predicting positive emotions; and (c) Positive emotions generally mediated the relationship between psychological capital and the attitudes and behaviors.
    • 17. SOURCE OBJECTIVES TYPE OF PAPER SUBJECTS/ FINDINGS & INSIGHTS IMPLICATIONS FOR MY RESEARCH & UNIT OF (with page number) PAPER (with page number) METHODOLOGY ANALYSIS 13 FREDERICKSON, To review the Theory Paper Individuals / Positive emotions: The work of Frederickson on the latest empirical *empirical Employees - broaden thought-action broaden-and-build theory for B.L. (2004) The evidence studies repertoires positive emotions is a theory used broaden-and-build - undo lingering negative emotions supporting the supporting the by the researchers of POB and theory of positive - fuel psychological resiliency broaden-and- theory done - build personal resources POS, due to the empirical emotions. build theory and over a period of groundwork that she has - fuel psychological and physical Philosophical draws out time prior to this well-being established with regard to the Transactions, implications the research work process by which positive emotions 1449, 1367-1378. theory holds for The broaden-and-build theory affect the creation of relationships optimizing health describes the form and function and use of personal resources that and well-being. of a subset of positive emotions, influence performances in the including workplace. joy, interest, contentment and love. A key proposition is that these positive emotions broaden --> This work can provide the an individual’s framework as to how positive momentary thought–action states can be developed by an repertoire: joy sparks the urge to intervention -- the intervention must play, interest sparks the urge to first broaden, then build before the explore, contentment sparks the POB states can be recognized. urge to savour and integrate, and love sparks a recurring cycle of each of these urges within safe, close relationships. A second key proposition concerns the consequences of these broadened mindsets: by broadening an individual’s momentary thought–action repertoire—whether through play, exploration or similar activities— positive emotions promote discovery of novel and creative actions, ideas and social bonds, which in turn build that individual’s personal resources; ranging from physical and intellectual resources, to social and psychological resources. (p. 1367)
    • 18. SOURCE OBJECTIVES TYPE OF PAPER SUBJECTS/ FINDINGS & INSIGHTS IMPLICATIONS FOR MY RESEARCH & UNIT OF (with page number) PAPER (with page number) METHODOLOGY ANALYSIS 6 YOUSSEFF, C. & To test hypotheses Empirical Individuals / Significant positive The empirical work done on POB LUTHANS, F. (2007). on the impact that research + Employees relationships provides a deeper appreciation for Positive the selected Survey (Two among and unique POB, which originally was purely organizational positive studies) contributions of hope, theory-driven. behavior in the psychological optimism, and resilience to workplace: the resource capacities job satisfaction and work --> The positive relationships of impact of hope, of hope, optimism, happiness, thus supporting POB states to performance optimism and, and resilience have the study hypotheses for strengthens the significance of POB resilience. Journal of on desired those two outcomes. in today’s workplace. Management, 33(5), work-related 774-800. employee outcomes - Despite positive correlations --> This article is one of the performance, job among hope, optimism, and literature sources to build up the satisfaction, work resilience in relation to need for positive organizational happiness, and performance and behavior. organizational organizational commitment, commitment. the hypotheses were --> Good discussion on POB supported only for hope in states. Shorter than previous, but relation to performance and substantial. for hope and resilience in relation to organizational commitment. The findings highlight the potential positive impact that employees’ psychological resource capacities in general, and, specifically, their hope and, to a lesser extent, optimism and resilience, may have on work-related outcomes. (p. 792-793)
    • 19. SOURCE OBJECTIVES TYPE OF PAPER SUBJECTS/ FINDINGS & INSIGHTS IMPLICATIONS FOR MY RESEARCH & UNIT OF (with page number) PAPER (with page number) METHODOLOGY ANALYSIS 1 STAJKOVIC & To meta-analytically Empirical Paper + Effects of OB The study’s hypotheses explored This research exhibited in good detail the LUTHANS. (1997) aggregate and Meta-Analysis interventions that the effect of the type of OB Modification Theory from Luthans and A Meta-Analysis of analyze the found in studies reinforcement intervention Kreitner (1975, 1985/textbook) by the Effects of research findings from 1975-1990. (financial, non-financial, & social) illustrating the process and steps. Organizational pertaining to OB varies according to the type of It discusses that OB Modification Theory’s Behavior Modification Modification organization (manufacturing or contribution to organizations and on Task Performance, Approach to service). management is its foundation rests on the 1975-1990. performance fact that behavior is a function of improvement. Among manufacturing orgs: antecedents and consequences - Magnitudes of effects revealed (environmental variables). p. 1128. different patters of relationships between types of OB Mod. *According to the model - technology Interventions and task within an organization can be the context performance by which intervention can be developed. - The simultaneous application of financial, non-financial and social This article also discusses that behavior produced the strongest effect. modification is inextricably linked with - Financial interventions was not reinforcement theory -- “Identifying the found to have significantly reinforcers inherent in a particular different effects from non- organizational setting. Intervening with reinforcers that are readily available and financial interventions. already congruent with distinct (p.1140) organizational features increases the Among service orgs: chances for successful behavioral - Financial interventions produced change.” p. 1129. a significantly stronger average effect than non-financial *In applying intervention types - positive interventions. reinforcement can come in the form of - Non-financial interventions such financial, non-financial, social or a as performance feedback combination. produced the weakest results in service orgs. In p. 1132 - Stajkovic & Luthans push that - Social rewards in combination types of reinforcement produce different with non-financial interventions effects based on 1) reinforcement values, produced significant 2) informative content and subsequent improvement on average effect. utility, and 3) mechanisms through which they operate. (p.1140-1141) I can use this to support that a combination of non-financial and social interventions (highlighting on informative content) using CMCs can influence positive organizational behavior.
    • 20. SOURCE OBJECTIVES TYPE OF PAPER SUBJECTS/ UNIT FINDINGS IMPLICATIONS FOR MY RESEARCH & OF ANALYSIS (with page number) PAPER (with page number) METHODOLOGY 4 WALTHER, J. To address Empirical Groups of Analyses showed that CMC groups Relational communication in organizations is (1995) inconsistencies in Research + individuals (using achieved more positive levels on clearly an area with significant implications, several dimensions of interpersonal and it is important to understand whether and Relational Aspects researches done Observation, CMCs and using communication than did face-to-face how relational communication might be of Computer- on the effect of experimental and face-to-face) groups. affected by a technology that continues to mediated CMCs on content analysis grow in popularity and use.(p.187) Communication:Ex relational of transcripts of On other dimensions, no differences perimental communication CMCs and between conditions were found. Media richness theory suggested that Observations over (interpersonal videotapes of managers use "rich media" to communicate Time. Organization messages that face-to-face In no case did CMC groups express highly equivocal information, and "lean" media Science, Vol. 6, define conversations/ less intimacy or more task-orientation (e.g., memoranda and CMC) for less than face-to-face groups. (p.186) equivocal exchanges. No. 2, pp. 186-203 relationships. p. sessions 186) by exploring Observer ratings of CMC and FtF Subsequent work has shown that actual the effect of behavior showed that CMC groups media choices tend to be made based on computer expressed more immediacy/affection, one's perception of the utility of a medium, conferencing similarity/depth, and composure/ and further, that these perceptions are socially relaxation: all intimacy-related constructed (Fulk et al. 1987, 1990). (p.188) dimensions of relational communication. CMC groups also Good explanation on Walther’s “Social showed greater social- rather than Information Processing” Theory applied to task-orientation than did FtF groups. CMCs These findings suggest that the Walther’s Relational Development Theory effects of greater task orientation and says that CMC users are driven to impersonality associated with CMC develop social relationships. Even if previous cues-filtered-out CMCs have inherent limitations, users experiments do not occur in can adapt to them and effectively extended-time, asynchronous CMC develop normal interpersonal relations interactions. usually over a longer period of time than FtF, or FtF media. It may also be that SIP underestimates the positive effect of This theory provides a sound foundation to The second explanation pertains to the ability of computer-mediation on relational the capability of CMCs to facilitate the asynchronous communication to facilitate more positive communication. The most striking development of positive relationships. exchanges. Participants in asynchronous conferencing finding in the current results suggests that when CMC participants are However, Walther strongly points out that the used the system at their convenience. They had time to interdependent over time, they adopt benefits of CMC may best be accrued when manage interpersonal exchanges without im-peding more intimate and sociable relational participants have longer periods of time in their devotion to task accomplishment. behavior from the inception of which to communicate. interaction and throughout.
    • 21. SOURCE OBJECTIVES TYPE OF PAPER SUBJECTS/ UNIT FINDINGS IMPLICATIONS FOR MY RESEARCH & OF ANALYSIS (with page number) PAPER (with page number) METHODOLOGY 5 LEE, A. S. (1994). To describe how Empirical Email Richness’ is not an invariant Simpler, straightforward discussion of Electronic mail as a ‘richness’ occurs Research + correspondence property of a communication the information/media richness theory medium for rich in a Textual Analysis & among managers medium -- instead it is an of Daft & Lengel (1986), as well as communication: An communication Interpretation emergent property of the Fulk’s core premises regarding empirical medium (Hermeneutics) interaction between the information richness theory. investigation using (specifically email, communication medium and the a ‘lean’ medium’ organizational context. Relevant conclusions: hermeneutic The best medium for a interpretation. MIS To highlight the Communicating using email does communication transaction depends Quarterly, 18(2) value of an not lose its richness. In fact, it more than just the features of the 143-157. interpretative can retain and gain its richness medium. perspective on through distanciation, the managerial of automization, social construction, The best/appropriate medium also email appropriation and enactment [the depends on the manager’s familiarity communication 5 steps of hermeneutic analysis] and existing skills with the different (p 151) media, the manager’s willingness, opportunities, resources, learning the The managers who received capabilities of the media (to explore, email are not passive recipients innovate and interact). of data, but active producers of meaning. The best/appropriate medium for -They transform the data into communication transaction would not information they find meaningful. be identified by an individual manager - The users themselves join the through an exercise of rational- hardware and software of the decision making, but would emerge email systems as processors of as best or appropriate over the the data. (p.154) course of its interactions with its many users, through the users’ This interaction facilitates the adaptation or reinvention of the emergence of communication medium to suit their own purposes. richness. ---> Social influence Model. (p. 154-155) The findings from this paper aid in building the argument that despite the ‘leanest’ form of a CMC, it is the ‘richness’ that emerges from the use, adaptation and reinvention of the communication medium following constant social interactions that allows the construction of meaning from information received from CMCs. --> Meaning that allows for decision-making among managers, that affect how managers think or feel is created when richness in the medium emerges.
    • 22. SOURCE OBJECTIVES TYPE OF PAPER SUBJECTS/ UNIT FINDINGS IMPLICATIONS FOR MY RESEARCH & OF ANALYSIS (with page number) PAPER (with page number) METHODOLOGY 8 LUTHANS, F., To analyze Empirical Individuals / Introduced the theoretical A brief review of online AVEY, J. B. & whether such research + Employees foundations for the intervention technology is also PATERA, J. (2008). psychological Experimental Psychological Capital (PsyCap) provided -- good source to relate Experimental capital can be Design (with pre- construct. (p.211-212) the effectiveness of CMCs analysis on web- developed test and post- (maybe?) as a medium for based training through a highly test) A notable strength in the intervention in developing POB. intervention to focused, 2-hour internal validity of this study develop positive web-based was the random assignment of --> The findings in this research psychological training participants into treatment and provide promising foundation on capital. Academy of intervention. control groups. Management the ability of web-based, online Learning & In terms of external validity, the interventions to increase POB Education, 7(2), heterogeneous nature of the states. This can help strengthen 209-221. sample provides support for the argument that CMCs can generalizing the influence the development of results. POB among individuals. Through a pretest, posttest --> This article points to notable control group experimental sources for online/web-based design, the treatment group did interventions for change experience a significant behavior. increase in their PsyCap, while the randomly assigned control group that went through a different, but relevant intervention, did not show a significant increase in their PsyCap. Overall, the results of this experimental study provide at least initial support that the psychological capital of a broad cross-section of organizational participants can be developed through a short web-based training intervention. (p. 217-218)
    • 23. SOURCE OBJECTIVES TYPE OF PAPER SUBJECTS/ UNIT FINDINGS IMPLICATIONS FOR MY RESEARCH & OF ANALYSIS (with page number) PAPER (with page number) METHODOLOGY 25 SITZMANN,T., To examine the Theory paper + Literature on There are two schools of thought with This is cited work in Luthans, et KRAIGER, K., effectiveness of Meta-Analysis effectiveness of respect to the relative effectiveness of al’s experimental research on STEWART, D., web-based WBI & CI (n=96) WBI and CI: online intervention technology. WISHER, R. (2006). instruction (WBI) Clark’s position argues that no This work strengthen’s the The comparative relative to effectiveness of web- classroom instructional medium is uniquely effectiveness of web-based based and classroom instruction (CI) advantageous. interventions in learning. instruction: a meta- On the other hand, pro-technology analysis. Personnel To examine the researchers believe that WBI provides While the context in the research Psychology. 59(3) p. moderators of the greater flexibility and greater access of Sitzmann, et al was done in 623-664 comparative to multiple instructional methods such the context of instruction, effectiveness of the that it may be superior to media instead of development of two delivery media that are grounded in a single behavior - it implies the instructional method (Dumont, 1996; Hiltz &Wellman, 1997; Sullivan, 2001). contribution of web-based p.626 interventions are effective in inducing learning of positive The overall results indicated WBI was behavior for organizations. 6% more effective than CI for teaching declarative knowledge, the two delivery media were equally effective for teaching procedural knowledge, and trainees were equally satisfied with WBI and CI. However, WBI and CI were equally effective for teaching declarative knowledge when the same instructional methods were used to deliver both WBI and CI, suggesting media effects are spurious and supporting Clark’s (1983, 1994) theory. Finally, WBI was 19% more effective than CI for teaching declarative knowledge when Web-based trainees were provided with control, in long courses, and when trainees practiced the training material and received feedback during training. (p. 623)
    • 24. SOURCE OBJECTIVES TYPE OF PAPER SUBJECTS/ UNIT FINDINGS IMPLICATIONS FOR MY RESEARCH & OF ANALYSIS (with page number) PAPER (with page number) METHODOLOGY 26 RITTERBAND, L.M., To review Theory paper + Literature on Contribution: Internet interventions are GONDER- empirically tested Meta-Analysis empirically-tested Steps to developing typically behavioral treatments FREDERICK, L.A., Internet Internet Internet Interventions: operationalized and transformed COX, D.J., CLIFTON, interventions and interventions 1.Identify the problem for Web delivery with the goal of A.D., WEST, R.W., & provides an BOROWITZ, S.M. overview of the area symptom improvement. (2003) issues in developing 2.Ascertain effectiveness Internet interventions: and/or using them of established treatment Ritterband and colleagues (2003) in review, in use, and in clinical practice. 3.Operationalize treatment provide some into the future. completely specific steps that Internet Professional To address future 4.Consider legal and interventions should Psychology: directions and ethical issues follow to be effective. These Research and implications 5.Transform treatment guidelines include Practice. 34(5), 527-534. elements using engaging personalization and a multimedia internet components approach. 6.Personalize intervention by identifying elements This research implies that that can be tailored somehow, mediating variables 7.Incorporate Feedback such as media richness, as a measure of interactivity and flexibility will be treatment success significant ONLY if the 8.Construct internet intervention is carefully planned, program regardless of what form of CMC 9.Test Internet program is used. (p.531)
    • 25. SOURCE OBJECTIVES TYPE OF PAPER SUBJECTS/ UNIT FINDINGS IMPLICATIONS FOR MY RESEARCH & OF ANALYSIS (with page number) PAPER (with page number) METHODOLOGY 28 BERNARD, R.M., To provide an Empirical Literature on Many applications of DE These two studies by the same set ABRAMI, P.C., YI, exhaustive Research + Meta- distance outperform their classroom of authors support the use of our P.L., & quantitative Analysis education (232) counterparts and that many multimedia approaches. This meta- BOROKHOVSKI, E. synthesis of the perform poorly. Dividing analysis found that non-interactive (2004). comparative achievement outcomes into video was one of the top predictors How does distance research literature synchronous and of learning and achievement and education compare on distance asynchronous forms of DE provides further support for the use with classroom education from produced somewhat different of supplementary visual materials. instruction? a meta- 1985-2002, across impressions. (p.379) analysis of empirical all age groups, literature. Review of media types, --> This provides support to the Educational instructional Synchronous DE is a poorer capacity of an asynchronous CMC Research. 74(3), methods and quality replication of classroom to still achieve learning on the user 379-439. outcome measures. instruction; there is neither the of the CMC. flexibility of scheduling and place of learning nor the individual attention that exists in many applications of asynchronous DE. There is a tendency for synchronous DE to engage in lecture-based, instructor- oriented strategies that don’t translate well to mediated classrooms at a distance. Asychronous DE, by contrast (accdg to Bates, 1997) can more effectively provide interpersonal interaction and support two-way communication between instructors and students and among students, thereby producing a better approximation of a learner- centered environment.
    • 26. SOURCE OBJECTIVES TYPE OF PAPER SUBJECTS/ UNIT FINDINGS IMPLICATIONS FOR MY RESEARCH & OF ANALYSIS (with page number) PAPER (with page number) METHODOLOGY 2 KOCK, N. (2004). To review theories Theory paper N/A Most theories relevant to CMCs This paper lists many organizational The Psychobiological of organizational builds on the assumption that theories relevant to CMCs developed in Model: Towards a communication face-to-face communication recent years. (p. 342) new theory of explaining CMCs possesses inherent Computer-mediated with emphasis on characteristics that make it The propositions of KOCK’s communication identifying more appropriate than other Psychobiological model point to the based on Darwinian problems that media for conducting a variety individual (specifically through cognitive Evolution impede future of collaborative tasks. effort and mental schemas) as the unit theoretical of analysis. development -- This often leads to the -This new focus is original, because To propose a new conclusion that electronic most of the focus of CMC theories are theory that communication media often technological features, social predicts variations leads to decreased quality of environments, social processes, in cognitive effort outcomes of collaborative communication medium, etc. This can in computer- tasks. provide a stronger link that given mediated specific features of CMCs, it can collaborative tasks Social presence theory & media facilitate a change in behavior in organizations richness theory have long been individual. the foundational theories that have supported relevant Kock proposes a new ‘continuum/ theories on CMCs. scale’ that disagrees with the early arguments of SOCIAL PRESENCE & Kock, however also discusses MEDIA RICHNESS (p. 340). that many theories have emerged arguing against the It is not media richness that contributes pre-disposition toward face-to- to quality outcomes in collaborative face communication, and its tasks or influences behavior -- it is ability to ‘better’ deliver quality media naturalness. (p. 333 for outcomes in an organizational explanation of constructs.) setting. -The proposed key elements of ‘media naturalness’ create a more robust argument as to what constitute CMC that can produce quality outcomes/ affect behavior. It can help in contradicting notions such as ‘more information, the better’ or ‘the richer the medium, the better.’
    • 27. SOURCE OBJECTIVES TYPE OF PAPER SUBJECTS/ UNIT FINDINGS IMPLICATIONS FOR MY RESEARCH & OF ANALYSIS (with page number) PAPER (with page number) METHODOLOGY 19 POSTMES, T., To examine if the Empirical Groups of Norm formation in CMC is The findings of this study provide SPEARS, R. & LEA, use of a CMC Research + Individuals that interaction is basis for the dimensions of a M. (2000). The system is socially Experimental naturally confounded: it is CMC that is being proposed by formation of group structured by Design both the source of norms my conceptual framework - norms in computer- emergent group and the place to observe content & form. mediated norms in line with *used CMC to them at work. p.346 The communication. social test group norms emergence of norms Moreover, the findings here Human constructionist as influenced by Communication should result in (though done in an principles. email Research, 26(3), convergence over time. experimentation form) support 341-371. the ability of CMC to influence Content and form of behavior by way of the creation communication is of norms within the users of the normative, group norms CMC. defining communication patterns within groups. Conformity to group norms increases over time Communication outside the group is governed by different social norms. Norms prescribing to a particular use of technology are socially constructed over time at the level of locally defined groups and also show that the influence of these norms is limited to the boundaries of the group. p.341
    • 28. SOURCE OBJECTIVES TYPE OF PAPER SUBJECTS/ UNIT FINDINGS IMPLICATIONS FOR MY RESEARCH & OF ANALYSIS (with page number) PAPER (with page number) METHODOLOGY 15 EL-SHINNAWY, M. To examine the Empirical Groups of The findings illustrate that group The findings of this paper & VINZE, A.S. impact of Research + Employees decisions are a function of the provides new support to the (1997). Technology, technology and Experimental medium of communication and the cultural setting in which the role of CMCs in organization - culture and culture and their Design decision is attempted. specifically, in group decision persuasiveness: a interaction on study of choice- the process and *used CMC to making; further reinforces he In addition, the protocol analysis impact of communication shifts in group outcomes of test group conducted demonstrates that content and medium in settings. group decision decision support the process of decision making International making. as influenced by establishing how people in groups varies in terms of Journal of Human- technology. persuasive arguments perform in the workplace. Computer Studies, exchanged as a function of the 47, 473-496. interaction between the medium of communication and the cultural setting observed. Discussion: On Theory of Persuasive Arguments (p.480) Our results confirm that technology does indeed have an impact on group decision outcomes such as polarization. However, we also and that GSS technology has a more interesting and revealing effect on the process of group decision making. While GSS resulted in a more extensive discussion between the group members, the persuasiveness of the arguments was lower than in a more traditional FTF setting. This was due to a reduction in valid arguments made by group members with no compensating increase in novel ideas being generated. (p.493)
    • 29. SOURCE OBJECTIVES TYPE OF PAPER SUBJECTS/ UNIT FINDINGS IMPLICATIONS FOR MY RESEARCH & OF ANALYSIS (with page number) PAPER (with page number) METHODOLOGY 17 BARKER, J. (1993) To investigate how Empirical Organization In an ethnographic study on The idea of control has spark Tightening the Iron the organization's Research + control and self-managed criticism, especially since it is Cage: Concertive members Ethnographic teams by Barker (1993), he immediately viewed as purely Control in Self- developed a Study discovered that ‘concertive individual control that is observed Managing Teams. system of value- control’ grows out of an with the use of CMCs. Administrative based normative organization that is --> This paper is one source to Science Quarterly, rules that characterized by values, high- counter the argument on individual 38(3), pp. 408-437 controlled their level coordination and self- control with CMCs, as it presents a actions more management. He describes different kind of control that occurs powerfully and concertive control as one as an organizational activity. completely than manifested in organizational --> The flexible nature (and maybe the former system. activity. “For any organization to interactive?) of CMCs can lead to move towards its goals and concertive control. To describe the purposes, its ‘particular organization and outcomes,’ its members must Concertive control, or what can be its members and interactively negotiate and understood as collective control is provide a detailed implement some type of naturally enacted and formed account of the strategy that effective controls through the flexibility of CMCs. dynamics that members activities in a manner emerged as functional for the As such, the flexibility is managed concertive control organization.” (p.409) and directed by the very users who became manifest benefit from the flexibility. CMCs through the are typically used in asynchronous members' mode, meaning - it does not require interactions. everyone within the communication network to be working or communicating simultaneously.
    • 30. SOURCE OBJECTIVES TYPE OF PAPER SUBJECTS/ UNIT FINDINGS IMPLICATIONS FOR MY RESEARCH & OF ANALYSIS (with page number) PAPER (with page number) METHODOLOGY 14 VAN DE HOOFF, B., To present a Theory paper + Individuals/ E-mail has now become GROOT, J., & DE meta-analysis of Meta-Analysis & Employees The results of the meta-analysis “ubiquitous in contemporary JONGE, S. (2005). recent studies Survey and the empirical validation of organizations” (Minsky & Marin, Situational about email use in these results in an exploratory 1999, p. 194) and it has become influences on the organizations, and study indicate that the use of virtually impossible to consider use of to present a electronic mail is determined by organizational communication communication model of the a combination of individual user without attention to computer- technologies: a different factors characteristics, medium based communication technologies meta-analysis and influencing e-mail characteristics, users’ social (Rice & Gattiker, 2001). exploratory study. use in environment, and task --> Good source to establish the Journal of Business organizations. characteristics, integrating prevalence of CMCs or as used in Communication, perspectives from different this source - computer-based 41(2), 4-27. approaches. (p.23) communication technologies. Two variables (pertaining to The findings here apply for the use applicability of email) playing a of email. mediating role in explaining email use: Question on the implications to 1) the range of tasks for which other forms of CMCs? e-mail is perceived to be --> Will the same factors apply for appropriate (based on the use of other forms of CMCs, contingency theories), ranging such as corporate websites, from lean to rich intranet sites, forums, bulletin communication tasks. boards, chatrooms, etc? 2) the perceived usefulness of --> Will the factors & variables e-mail (the subjectivistic and explaining the use of email situational theories, especially translate to the same one the technology acceptance explaining the use of other forms of model), determined by the CMC? perceived value of e-mail for an individual’s work. (p.12) --> How will these factors help in the development of POB?
    • 31. SOURCE OBJECTIVES TYPE OF PAPER SUBJECTS/ UNIT FINDINGS IMPLICATIONS FOR MY RESEARCH & OF ANALYSIS (with page number) PAPER (with page number) METHODOLOGY 23 HEWITT, P. (2006). The purpose of Empirical Organization Whilst overall e-mail was found Electronic mail and this paper is to Research + Case to be less influential than face- internal demonstrate how Study (FGDs, to-face communication, e-mail The empirical findings with communication: a e-mail may diaries, surveys,) was found to positively and regard to email provides 3-factor model. promote effective specifically influence: Corporate internal 1.the communication climate, support to the influential Communications: communication in where it capabilities of CMCs to An International three key areas. provides a mechanism for staff influence how individuals in an Journal, 11(1), to feed their views up the organization perceive, behave 78-92. organization; and perform. 2. shared objectives and goal alignment, --> According to the authors, where it helps staff to this is the first time an ‘impact’ understand the overarching study has been done. This may goals of the organization (the “bigger picture”); and lead in to possible future 3. perceived external prestige – research methodologies -- the the construed external image of study of the impact of CMCs, in the organization – by helping order to fill an empirical gap. the organization to share positive publicity, and its successes, amongst staff. (p.78) This is the first time the impact of e-mail on internal communication has been investigated, from a corporate communicator’s perspective, and with the number of mailboxes worldwide growing year on year, and an increasing awareness of the importance of employees as key stakeholders, this study is original, relevant and timely. (p. 78)
    • 32. SOURCE OBJECTIVES TYPE OF PAPER SUBJECTS/ UNIT FINDINGS IMPLICATIONS FOR MY RESEARCH & OF ANALYSIS (with page number) PAPER (with page number) METHODOLOGY 21 SMITH, B., To illustrate how a Theory paper + Individuals/ In evaluating each form of Although the research was done on ALVAREZ- technology such Empirical students CMC, the authors suggest 4 learning in an educational context TORRES, M.J., & as CMC that is Research fundamental qualities: (instead of organizational), the ZHAO, Y. (2003). often (Experimental temporality, modality, authors’ theory on fundamental Features of CMC undistinguished in Design) anonymity and spatiality. qualities of CMCs are insightful. technologies and research and their impact on practice and often The present study witnessed This can help in further language learnersʼ considered learner interaction that seemed understanding the nature of each online interaction. passive and to have been more form of CMCs - and whether it is Computers in neutral in interpersonal in nature in the these features that mediate the Human Behavior, nature is indeed Palace activity and more task- influence on behavior. 19(5), 703-729. active and biased. focused in the ChatNet condition. Furthermore, the findings here This heightened interpersonal provide a lead for managerial communication in the modality implication -- there is a an and spatially rich Palace appropriate CMC to achieve a resulted in quantitatively more specific goals of the organization. discourse As one forces the use of a CMC, overall as well as more ‘‘off- without heedfulness to its suitability task’’ discourse. p.717 or capability, the organization will not be successful in realizing the Synchronous CMC technology goals it has set. can be realized in multiple forms and shapes, each having its own individual characteristics. p.718 Practitioners must carefully choose their CMC programs based on their specific pedagogical goals. p. 718
    • 33. SOURCE OBJECTIVES TYPE OF PAPER SUBJECTS/ UNIT FINDINGS IMPLICATIONS FOR MY RESEARCH & OF ANALYSIS (with page number) PAPER (with page number) METHODOLOGY 22 QUIRING, O. To explore the Empirical Individuals/ The phenomenon Continuation: (2009). What do concept of Research + In- Users is basically observed from three The results indicate that ‘ordinary’ users associate interactivity among depth Interviews different perspectives: users think foremost of their own with ‘ordinary’ users interactivity as an attribute of actions, sensory input, control over ‘interactivity’?: and determine if technological systems, the communication process and the a qualitative study such users communication processes and exchange of meaning when asked for their on user schemata. associate the user perceptions. foremost social perception of interactivity New Media and individual As an attribute of technological (Morrison, 1998) Society, 11(6), issues with the systems, it is associated with: 899-920. term interactivity. responsiveness, real-time The results of our study offer an speed explanation for this result: large flexibility, options for the proportions of user schemata are selection and modification of not covered by technological Which media content and allow users to aspects but by aspects of individual services and communicate directly, action, social influence technical devices independent of time and place. and relationships. (p.915) do users believe (p.901) to be ‘interactive’ This article includes a lengthy and why? As an attribute of discussion on various literature on communication process, the understanding of ‘interactivity’. interactivity is associated with: It turns out there are many ways to exchange communication, interpreting interactivity. The dialogue and discourse, gaining implication to my research is that, it of more control over the is a construct that can yet be communication process, narrowed down in definition, promotes two-way association or even context -- in a communication, third-order way that is relevant for the dependency influence to POB. As an attribute of user- However - the literature shared with perception, associations are: regard to the perception of perceived responsiveness, ‘ordinary’ users by Morrison-- this perceived navigation, perceived has implications on the key speed, sensory activation, determinants of an interactive playfulness, connectedness, experience in a CMC, which proximity and presence organizations must know when enforcing CMC for change behavior.
    • 34. The content (H1) and form (H2) of CMCs positively influences the development of POB states (self-efficacy, hope, optimism and resiliency) among managers and employees. H3: Media richness positively moderates the influence of content of CMCs on the development of POB states among managers and employees. H4: Interactivity positively moderates the influence of form of CMCs on the development of POB states among managers and employees. H5: Flexibility positively moderates the influence of of form of CMCs on the development of POB states among managers and employees. H6: The development of POB states among managers and employees positively influences improved work performance.
    • 35. “electronic mail/e-mail, voice-mail, computer bulletin boards, computer conferencing and group decision support systems.” (Steinfeld, 1992, p.349). “user-groups, chatrooms, webpages (Soukup, 2000, p. 408), “blogs, social networking websites, and microblogs.” (Miller, 2003, p. 387) Digitalization or digital communications - technological process the reduces the text to something that can be easily “fragmented, handled, linked and distributed.” (Scolari, 2009, p.946)