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人月神话

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  • 1. THE MYTHICAL MAN-MONTH ÈË Ô Éñ »° FREDERICK P. BROOKS, JR. ·-Òë £º Adams Wang
  • 2. ¹ØÓÚ×÷Õß Frederick P. Brooks£¬ Jr.ÊDZ¿¨ÂÞ À´ÄÉóѧ Kenan-Flagler ÉÌѧԺµÄ¼ÆËã»ú¿ ½Ì ÊÚ£¬±¿¨À´ÂÞÄÉóѧλÓùúÖݵ²é¼¶ûÏ¡ Brooks ±»ÈÏΪÊÇ¡° IBM 360 ϵͳ֮¸¡± £¬ Ëûµ£ÈÎÁ 360 ϵͳÄ-Àí£¬ÒÔ¼° 360 ²Ù×÷ϵͳ ÏîÄ¿Éè¼Æ½×¶Îµ¾-Àí¡£ ÔÚÉÏÊöîÄ¿µ½Ü³¹±×£¬Ëû¡¢ Bob Evans ºÍ Erich Bloch ÔÚ 1985 ÄêÈÙ»ñÁË ÃÀ¹ú¼ÒÊõ½± £¨ National Medal of Techology£© ¡£ ÔçÆÚ£¬ Brooks Ôøµ£ÈÎ IBM Stretch ºÍ Harvest ¼ÆËã »ú µÄÌåϽá¹Ê¦¡£ Ôڲ鼶ûÏ£¬ Brooks ²©Ê¿´Á¢Ë¼Æã»úѧϵ£¬ ²¢ÔÚ 1964 ÖÁ 1984 Äê Æڼ䵣ÈÎÖ÷ϯ¡ ËûÔøÈÎ Ö°ÓÚ ÃÀ¹ú ¼Ò¿Æ ¼¾ÖºÍ ¹ú·À ¿Æѧ¼ Êõί Ô±»á¡£ Brooks Ä¿Ç°µ½Ì ѧºÍÐ ¾¿·½ ÏòÊǼÆËã »úÌåϵ½á¹¡¢·Ö×ÓÄ£ÐÍ漺éâ¾³
  • 3. 1975 Ä ê ° æ Ï × ´ Ç ÖÂÁ½Î»Ìرð·á¸ËÒ IBM ËêÔµÄÈ£º Thomas J. Watson, Jr.£¬ Ëû¶ÔÈÃǵĹػ³Ú«¾ÒÀÎÞù² ºÍ Bob O. Evans£¬ Ëû´óµ¨ÄÁì¼Ê¹¤×÷³ÉΪ̽ÏÕ¡£ 1995 Ä ê ° æ Ï × ´ Ç Ö Nancy£¬ Éϵ۴͸øÎÒÄÀñï¡£
  • 4. Preface to the 20th Anniversary Edition£© 20 ÄêºóÈÔ È»¼ÌÐøÁ÷£¬ Ó¡Êý³¬¹ ÁË 250,000¡ÈË £ ¡¶ ÈËÔÂÉñ»° ÁîÎÒ¾ªÆæºÍ¸ßÐ˵ÄÊÇ£¬ ÚÔ·¡ ÃǾ-³£Îʬ ÎÒÔÚ 1975 Äê Ìá³öµÄ¹ÛãºÍ½¨Ò飬 ÄЩÊÇÎÒÈÔ»¼á³Öµ£¬ ÄЩÊÇÒѾ-¸±ä¹Ûµã£¬ ÊÇÔõÑù¸Ä±äµ£¿¾¡¹ÜÎÒڻЩ½²×ÉÏ·ÖöýÕâ̬ë°Ëü´³Â Peter Gordon ÏÖÔÚÊÇ Addison-Wesley µÄ³ö°æ»ï飬Ëû´Ó 1980 Ä꿪ʼºÍÎÒ¹²Â¡£Ëû ·Ç ³£ÄÍЬ¶ÔÎÒ°ïÖúºÜ´ó¡Ëû½¨éÃÇ×¼±¸»öîæ¾²-ÈÞ© Ö»ÊÇÔ-·â²¶¯µØÓ¡£¨³ýÁËÒЩϸÄÞÕ £¬²¢ÓøüеÄ˼ÏëÀ´©³ä¡ µÚ 16 ÕÂÖØÓ¡ ÁËһƪÔÚ 1986 Äê IFIPS »áÒéÉϵÄÂÛΡ¶ÃÓÐø¯£ºÈí¼þ¹¤³Ì¸ù±¾Í´ ÒªÎÊÌâ¡· ¡£ Õâ ƪÎÄÕÂÀ´ ×Ô ÎÒÔÚ¹ú·À ¿Æ ѧίԱ»á Ö÷ ³Ö¾üÓÃÈí ¼þ ·½ÃæÑо¿ ʱ µÄ¾-Ñé¡£ ÎÒ µ±ÊÄÑÐ ¾¿ºÏ×÷Õߣ¬Ò²ÊÇεÄÖ´ÐÃØé Robert L. Patrick °ïÖúÎÒ»Ø ÏëºÍ¸ÐÊÜÄÇ©×ö¹ýµÈí¼þ´óî ¼ÆËã»ú Ä¿¡£ 1987 Ä꣬ IEEE µÄ¡¶ ¡·ÔÓÖ¾ØÁËÕâƪÂÛÎÄ£¬Ê¹ü´«²¥µÃ¸ã ¡¶Ã»ÓÐÒøµ¯¡·±»Ö¤Ã÷ÊǸ ÓÐÉ¿¶¯ Եģ¬Ëü ¤ÑÔÊ®Äê ÚûÓÐÈκ ±à³Ì¼ ÇÉÄܹ»¸øÈí¼þ µÄ Éú²ÂÊ´ø À´ ÊýÁ¿¼¶ÉÏ µÄ Ìá¸ß¡£Ê® Äê ֻʣÏÂÒ Äê ÁË£¬ÎÒµÄ Ô¤ ÑÔ¿´À°² È« ÁË ¡£ ¡¶Ã»ÓÐ Òø µ¯¡·¼¤Æð ÈËÔÂÉñ»° ÁËÔ½À´¶àÎÄ×ÖÉϵ¾çÒÕùÂÛ£¬±È¡ ¡·»¹Òª¶à£ò´ËÔÚµ 17 Õ£¬ÎҶԻЩ¹«¿ªµÄ ÅúÆÀ×÷Á˵㬲¢¸üÐÂÔÚ 1986 ÄêÌá³öµ¹Ûã¡£ ÈËÔÂÉñ»° ÔÚ×¼±¸¡¶ ¡·µÄ»Ø¹ËºÍ¸üÐÂʱ£¬Ò»Ö ½øÐ µÄÈí¼þ¹¤³ÌÑо¿ºÍ - éÒѾ ÅúÆÀ¡¢ Ö¤ ʵºÍ·ñ¶¨ÁËÉÙýéÖÐÏÑÔĹÛ㣬 Ò²Ó°ÏìÁËΡ£ °þÈ¥¸¨ÖúµÄÕùÂÛºÍÊý¾Ýó£¬ °ÑÄÇЩ¹Ûµã´ÖÂÔ µØ·ÖÀ࣬¶ÔÎҴ˺ÜÓаïú¡Ú 18 ÕÂÁгö ÕâЩ¹ÛµãĸÅÒª£¬ÏÍû¥÷³ÂÊöÜ» ÒýÀ´ÕùÂÛºÍÖ¤¾Ý£¬È»óµÃ½Ê¡¢·ñ¶¨¸üÐò«Á µÚ 19 ÕÂÊÇÒ» ƪ¸üеĶÌΡ£ ¶ÁÕßÓ¦¸Ã×¢ÒâµÄÊÇ£¬ й۵㲢»ÏóÔ-À´ÄÊéÒÑù×Î Ç×Éí¾- Àú¡£ ÎÒÔÚ´ó ѧÀï ¹¤×÷£¬ ²»ÊÇ ÔÚ¹¤Òµ ½ç£¬ ×öµÄÊÇ Ð¡¹æ Ä£µÏî Ä¿£¬ ²»ÊÇ´ó ÏîÄ¿ ¡£×Ô 1986 ÄêÒÔÀ´£¬ ÎÒ¾ÍÖ»ÊǽÌÚÈí¼þ¹¤³£¬ ²»ÔÙ×öÕâ·½ÃæµÄÑо¿¡£ ÎÒÏÖÔÚµÄÑо¿ÁìÓòÊÇéâ»·³¼°Æä ӦᣠÔÚÕâ´Î»Ø¹ËµÄ×¼±¸ ý³ÌÖУ¬ÎÒÕ ÁË »Ð© ý¹¤×÷ÔÚÈí¼þ¹¤³ÌÁìÓòµÄÅó Ñ£¬Õ÷Ç Ëûà µÄ µ± -i-
  • 5. Barry Boehm¡¢ Ken Brooks¡¢ Dick Case¡¢ James Coggins¡¢ Tom Demarco¡¢ Jim McCarthy¡¢ David Parnas¡¢ Earl Wheeler ºÍ Edward Yourdon¡Ð¸£ »Ð Fay Eard ³öÉ«µØ¶ÔÐÂÄ Õ½ÚøÐÁ˼ÊõÓ¹¤¡£ ¸Ð»ÎÒÔÚ¹ú·À¿Æѧ¯±á¾üÊÂÈí¼þ¤×÷éµÄͬ Gordon Bell¡¢ Bruce Buchanan¡¢ Rick Hayes-Roth£¬ ÌرðÊÇ David Parnas£¬ ¸Ð»ËûÃǵĶ´²ìÁ¦ºÍÉú¯Ïë·¨¡£ ¸Ð» Rebekah Bierly ¡° ¸ù±¾µÄ ´ÎÒªµÄ ¶Ô 16 ÕµÄÛ ÎĽøÐÁ˼ÊõÓ¹¤¡£ ÎÒ°ÑÈí¼þÊÌâ·Ö³É °¡Íº±¡ ¡± £¬ ÕâÊÇÜ Nancy Greenwood Brooks µÄÆô·¢ £¬ËýÔÚһƪ Suzuki СÌáÇÙ ½ÌÓýµÄÂÛÎÖЦÃÁËÕâÑù·ö¨ ¡£ ÔÚ 1975 Äê°æ ±¾µÄÐòÑÔÖ£¬ Addison-Wesleys ³ö°æ Éç°´¹æ¶¨²»ÔÊÐíÎÒÏòËüµÄ©ÑÝÁ ¹Ø¼ü½ÇÉ«µÄÔ±¤ÖÂл¡£ÓÁ¸öÈËÏ×ëÌðẴà- Norman Stanton ºÍÃÀÊõ Ö¸µ¼ Herbert Boes¡£ Boes Éè¼ÆÁËÓÅѵķç¸ñ£¬ ËûÔÚÆÀעʱÌØðáµ½£º ¡°Ò³ ±ßµÄ¿Õ°×Òªí£¬ ×Ö ÌåºÍ°æà Ҫ ÓÐÏëñÁ¦¡± ¡£ ¸üÖØÒªµÄ ÊÇ £¬ËûÌá³ö ÁË ÖÁ¹ØÒª µÄ ½¨Ò飺Ϊ ÿ Ò»ÕµĿª Í· ÅäÒ»·ùͼ Ƭ£¨µ±Ê ÎÒ Ö»ÓС°½¹ ÓÍ ¿Ó¡±ºÍ° À¼ ˹´ó½Ìà ¡± µÄͼƬ£© ¡£ Ñ° ÕÒâЩͼ Ƭ ʹÎҶ໨ ÁË Ò»ÄêµÊ± ¼ä£¬µ«ÎÒÓÀÔ¶¸Ð¤ÕâöÖæ¡ Soli Deo gloria£-Ô¸Éñ¶ÀµÃÈÙÒ«¡£ ²éçê¶ûÏ£¬±¿¨ÂÞÀ´ÄÉ F.P.B., Jr. 1995 Äê 3 Ô - ii -
  • 6. Preface to the First Edition£© Ôںܶ෽Ã棬¹ÜÀíÒ»¸ö´óÐ͵ļÆËã»ú±à³ÌÏîÄ¿ºÍÆäËüÐ Òµ Ä´ó ͹¤³ÌºÜÏàËÆ¡ª ±È ´ó ¶àÊý³ÌÐòÔ±ËùÈÏΪµÄ»¹ÒÆ£ ÔںܶàÁíÍâµÄ·½Ã棬 ËüÓÖвî±ð¡ªÈ´ó¶àÊý°Òµ¾-ÀíùÏ ÎªµÄ²î±ð»¹Ò´ó¡£ Õâ¸öÁìÓòµÄ֪ʶÔÚÀÛ»ý¡£ ÏÖÔÚ AFIPS£¨ÃÀ¹úÐÅÏ¢´¦íѧ»áÁªº£© ÒѾ-ÓÐÁË»©ÌÖÂÛºÍ »áÒ飬 Ò²³ö°æÁ˻ЩÊé¼®ºÍÂÛÎÄ£¬ µ«ÊÇ»¹ÃÓгÉÍÄ·½¨À´ÏØø²ûö¡£ ÌṩÕâÑùÒ»±¾ Ö÷Òª·´Ó³¸öÈ˹۵ãÄСÊé¿ÀǺϣ ËäÈ»ÎÒÔ-À´ÓʼÆãú¿Ñ§µÄ±à³Ì·½Ã湤×÷£¬«ÇÚ 1956-1963 Äê ¼ä×Ô¶¯¿ØÖƳÌÐò ºÍ¸ß¼¶ÓïÑÔ±àÒëÆ÷¿ª·¢³öÀ´µÄÊò£¬ÎÖ²Çþ¹Ü½Ãæ¤×¡Ú 1964 Ä꣬ÎÒ ³ÉΪ²Ù×÷ÏµÍ OS/360 µÄ¾-Àí£¬·¢ÏÖǰЩê½øչʱà³Ìç¸äÁ˺ܶ¡ ¹ÜÀí OS/360 µÄ¿ª·¢ÊǺÜÓаïÖú¾-À£¬ ËäÈ»Êǧ°ÜµÄ¡£ ÄǸöÍŶӣ¬ °üÀ¨ÎҵļÌȾ- Àí F. M. Trapnell£¬Óкܶà ÖµÃ×ÔºÀĶ«Î÷¡£Ç¸öÏͳ°ü¨ÁËÜàÓÅÐãÉè¼ÆÊ©¬¹¦Ø Ó¦ÃÔںܶàÁìò£¬ ÌرðÊÇÉè¸ÎÞ¹µÄäÈë³öºÍⲿÜÀí£¬ ±»ºÜ¶à¼Êõ¸ïй㷴ÖÆ¡£ Ëü ÏÖÔÚÊÇ®·¿ÉµÄ£¬à±ÓЧºÍ³¨Ã¡ µ«ÊÇ£¬ ²¢»ÊÇËùÓеÄŬÁ¦¶¼³É¹¡£ ËùÓÐ OS/360 µÄÓû§ºÜ ¿ì¾ÍÄÜ·¢ÏÖËüÓ¦¸Ã×öµ ºÃ¡£ Éè¼ÆºÍʵÏÖÄȱÝÔڿسÌÐòðÕ飬 Ïà±È֮£¬ ÓïÑÔ±àÒëÆ÷¾ÍºÃµ¶¡£ ´ó¶àÊý ÕâЩȱÏÝ·¢ÉúÔÚ 1964-1965 ÄêµÉè¼Æ ½×¶Î£¬ ËùÒÔÕâ¿Ï¶¨ÊÇεÄðÈ¡£ ´ËÍ⣬ Õâ¸ö²úÆ·¢¼Í ³ÙÁË£¬ ÐèÒªµÄÚ´æ±È¼Æ»®Ö¶à£¬ ³É±¾Ò²ÊǹÀ¼ÆµÄºÃ¸¶£¬ ¶øÇÒµÚ»´Î·¢²¼Ê±Äܺà µØÔËУ¬Ö±½·¢²¼Á¸´ÎÒºó¡ ¾ÍÏóµ±³õ½ÓÊÜ OS/360 µÄ ÈÎñʱÐ-É̺õģ¬ ÔÚ 1965 ÄêÀ뿪 IBM ºó£¬ ÎÒÀ´µ½²éçê¶ûÏ£ ¡£ ÎÒ¿ªÊ¼·Öö OS/360 µÄ¾-Ñé £¬¿´Äܲ»ÓÖÐѧµ½ÊùÀíºÍ¼õÉÏ̡رðÎÒªË Ã÷ System/360 Ó²¼þ¿ª·¢ºÍ OS/360 Èí ¼þ¿ª·¢ÖеĹÜÀí¾-ÑéÊdz£²»Í¬¡¶Ô Tom Watson ¹Ø ÓÚΪʲô±à³ÌÄÑÒÔ¹ÜÀíµ½Ë÷Ð⣬վéÇ»·ÝÙ𰸡 ÔÚÕâ´Î̽Ë÷ÖУ¬ÎÒºÍ 1964-65 Ä ê µ Ä ¾-ÀíÖúÀí R.P.Case£ ¬ » ¹ ÓÐ 1965-68 Ä ê µ Ä ¾ - Àí F.M.Trapnell£¬ ½øÐÁ˳¤ ̸£¬ ´ÓÖÐÊÜÒæÁ¼¶à¡£ ÎÒ¶Ô±ÈÁËÆäû´óÐÍà³ÌÏîÄ¿µ¾-Àí½áÂÛ£¬ °ü À¨ M.I.T.µÄ F.J.Corbato£¬ Bell µç»°ÊÑéÒÄ V.Vyssotsky£¬ International Computers - iii -
  • 7. Limited µÄ Charles Portman£¬ËÕÁª¿Æ ѧԺÎ÷²®ÀûÇ·Ö¿¼ÆËãʵéÒÄ A.P.Ershov£¬ºÍ IBM µÄ A.M.Pietrasanta¡£ ÎÒ×Ô¼ºµÄ½áÂÛÌåÏÖÔÚ ÂÃæµÄÎ ×Ö Ð£¬Ë͸øÖ°Òµ³ÌÐòÔ±¡¢Ö°Òµ¾-Àí¡¢ÌرðÊdz ÐòÔ±µÄ Ö° Òµ¾-Àí¡£ ËäȻд³öÀµÄÊÇ·ÖëÕ½ڣ¬ »¹ÊÇÓÐÒ¸öÖĵÂÛ㣬 Ìرð°üº¬ÔÚµ 2-7 Õ¡£ ¼òÑÔ Ö® £¬ ÎÒÏàÐÅÓÉÚÈËÔ±µÄ·Ö¹¤£¬ ´óÐͱà³ÌÏîÄ¿Åöµ½¹ÜÀíÎÊ⺡Çø𣻠ÎÒÏàÐŹؼüèª ÊÇά³Ö²úÆ·×ÔÉíµÄ¸ÅîÍêÕûС£ ÕâЩ½ÚÌÖÁËÆäµÄÀ§ÑºÍ¾ö·¨¡£ ºóÐøµÄÕ½ÚÌÖ Èí¼þ¹¤³ÌÜÀµÄÆäËû·½Ãæ¡£ Õâ¸öÁìÓòµÄÎ Ïײ¢ »¶à£¬µ«É¢²¼ºÜ¹ã¡£Òò´ËÎ ³¢ÊÔ¸ø ö²Î¿¼×ÊÁÏ£¬ËµÃ÷ij¸öÌض¨Öª ʶ µãºÍÖ¸ÒýÐËȤĶÁÕߥ¿´ÆäûÓù×÷¡£ ºÜ¶àÅóÓÑÁ¹ý˱¾ÊéµÄָ壬 ÆäÖÐÒ»©ÅóÓѸø ³öÁ˺ÜÓаïÖúµÄÒâ¼û¡£ ÕâЩҼûºÜÓÛÖµ£¬ µ«ÎªÁ˲»´òÂÒÄ×Öͨ³£¬ ÎÒ°ÑËüÃÇ×÷ª¢½â º¬ÔÚÊéÖС£ ÒòΪÕâ±¾Êé ÇËæ ²»Ê ¿Î±¾£¬ËùÓеIJο¼ Ï×ºÍ ¢½â¶¼±»·Åµ½Êé Ä ©Î²£¬½¨Òé¶ÁÕß ÔÚ ¶ÁµÚÒ»±éÊÂÔÈ¥²¿´¡£ ÉîÇи» Sara Elizabeth Moore С½ã£¬ David Wagner ÏÈÉú£¬ºÍ Rebecca Burris ·òÈË£¬ ËûÃÇ°ïÖúÎÒ×¼±¸ÁÊ塣л Joseph C.Sloane ½ÌÊÚÔͼâ·ÃæµÄ¨Òé¡£ ²éçê¶ûÏ£¬±¿¨ÂÞÀ´ÄÉ F.P.B., Jr 1974 Äê 10 Ô - iv -
  • 8. Contents£© PREFACE TO THE 20TH ANNIVERSARY EDITION£© ¶þÊ®ÖÜÄê ¼Í Äî°æÐòÑÔ £¨ ...................... I µÚÒ»°æÐò ÑÔ £¨ PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION£© ............................................................ III Ŀ¼£¨ CONTENTS£© ..................................................................................................................... V ½¹ÓÍ¿ £¨ THE TAR PIT£© ..............................................................................................................1 ±à³ÌϵͲúÆ· ...............................................................................................................................1 Ö°ÒµÄÀȤ ...................................................................................................................................3 ְҵĿàÕ ...................................................................................................................................4 ÈËÔÂÉñ»° £¨ THE MYTHICAL MAN-MONTH£© ...........................................................................6 ÀÖ¹Û÷Òå .......................................................................................................................................7 ÈËÔ ...............................................................................................................................................8 ϵͳ²âÊÔ .....................................................................................................................................10 ¿Õ·ºµÄ¹ÀËã ................................................................................................................................. 11 Öظ´²úɵĽø¶ÈÔÑ .................................................................................................................12 Íâ ¿Æ ÊÖ Êõ¶ÓÎé £¨ THE SURGICAL TEAM£© ...............................................................................16 ÎÊÌâ .............................................................................................................................................16 MILLS µÄ½¨Òé .............................................................................................................................17 ÈçºÎÔË×÷ .....................................................................................................................................20 ÍŶӵÄÀ©½¨ .................................................................................................................................21 ¹ó×å ¨ÖÆ¡¢ ÃñÖ÷Õþ Î ºÍ ϵͳÉè¼Æ £¨ ARISTOCRACY, DEMOCRACY, AND SYSTEM DESIGN£© ........................................................................................................................................................22 ¸ÅÄîÒ»ÖÂÐÔ .................................................................................................................................22 »ñµÃ¸ÅÄîÍêÕûÐÔ .....................................................................................................................23 ¹ó×å¨ÖÆͳκÃñ÷Õþ .........................................................................................................24 Ôڵȴýʱ£¬ÏÖËÓ¦¸Ã×ö²¿ .........................................................................................26 »-ÉßÌí×ã £¨ THE SECOND-SYSTEM EFFECT£© ......................................................................29 ½á¹Ê¦µÄ»¥×¼ÔòºÍúÖÆ .........................................................................................................29 ×ÔÂÉ¡ª¿·¢µÚ¶þ¸öÏͳËù´øÀĺó¹û .................................................................................30 ¹á³ Ö´Ð £¨ PASSING THE WORD£© ..........................................................................................33 Îĵ»¯¹æ¸ñËÃ÷¡ªÊÖ²á .....................................................................................................33 ÐÎʽ»¯¶¨Òå .................................................................................................................................34 Ö±½ÓÕûºÏ .....................................................................................................................................36 »áÒéºÍ´ó .................................................................................................................................36 ¶àÖØÊµÏ .....................................................................................................................................38 -v-
  • 9. .....................................................................................................................................38 ²úÆ·âÊÔ .....................................................................................................................................38 Ϊʲô°Í ±È Â×Ëþ»áʧ °Ü £¿ £¨ WHY DID THE TOWER OF BABEL FAIL?£© ...........................40 °Í±ÈÂ×ËþµÄ¹ÜÀí½ÌÑ .................................................................................................................41 ´óÐͱà³ÌÏîÄ¿Öµ½»Á÷ .............................................................................................................41 ÏîÄ¿¹¤×÷ÊÖ²á .............................................................................................................................42 ´óÐͱà³ÌÏîÄ¿µ×éÖ¯¼Ü¹ .........................................................................................................44 ÐØÓ ³ÉÖñ £¨ CALLING THE SHOT£© ..........................................................................................49 PORTMAN ýÊĵ ݾ ........................................................................................................................50 ARON µÄÊý¾Ý ..............................................................................................................................51 HARR µÄÊý¾Ý ..............................................................................................................................51 OS/360 µÄÊý ¾Ý ...........................................................................................................................53 CORBATO ýÊĵ ݾ ........................................................................................................................53 Ï÷×ãÊ ÂÄ £¨ TEN POUNDS IN A FIVE-POUND SACK£© ..........................................................55 ×÷Ϊ³É±¾µÄÌÐò¿Õ¼ä .................................................................................................................55 ¹æÄ£¿ØÖÆ .....................................................................................................................................56 ¿Õ¼äÄÜ .....................................................................................................................................57 Êý¾ÝµÄ±íÏÖÐνÇà³Ì¸ù .................................................................................................58 Ìá¸ÙêüÁì £¨ THE DOCUMENTARY HYPOTHESIS£© ...............................................................60 ¼ÆËã»ú²·µÄÎ .....................................................................................................................60 ´óѧ¿ÆϵÄÎ .........................................................................................................................62 Èí¼þÏîÄ¿µÎ .........................................................................................................................62 ΪʲôÒÓÐÕý½µÄ£¿ .........................................................................................................63 δÓê³ñçÑ £¨ PLAN TO THROW ONE AWAY£© ............................................................................64 ÊÔÑéй¤³§ºÍö´óæÄ£ .............................................................................................................64 Ψһ²±äµÄ¾ÍÊǯÉí .........................................................................................................65 Ϊ±ä¸ü¼Æ»®ÏµÍ³ .........................................................................................................................66 Ϊ±ä¸ü¼Æ»®×éܹ֯ .................................................................................................................66 Ç°½øÁ²£¬ºóÍËÒ» .................................................................................................................68 Ç°½øÒ»²£¬ºóÍË .................................................................................................................69 ¸É½«ÄªÐ° £¨ SHARP TOOLS£© ......................................................................................................71 Ä¿±ê»úÆ÷ .....................................................................................................................................72 ¸¨Öú»Æ÷ºÍÊý¾Ý·þÎñ .................................................................................................................73 ¸ß¼¶ÓïÑԺͽ»¥Ê±à³Ì .............................................................................................................76 ÕûÌ岿·Ö £¨ THE WHOLE AND THE PARTS£© ..........................................................................78 ÌÞ³ý BUG èÉĵ Ƽ ........................................................................................................................78 ¹¼þµ¥Ôª÷Ê .............................................................................................................................80 - vi -
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  • 13. The Tar Pit£© °¶ÉϵĴ¬ù£ÈçͺÆËþÎÞ·¨Ò¯¡ ºÉÀ¼ÑèÓï - Een schip op het strand is een baken in zee. [A ship on the beach is a lighthouse to the sea.] - DUTCH PROVERB Ê·Ç° ÖУ¬Ã»Ó ±ðµÄ³¡¾° È ÞÊ ÔÚ½¹ÓÍ¿ Öд ËÀÕõÔúµÄ³¡Ãæ¸üÁîÈËÕ𺳡£ÉϵۼûÖ¤ ×Å ¿ÖÁú¡¢ ÃÍáïÏó¡¢ ½£³Ý»¢ÔÚ¹ÓÍÖÐÕõú¡ ËüÃÇÕõÔúµ½ÊÍÁÒ£¬ ½¹Ó;À²øµÃÔô£¬ ûÓÐÈκ ÃÍ ÊÞ×㹻ǿ³ò¾ßÓеļɣ¬ÜÕõÍÑø¸ËüÃîºó¶Á½¡ ¹ýÈ¥¼¸Ê®Äêµ ´óÐÍÏ ³¿ª·¢¾ÍÓÌÈçÕâÑùÒ»¸ö½¹ÓÍ¿ £¬ºÜ¶à´óÐÍ Ç¿×³µÄ¶¯ÎïÔÚÆäÖÐ ¾ç ÁÒµØÕõÔú¡£ ËûÃÇÖдó¶àÊý¿ª·¢³öÁÉÔµÄÏÍ¡²»¹£¬ ÆäÖлӷdz£ÉÙÊýµÄÏî¿Âú×ãÁË Ä¿±ê¡¢ ʱ¼ä½ø¶ÈºÍÔ¤ËãµÄÒªÇó¡£ ¸÷ÖÍŶӣ¬ ´óÐ͵ĺ¡£¬ ÅÓԵĺ;«¸É£¬ Ò»¸ö½Ó ¸ö ÑÍûÔÚÁ˽¹Ó¿ÖС£ ±íÃæÉÏ¿´ÆðÀºñ»ÓÐÈÎÒ¸öµ¥¶ÄÊÌâá¼Ö§ѣ¬ ÿ¸ö¶¼Äܱ»½â ¾ö£¬ µ«ÊDZËüÃÏ໥¾À²øºÍÛýÔÚÒÆðÄò£¬ ÍŶӵÄЯ¾»á±äÃÔ½À´Âý¡£ ¶ÔÎÊÌâµÄÂé ·³Ì¶È£¬ ÿ¸öÈËƺõ¶¼»áе½¾ªÑ£¬ ²¢ÇÒºÜÄÑ¿´åÎÊÌâµ±¾Ö¡£ ²»¹ý£¬ Èç¹ûÎÒÃÇÏë½â¾öÊÌ£¬ ¾Í±ØÐëÊÔ¼ÏÈ¥Àí½âËü¡£ Òò´Ë£¬Ê×ÏÈ ÃÎÒ ÇÀ´ÈÏʶһ  í¼þ¿ª·¢Õâ¸öÖ°Òµ£¬ Ô¼ ³äÂú ÚÕâ¸öÖ°Òµ Ð ÄÀÖȤºÍ ¿à ÄÕ°É¡£ ±à³ÌÏµÍ ²úÆ· ±¨Ö½ÉϾ-³£»á öÏÖÕâÑùµÄÐÂÎÅ£¬½²ÊöÁ ¸ ³ÌÐòÔ±ÈçºÎ Ú¾-¸ÄÔìµ ¼òª³ ¿âÖУ¬±à³ö ÁË ³¬¹ý´óÐÍŶӤ×÷Á¿µÄÖØÒªÌò¡£ ½Ó×Å£¬ ÿ¸ö±à³ÌÈËÔ×¼ÏÐÅÕâÑùµÄÉñ»°£¬ ÒòΪËûÖµÀ×Ô -1-
  • 14. Èκ 1000 ´úÂëÐ /ÄêµÄÉú²ÂÊÀ´¿ª·¢ ³ÌÐò¡£ Ϊʲô » ÇËùÓеIJúÒ »¯¶ÓÎé ¼ á±»ÕâÖ ×¨ ¢µÄ¶þÈË×éºÏ ùÌæ´ú£¿ÎÒÃDZØÐ뿴һϠ²ú ʲô ³öµÄÊÇ ¡£ x3 ³ÍµÏÌ à± òÐ̳ Ú¿Ó½¨£ ©£É³¯¼ ÍµÏ x3 ·Æú²Ì³à± ¬£¯»ÃÓ¨Í ·Æú²³ÍµÏÌ à± ¬£ÔÊâ² ¬£µ ÄÎ ©£¤»¬Î ͼ 1.1£º±à³ÌϵͲúÆ·ÄÑݽø ³ÌÐò ÔÚͼ 1.1 µÄ ×óÉϲ¿·ÖÊÇ £¨ Program£© ¡£Ëü±¾Éí ÊÇÍêÕûµÄ£¬¿ÉÒÔÓ×÷ßÚËùª·¢ ϵ ͳƽ̨ÉÏÔËС£üÊǵ¿âÖ²úöÄ·¬Ò¼°×÷Ϊ¥¸ò±ÂÀ¹ê ÓÐÁ½Ö ; ¶¿ÉÒÔʹ³ÌÐòת±ä ɸüÓРõģ¬ «Êdzɱ¾¸ü ߵĶ«Î÷£¬ËüÃDZíÏÖΪͼ ÐµÄ ±ß ½ç¡£ ±à³Ì²úÆ· ˮƽ±ßçÒÔÏ£¬³ÌÐòäÉ £¨ Programming Product£© ¡£ÕâÊÇ¿ÉÒÔ±»ÈκËÐ ¡¢ ²âÊÔ¡¢ ÐÞ¸´ºÍÀ©Õ¹µÄ³Ìò¡£ Ëü¿ÉÒÔÐÚ¶àÖ²Ù×÷ϵͳƽ̨£¬ ¹©¶àÌ×Êý¾ÝÓᣠҪ³ÉÎͨ Óõıà³Ì²úÆ·£¬ÐòØë°´ÕéÈÏ¿Éç¸ñÀðÊÇä¶Î§ºÍ½©¹ ÒÔÊÓÃÚËùпɺÏÀí¹µÄ»±¾ã·¨¡£ ½Ó×Å£¬ ¶Ô³ÌÐò½ø¹µ×²âÊ£¬ È·±£ËüµÄζ¨ÐÔºÍ¿É ¿ÐÔ£¬ ʹÆäÖµÃÐÅÀ¡£ Õâ¾ÍÒζ×űØÐ뼸¡¢ ÔËкͼÇÂÏ꾡µÄ²âÊÓÃÀý¿£¬ ÓÃÀ´¼ì²éÊäÈë µÄ±ß½çºÍ·¶Î§¡£ ´ËÍ⣬ Òª ½«³ÌÐòáÉýΪ²úÆ·£¬ »¹ÐèÒªÓÍ걸µÄΣ¬ ÿ¸öÈ˶¼ÉÒÔÓ Ê¹ÓᢠÐÞ¸´ºÍÀ©Õ¹¡£ ¾-ÑéÊýݱíÃ÷£¬ Ïàͬ¹¦Äܵ±³Ì²úƷɾ£ ÖÁÉÙÊÇÒѾ-¹ý²âԵijÌÐò µÄÈý±¶¡£ -2-
  • 15. Programming System£©ÖÐµÄ Ò»¸ö ¹ ¼þµ¥Ôª¡£ ËüÊÇÔÚ¹¦ÄÜÉÏ໥Ð-×÷µ³Ìò¼¯º£¬ ¾ßÓй淶µÄ¸ñʽ£¬ ¿ÉÒÔ½øл¥£¬ ²¢¿ÉÒÔÓà À´×é°ºÍÕû¸öϵ³¡£ Òª³ÉÎϵ͹¼þ£¬ ³ÌÐò±Øë°´ÕÒ»¶¨µÄªÇóàÖÆ£¬ ʹäÈëºÍ³öÔÚ Óï·¨ºÍÓï Òå ÉÏÓ뾫ȷ ¶¨ ÒåµÄ½Ó¿Ú Ò» Ö¡£Í¬Ê± ³Ì Ðò»¹Òª·û ºÏ Ô¤Ïȶ¨Òå µÄ ×ÊÔ´ÏÞÖÆ ¡ª ¡ª ÄÚ ´æ ¿Õ ¼ä¡¢ ÊäÈë³öÉ豸¡¢ ¼ÆËã»úʱ䡣 ×îºó£¬ ³ÌÐò±ØëͬÆäËüϵ¹¼þ¥ÔªÒ»À£ ÒÔÈκÄÜÏë Ïó µ½Ä×éºÏøвâÊÔ¡£ ÓÉÚ²âÊÔÃÀý»áËæ×ÅéºÏ¶ö¼£¬ ËùÒÔ²âʵķ¶Î§Ç³£¹ã¡ ÒòΪ»Ð© ÒâÏë²»µ½Ä¥áúÉÐí¶à×ì¾õ bug£¬ ²â ÊÔ¹¤×÷½«»á·Ç³£ºÄ±¬ Òò´ËÏàͬ¹¦Äܵ±³Ì ϵͳ¹¼þÄɱ¾ÖÁÙÊǶÀ¢ÌÐòÈý¡£çûÓ´ó¿×é¥Ôª¬»á¸üß ±à³ÌϵͲúÆ· ͼ 1.1 µÄÓÒ Ï²¿·Ö´ú±í £¨ Programming Systems Product£© ¡£ºÍÒÔÉ쵀 Ëù ÓеÄÇé¿ö¶¼²»Í¬Ê£ ËüµÄ³É±¾¸ß´ïŶ¡£ È»¶ø£¬ Ö»ÓÐËü²ÅÊÇÕæýõÄúÆ·£¬ ÊÇ´ó¶àýϵ ͳ¿ª·¢µÄ±ê¡£ Ö°Òµ ÄÀ Ȥ ±à³ÌΪʲôÓÐȤ£¿×÷»Ø¨¬ËüµÄÒÕßÆÚÍû½ÑùìÀÖ Ê×ÏÈ ÇÒ»Ö ´ ½¨ÊÂÎïµÄ´¿ â ìÀÖ¡£ÈçͬРº¢ÔÚ æÄà°Íʱ¸Ðµ½Óä¿ìÒ»Ñù£¬³ÉÄêÈËϲ»¶ ´ ½¨ÊÂÎ ÌرðÊÇ×Ô¼º½øÐÉèÆ¡£ ÎÒÏëÕâÖ¿ìÀÊÇɵ۴ԽçÄ䣬 Ò»Ö³ÊÏÔÚÿƬ¶ÀÌØ ¡¢ 1 ոеÄÊ÷Ò¶ºÍÑ©»¨ÉϲÔà ¡£ Æä´Î£¬¿ìÀÖ ´×ÔÓÚ¿ª·¢¶ ÆäËûÈ ÓРõĶ«Î÷¡£ ÚÐÄÉî´¦£¬ÎÒÃÇÆÚÍû äË È Ê¹ÓÃÎÒ Ç µÄ ÀͶ¯³É¹û£¬ ²¢ÄܶÔËûÃÇÓÐù°ïÖú¡£ ´ÓÕâ¸ö·½Ã棬 ÕâͬСº¢ÓóÁΪ ¡°Ö칫ÊÒ± ÄóÖÆǦ ±Ê ºÐûӱ¾ÖʵÄÇøð¡£ µÚÈýÊÇÕû¸ö¹ ³Ì åÏÖ öħÊõ°ãµ Á¦ ¿¡ª ½«Ï໥Äöº µ Á㲿¼þ×é °ÔÚÒ»Æ𣬿´µ½Ëü ÃÇ ¾«ÃîµØÔËУ¬ µÃ½Ô¤ÏÈËù£ÍûÄṡ ±ÈÆðµ¯ÖéÓÎÏ·»ò㳪úËù¾ßÐÄÃÔ÷Á¦£¬ ³ÌÐò»¯µÄ ¼ÆËã»úºÁ²Ñ·É«¡£ µÚËÄÊÇѧϰµ ÀÖȤ£¬ ´×ÔÓÚÕâÏ×÷µÄ·ÇÖظ´Ì ÐÔ¡£ÈËÃÇ ù æÁÙµÄÎÊÌ⣬ÔÚij¸ö»ò Æä Ëü·½Ãæ×ÜÓЩ²»Í¬¡£ Òò¶ø½â¾öÎÊ̵ÄÈË¿ÉÔ´ÓÖÐѧϰÂ ÓÐʱǵ¼ùÉÏÄ£¬ ÓÐʱÇÀí ÂÛÉϵģ¬»òÕß¼æ¶øÓÐÖ®¡ ×îºó£¬ÀÖȤ»¹ ´×ÔÓÚ ¤ ÷ Èç´ËÒ×ÓÚ¼ÝÔ¦µÄ½éÖÊÉÏ¡£³ÌÐòÔ± ¬¾ÍÏñÊ«ÈËÒ»Ñù£¬¼¸ºõ ½ö -3-
  • 16. È»¶ø³ÌÐò±Ï¾¹Í¬Ê«¸è²» £¬ËüÊÇ µ ÔÚ Ä¶«Î÷£»¿ÉÒÔ Æ¶¯ºÍ ËÐ £¬ÄܶÀÁ¢²úÉ ¿ ¼û µÄÊä³ö£» ÄÜ´òÓ¡½á¹û£¬ »æÖÆͼÐΣ¬ ·¢³öÉùÒô£¬ Òƶ¯Ö§¼Ü¡£ Éñ»°ºÍ´«ËµÖÐħÊõÔÚÎÒÃDZ ´ú Òѱä³ÉÁËÏÖʵ¡£ ÔÚ¼üÅÌÉÏÈëÕý·µÄÖäÓ ÆÁÄ»á¡¢ ±ä»Ã£¬ ÏÔʾ³öÇ°ËùδÓеĻòÒÑ- ´æÔÚµÄÊÂÎï¡£ ±à³Ì·Ç £ÓÐȤ ¬ÔÚ Ëü²»½öÂú×ãÁËÎÒÃÇÄÚÐ Éî´¦½ø Ð ÔìµÄ¿ÊÍû£¬¶øÇÒ»¹ÓäÔÃÁË ¿ ¸ö ÈËÄÚÔµÇé¸Ð¡£ Ö°Òµ Ä¿à Õ È»¶øÕâ¸ö¹ý³Ì²¢ »È«¶¼ÊÇϲÔá£ÎÒ ÇÖ»ÓÐÊÂÏÈÁ˽âһЩ±à³Ì¹ Óеķ³ Õ£¬ âÑù µ± Ëü ÃÇÕæµÄ³öÏÖʱ£¬²Åܸü¼Ó̹Ȼضԡ Ê×ÏÈ£¬±ØÐë×·ÇóÍêÃÀ¡£ÒòΪ¼ÆËã»úÒ²ÊÇ ÔÕâÑùµÄ·½Ê À´±äÏ· ¨£ºÈç¹ûÖäÓï еÄÒ»¸ö ×Ö ·û¡¢Ò»¸ö Í£ ¶Ù£¬Ã»ÓÐ Óë ÕýÈ·µÄÐΠʽ Ò»Ö£¬Ä§ Êõ ¾Í²»á³ö ÏÖ¡£ £¨ÏÖʵР£¬ ºÜÉÙµÄÈË Àà »î¶¯ÒªÇó ÍêÃÀ£¬Ëù ÒÔ ÈËÀà¶Ôü ±¾ À´¾Í²»Ï° ¹ß¡£ £©Êµ¼ÉÏ £¬ ÎÒÈϪѧ Ï° ±à³ÌµÄ×î À§ ÄѲ¿·Ö£¬ ÊÇ ½«×öÊ嵀 ·½ÊÍù×ÇóêÃÀµÄÏò÷Õû¡£ Æä´Î£¬ÊÇÓÉËûÈ À´ 趨Ŀ±ê£¬¹©¸ø×ÊÔ´£¬ÌṩÐÅÏ¢¡£±à³ÌÈËÔ ºÜÉÙÄ ¿ØÖƹ¤×÷»·¾³ ºÍ ¹¤×÷Ä¿±ê¡£ ÓùÜÀíµÄÊõï´Ë£¬ ¸öÈ˵ĨÍþºûù³Ð£ÔðÎÊDz»ÏàÅä¡ ²»¹ý£¬ ËƺõÔÚù ÓеÄÁìòÖ£¬ ¶ÔÒªÍê³ÉµÄ¹¤×÷£¬ ºÜÉÙÄÌṩÓëÔðÈÎÏàÒ»ÖµÕýʽ¨Íþ¡£ ¶øÏÖʵÇé¿öУ¬ ʵ¼ £¨Ïà¶ÔÓÚÕýʽ©µÄÈÍþÀ´×ÿÎñê³É¡ ¶ÔÓÚϵͳ±à ÌÈËÔ ¶øÑ £¬ ÔÆäËûÈ µÄÒÀ ÊÇ »¼þ· ³£Í´¿àµÄÊÂÇé¡£ËûÒÀ¿ Æä È赀 ³Ì Ðò£¬¶øÍù Íù ÕâЩ³Ìò Éè ¼ÆµÃ²¢» ºÏ Àí£¬ÊµÏÖ ×¾ ÁÓ£¬·¢²¼ ²» ÍêÕû£¨Ã» ÓÐ Ô´úÂë»ò ²â ÊÔÓÃÀý£© £¬ »òÕßÎĵ¼ÇÂúÜÔã¡£ ËùÒÔ£¬ ϵͳ±àÌÈËÔ²»Ã¨·Ñʼä¥Ð¾¿ºÞ¸Ä£¬ ¶øËüÃÇÔÚÀíÏëé ¿öϱ¾Ó¦¸ÃÊÇÉÍêÕûµÄ¡£ ÏÂÒ»¸ö·³ÄÕ¡ªÅîÐÔÉè¼ÆÊÇÓȤµ£¬«Ñ°Ëé bug È´Ö»ÊÇÒÏîظÐԵĶ¯¡£ °éËæ×Å´ÔìлµÄ£¬ÍùÊÇ¿Ýï³ÁÃƱ¼äºèàÀ¡ÌòÖ¹¤÷Ò²ýâ -4-
  • 17. ×îºóÒ»¸ö¿àÄÕ£¬ÓÐʱҲ Ç »Ö ÎÞÄ ¡ª µ±Í¶ÈëÁË´ó ¿Ð àµÄÀͶ¯£¬²úÆ·ÔÚ¼´½«Íê³É »ò ÕßÖÓÚÍê³ÉµÄʱºò£¬ È´ÒÑÏԵó¾ɹýʱ¡£ ¿ÉÄÜÊÇͬº¾Õù¶ÔÖÒÑÚ×·ðе¡¢ ¸üºÃµÄ¹Ë¼ £» Ò²ÐíÌæ´ú·½°¸»öÊÇÔڹ˼£¬¶øѾ-ÅÁ¡ ÏÖʵÇé¿ö±ÈÉÏÃæËù µ Äͨ³£ÒªºÃ »Ð©¡£µ±²úÆ·¿ª ¢Íê³Éʱ£¬¸üÓÅÐãµÄ ²úƷͨ³£»¹ ²» ÄÜͶÈëʹÓ㬠¶ø½öÊÇΪ´ó¼Ò̸ÂÛÑ¡£ ÁíÍ⣬ ËüͬÑùÐèÒªÊýÔµĿ·¢±¼ä¡£ ʵÉÏ£¬ Ö»ÓРʵ¼ÐèÒª±£¬²Å»áÓý×îÂÄÉÏëòÎËùÖͳѾ-ÜúãÇóÌåÁب¡ ³ÏÈ»£¬²úÆ·¿ª ¢Ëù» Óڵļ ÊõÔ ²»¶ÏµØ½ø ¡£Ò»µ©Éè¼Æ± ¶³½á£¬ÔÚ¸ÅÄîÉϾÍÒÑ -¿ª ʼ ³Â¾ÉÁË¡£ ²»¹ý£¬ ʵ¼²úÆ·ÐèÒª»½°´×¶ÎÏÖ¡£ ʵÏÖÂäºóÓë·ñÄÅж¦¸ù¾ÝÆËüÒÑ ÏµÍ³£¬ ¶ø²»ÊÇδµÏÖĸÅî¡£ Òò´Ë£¬ ÎÒÃÇËùæÁÙµÄÌôÕ½ºÍÈñÊÔÚÏÖÓб¼ä§×´ ·¶Î§ÄÚ£¬Ñ°ÕÒ½â¾öʵ¼ÌÇпɸ¡ Õ⣬ ¾ÍÊDZà³Ì¡£ Ò»¸öÐí¶àÈËÍ´¿ÕõÔúµÄ½¹Ó¼°ÖÀ¤º²æì£ ¶ÔÓÚÐíàÈËøÑ£¬ ÆäÖеÄÀȤԶ´óÓÚ¿àÕ¡£ ¶ø±¾ÊéµÄ£Óಿ·Ö½«Ôͼ´î¨Ò»Ð©ÇÅÁº¬ Ϊͨ¹ý ÕâÑùµÄ½¹ÓÍ¿Ìá©Ò»ÐÖ¸¼¡£ -5-
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  • 19. ËùÓеıà³ÌÈËÔ ¶¼ÊÇÀÖ¹Û ÷ÒåÕß¡£¿ÉÄÜÊÇÕâÖ Ï ´úħÊõÌرðÎüÒýÄÇЩÏà ÅÃÀÂú½á¾Ö µÄ ÈË£»Ò²¿ÉÄÜÊdz°Ùϧöéµ´ìÕÛ¸×ßÁó¶àý¬ÖÂЩ¹Ø¢½áû »¹¿ÉÄܽöÒòΪ¼ÆËãúºêÇᣬ ³ÌÐòÔ±¸ü¼ÓÄêÇᣬ ¶øÄêÇáÈË×ÜÊЩÀÖ¹Û÷ÒåÕß¡ªÎÞ ʲôÑùµÄ³ÌÐò£¬ ½á¹ûÊÇÎðÓÖÃÒɵģº ¡°Õâ´ÎËü¿Ï¶¨»áÔУ ¡± »ò Õß ¡°ÎÒ¸Õ³öÁË×îºó»´í Îó¡£ ¡± Ò»Çж¼½«ÔË×÷Á ºÃ ÿһÏîÈÎ ñ½ö »¨ ËùÒÔϵͳ±à Ì Ä½ø¶È°²Å ±³ºóµÄ ÚÒ»¸ö¼ÙÉèÊÇ£º £¬ ·ÑËüù¡°Ó¦¸Ã±»¨µÄÊ¼ä ¡£ ¶ÔÕâÖÃÂþÚ±à³ÌÈËеÄÀ¹Û÷Ò壬íÓ¦ÊܽÉØ·Îö¡ Dorothy Sayers ýËÚÔ Äµ The Mind of the Maker¡±Ò»Êé ¡° ÖУ¬ ½«´Ôì ÐÔ»î ¶¯·ÖΪ Èý¸ö ½×¶Î£º ¹Ë¼ ¡¢ÊµÏÖ ºÍ½» Á÷¡£Êé ¼®¡¢ ¼ÆËã»ú¡¢ »òÕß³ÌеÄöÏÖ£¬ Ê×ÏÈÇ÷Ϊһ¸ö¹Ë¼òÄ£ÐͳÖÔÚÕßµº¬ ËüÓëʱ¼ä ºÍ¿Õ¼äÎ޹ء£ ½Ó×Å£¬ ½èÖú¸±Ê¡¢ Ä«Ë®ºÍÖ½£¬ »òÕßµçÏ¡¢ ¹èƬºÍÌúÑõå£ ÔÚÏÖʵı¼äºÍ¿Õ ÖÐʵÏËüÃÇ¡£ È»ºó£¬ µ±Ä³ ÈËÔĶÁÊé±¾¡¢ ʹÓüÆËã»úºÍÔгÌòµÄ±£¬ ËûÓë×÷ÕߵļÏ໥ ¹µÍ¨£¬´Ó¶ø×÷ý³ÌÃÒÔ½áÊ¡ ÒÔÉÏ Sayers µÄ²ûÊö»½¿ÉÒÔÃèæÈËÀà´ìÐ£¬øÇÆÓÚ¡°ùÌå± £¬ ÄÜÖ¸µ¼ÎÒÃÇÈÕ³£¹¤×÷¡ ¶ÔÓÚ´ìÕߣ¬ Ö»ÓÐÔÚʵÏĹý³Ì£¬ ²ÅÄÜ·¢ÏÖÎÒÃǹ˼µ»ÍêÕûÐÔ ºÍ²»ÒÖÂÐÔ¡£ò´Ë¬¶ÓÚÀíÛ¼øÑÊ颰¹¤×÷µÏ±Ç·³ù¾ØªÄ ÔÚÐí¶à´ ì ԻÖУ¬Íù ºÜÄÑÕÆÎ »î¶¯Êµ © ĽéÖÊ£¬ÀýÈçľͷÇиÓÍÆá µç ÷ °² ×°µÈ¡£ ÕâЩ½éÖʵÄÎïÀíÔ¼øÏÞÆÁË·±´£¬ ËüÃÇͬÑù¶ÔʵÏÖì³ÉÁÐíमâÄÀ§¡£ ÓÉ ÚÎïÀí½éÖʺÍ˼· ÐÒþº¬µÄ²»ÍêÉÆÐÔ£¬Êµ¼ ÏÖÆðÀ´ÐèÒª»¨·Ñ´óÁ¿µÄʱ¼äºÍ ¹Ë® ¡£ ¶ÔÓöµ½Ä´ó²¿·ÖÊÏÉÀ§Ñ£¬ ÎÒÃÇ×ÜÊãÏòÓÚÈ¥Ôð¹ÖÄЩïÀí½é£¬ ÒòΪËüÃDz»³Ó¦ ¡°ÎÒ ÃÇ¡±É趨µÄ˼·£ÆäʬÕâÖ»²¹ýÎÒ½¾°ÁÅÐÏ´ø÷Ûå« È»¶ø£¬¼ÆËã»ú±à³Ì ùÓÚÊ®·ÖÈÝÒ×ÕÆÎ µÄ½éÖÊ£¬±à³ÌÈËÔ Í¨¹ý·Ç³£´¿ âµÄ˼ά»î¶¯¡ª ¡ª ¸ÅÄîÒÔ¼°Á黵±íÏÖÐÎʽÀ´¿ª·¢³Ìò¡£ ÕýÓÉÚ½éÖʵÄÒ×¼ÝÔ¦£¬ ÎÒÃÇÆÚ´ýÔʵÏÖ¹³Ìв»á Åöµ½À§ÄÑ£¬ Òò´ËÔì³ÉÁÀÖ¹Û÷åµÄÃÂþ¡£ ¶øÎÒÃǵĹ˼ÊÓÐȱÏÝ£¬ Òò´Ë×Ü»áÓÐ bug¡² Ò £ ; ÊÇ˵£¬ÎÒÃÄÀÖ¹Û÷å²¢»Ó¦¸íù±¡ ÔÚµ¥¸öÄÈÎñÖУ¬ ¡°Ò»Çж¼½«ÔËתÕý³£± µÄ¼ÙÉèÔÚʱä½ø¶ÈϾßÓп֡£ ÒòΪËùÓö -7-
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  • 21. ͼ 2.2£ºÈËÔ±ÍʼäÖ®µÄ¹ØÏ¡ªÎÞ·¨½âñ ¶ÔÓÚ¿ÉÒ ·Ö½â£¬µ«×ÓÈÎ ñÖ®¼äÐèÒªÏ໥¹µÍ¨º ½»Á÷µÄÈÎ ñ£¬±ØÐëÔڼƻ®¹¤×÷Öп¼ÂÇ ¹µ ͨµÄ¹¤×÷Á¿¡£ Òò´Ë£¬ Ïàͬ ÈËÔµÄÇ°ÌáÏ£¬ ²ÉÓÃÔö¼ÈËÊÖÀ´õٱ䵽Ä×îºÇé¿£¬ Ò²±Èδ µ÷ÕûÇ°Òª²î»Ð©£¨Í¼ 2.3£© ¡£ Ô ÈË Í¼ 2.3£ºÈËÔ±ÍʼäÖ®µÄ¹ØÏ¡ªÐèÒ¨¿É·½âÎñ ¹µÍ¨ËùÔö¼ÓµÄ¸º £ ÉÁ½ ö²¿·Ö×é³É£¬ÅàѵºÍÏ »¥ Ľ Á÷¡£Ã¿¸ö³ÉÔ±ÐèÒª½ø ¼ Êõ¡¢ Ïî Ä¿±êÒÔ¼°×ÜÌå²ßÂÉϵÅàÑ¡£ ÕâÖÅàѵ²»ÄÜ·½£¬ Òò´ËÕⲿ·ÖÔö¼ÓµÄ¹¤×÷ÁæȱÊý 1 ³ÊÏßÐԱ仯 ¡£ -9-
  • 22. n(n-1)/2 µÝÔö¡£Ò»¶½Á÷ÄÇé¿Ï¬Èý¸Ë¹¤×ʱ ¸öÈËÔòÊÇÁ½µÄù±¶¡£ ¶øÔÓÚÐèÒªÈýËĸöÖ®¼äÕÙ¿»áé¡¢ ½øÐ-ÉÌ¡¢ һͬ½â¾öµÄÎÊÌ £¬ Çé¿ö»á¸ü ¼Ó ¶ñÁÓ¡£Ëù Ôö ¼ÓµÄ Ã Ú ¹µ ͨµÄ¹¤×÷ Á¿ ¿ÉÄÜ»áÍê È« µÖÏû¶Ô - ÓÐ ÈÎ ñ·Ö½â Ëù ²ú Éú µÄ ×÷ Ó㬴ËʱÎÒÇ»áøµ½Í¼ 2.4 µÄ¾³Ø¡£ Ô ÈË Í¼ 2.4£ºÈËÔ±ÍʼäÖ®µÄ¹ØÏ¡ª´í×Û¸ÓÎñ ÒòΪÈí¼þ¿ ·¢±¾ÖÊÉÏ ÇÒ» î µÍ³¹¤×÷¡ª ´í Û¸ ÔÓ¹Øϵ  ÄÒ»Ö Êµ¼ù¡ª ¹ ͨ ¢½» Á÷ µÄ¹¤×÷Á¿·Ç³£´ó¬ËüºÜì»áÏûÈÎñÖ½âùÚÊ¡ÂÀ¸ö±¼äÓ¶øÌíà ʵ¼ÉÏÇÑÓ³¤ÁË£¬¶ø²»õ̱ä½È¡ ϵͳ²âÊÔ ÔÚʱ¼ä½ø¶ÈÖУ¬Ë³ òÏÞÖÆ ùÔì³ÉµÄÓ°Ï £¬Ã» ÐÄ ¸ö²¿·Ö±Èµ¥Ôª ÷Ê ºÍϵ ³²âÊÔËù Ü µ½ µÄÇ£Éæ¸ü³¹×¡ ¶øÇÒ£¬ Òª ÇóµÄʱ¼äÒÀÓÚËùö½´íΡ¢ ȱÏÝÊýÁ¿ÒÔ¼°²¶×½ËüÃǵij̡£ Àí ÂÛÉÏ£¬ ȱÏݵÄÊýÁ¿Ó¦¸ÃΪ㡣 µ«ÊÇ£¬ ÓÉÚÎÒÃǵÄÀÖ¹Û÷壬 ͨ³£Êµ¼öÏÖÄȱÝýÁ¿Ô¤ µÄÒª¶àá£ò´Ë¬Ïͳ²âÊÔ½øÈ°ÅDZÌÖÐ×Àí¿· ¶ÔÓÚÈí¼þÎñµÄ½ø°²Å£¬ÒÏÂÊǹÃÁ˺Üàê¾-Ñé·¨ò 1/3 ¼Æ»® 1/6 ±àÂë - 10 -
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  • 27. 3 ÈË µÄ¶ÓÎ飬 ¶øÊÇ 7 ÈËÒÔÉÏ µÄÍŶӣ» ²¢ ÇÒС×éµÄÖ¯ºÍÈÎñ»®·ÔÚÀàÉ϶¼²¾¬£ÕâÑ-ʳÌîì ×¢ÒâÔÚµÈý¸öÂĽáβʱ£¬ Çé¿ö´ÉÏÈ¥»¹ÊºÜÔã¡£ ³ýÈ¥¹ÜÀíµÄ¤×÷²»Ì¸£¬ 3 Ô 1 ĵÕÈ ïÀ ³Ì±®ÈÔδﵽ¡£ ´Ëʱ£¬ ¶Ô ÏîÄ¿¾-Àí¶øÑÔ£¬ ÈÔ»´æÚןÜÇ¿µÄÓÕó¡ªÌí¼¸ü¶àËÁ¦£¬ ½á¹ûÍù Íù»áÊÇÉÏöÑ-·µÄÖظ´¡£Õâ¼ò±¾Òè¿ñ¢ÓÞÀר Ç°ÃæµÄÌÖÂÛ½öÊÚÒ»¸Àï³±®¹¼Æ²é¿¡£ÈçûÔ 3 Ô 1 ÈÕ£¬ ÏîÄ¿¾-Àí×ö³ÁË ±È½Ï£ÊصļÙÉè¬ ¼´Õû¸ö¹ÀÆýÓÚÖÛÁË£¬ Èçͼ 2.7 Ëùʾ ¡£ 6 ¸öÈËÊÖÐè ÒªÌí¼Óµ½Ô-ÏÈÄÎñ ÖС£ Åàѵ¡¢ ÈÎ ÎñµÄÖØзÅä¡¢ ϵͳ²âÊÔ¹¤×÷Á¿Ä¼ÆËãΪ·°ô¸ø¶Õß¡£ µ«ÊǺÁÎÞÒÉ£¬ ÖØ ÏÖ¡°ÔÄѱËù¿ª·¢³öµ²úÆ£¬ÈûÓмʶøÇØÂŽɸüî ¼òµ¥¡¢Îä¶ÏØÖ¸´Ò»Â Brooks ·¨Ôò£º Ïò½ø¶È Âäºó µÄÏî ¿ ÖÐÔö ¼ÓÈËÊÖ £¬Ö» »áʹ½ø ¶È¸ü ¼ÓÂäºó¡£ £¨ Adding manpower to a late software project makes it later£© Õâ¾ÍÊdzýÈ¥ÁËÉñ»° «²ÊµÄÈËÔ¡£ÏîÄ¿µ ʱ¼äÒÀ µÓÚ˳ÐòÉ쵀 ÞÖÆ£¬ÈËÔ±µÄÊýÁ¿ÒÀ µ ÓÚ µ¥¸ö×ÓÈÎñÄÊýÁ¿¡£ ´ÓÕâÁ½¸öÊýÖµ¿ÉÒÔÍÆËã³ø¶È±¼äí£¬ ¸Ã±í°²ÅµÄÈËÔ½ÏÉÙ£¬ »¨·ÑµÄʱ ¼ä½Ï³¤£¨ Ψ Ò»µÄ·çÏÕ ÊÇ ²úÆ·¿ÉÄÜ »á ¹ýʱ£© ¡£Ïà ·´ £¬·ÖÅÉ½Ï ¶à µÄÈËÊÖ£¬ ¼Æ »®½Ï¶ÌµÄ ʱ ¼ä£¬½«ÎÞ ·¨µÃ½¿ÉÐÄø¶È±í¡£ ×ÜÖ®£¬ ÔÚÖ¶àÈí¼þÏîĿУ¬ ȱ·¦ºÏÀíµÄʼä½ø¶ÇÔì³Éî¿ÖÍó× Ö÷ÒªÔ-ò£¬Ëü±ÈÆäûùÓÐؼðÀ´µÄ°Ï컹ó¡ - 15 -
  • 28. The Surgical Team£© ÕâЩѾ¿±íÃ÷£¬§Âʸߺ͵ÄÖ®¼äÌå²îð·Ç³£´ó¬¾-ïµ½ÁËÊý¿¼¶Ä®Æ¡ GRANT1 - SACKMAN, ERIKSON ºÍ These studies revealed large individual differences between high and low performers, often by an order of magnitude. SACKMAN, ERIKSON, AND GRANT1 - ÔÚ¼ÆËã»úÁìÓòµÄ áÒéÖУ¬³ Ìýµ½ÄêÇá Èí¼þ¾-À Éù³ÆËûÃÇϲ»¶ÓÉÍ·µÈ ˲Å×é³ÉµÄ С ÐÍ¡¢ ¾«¸ÉµÄ¶ÓÎ飬 ¶ø²»ÊÇÄЩ¼¸°ÙÈ˵´óÍÅÓ£¬ ÕâÀïµÄ ¡°È˱ µ±È»°Ö¸Æ½Ó¹Ä³ÌÐòÔ¡£ Æä ʵÎÒÃDz¾-³£ÓÐÏàͬĿ´·¨¡£ ´óÐÍ µ«ÕâÖ Ó× ÉµÄ¹Û ã»Ø±ÜÁËÒ ¸öº À§Äѵ ÎÊÌ⡪ ÈçºÎÔÚÓÐÒâ åµÄʱ¼ä½ø¶ÈÄÚ´ ¨ µÄÏͳ£¿Çô¾ÈÎÒÖÔÚÀ×иÌÂÛ»ÕâöÊ·½æ¡ ÎÊÌâ Èí¼þ¾-À ºÜÔç ÍÈÏʶµ½ÓÅÐã³Ì òÔ±ºÍ½Ï²îµÄ³ÌÐòÔ±Ö®¼äÉú² Â浀 îÒ죬 «Êµ¼ ²âÁ¿ ³ö Sackman¡¢ Erikson ºÍ Grand Ôø¶ µÄ²îÒ컹ÊÇÁÎÃËùÓÐȳԾª¡£Úû¸öÑ¿Ö¬ Ò»×é¾ßÓÐ ¾- ÑéµÄ³ÌÐò ÈË Ô±½øÐ ²â Á¿ ¡£ÔÚ¸ÃС ×é ÖУ¬×îºÃ µÄ ºÍ×î² µÄ ±í ÏÖÔÚÉú² ÂÊ ÉÏ Æ½ ¾ù Ϊ 10:1£» ÔÚ ÔË ÐËٶȺͿռäÉϾßÓ 5:1 µÄ¾ªÈ˲îÒì £¡ ¼òÑÔÖ®£¬ $20,000/ÄêµÄ ³ÌÐòÔ±µÄÉú²ÂÊ¿ ÄÜÊÇ $10,000/Äê³ÌÐòÔ±µÄ 10 ±¶¡£Êý¾Ý ÏÔʾ-ÑéºÍµ¼Ä±íÖûÓÐà¥Áª£¨ÎÒ³ÉÕâ ÏóÊÇ·ñÆÕ±é³ÉÁ¢¡£ £© ÎÒ³£ Öظ´ÕâÑùµÄÒ»¸ö¹Û 㣬ÐèÒª -×÷¹µÍ¨ ÄÈËÔ±µ ÊýÁ¿Ó°Ïì×Å ª·¢³É±¾£¬ÒòΪ³É ±¾ µÄÖ÷Òª×é ³É ²¿·ÖÊÇÏà »¥ µÄ¹Í¨º ½» Á÷£¬ÒÔ¼° ¸ü Õý¹µÍ¨²» µ± ËùÒýÆðµÄ ²» Á¼½á¹û£¨ ϵ ͳµ÷ÊÔ£© ¡£ ÕâÒ»µã£¬ Ò²°µÊ¾ÏͳӦ¸ÃÉ¡¿ÄÜÙÈËÔ±À´ª·¢£ ʵ¼ÉÏ£¬ ¾ø´ó¶àÊýÐͱ³ÌϵÄ-Ñé ÏÔʾ³ö£¬ Ò»Óµ¶øÉÏÄ¿ª·¢½¨ÊǸ߳±¾¡ ËٶȻºÂýµÄ¡¢ ²»³ä·ÖµÄ£¬ ¿ª·¢³öµÄÊÇÎÞ¨ÔÚ¸Åî - 16 -
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  • 31. Mills ¸ÅÄîµ Õæý¹Ø¼üÊÇ ¡°´Ó¸öÈËÒÕÊõµ½¹«²¼ù± µÄ±à³Ì¹Ûîת»¡£ ËüÏòùÓÐµÄ ËùÓÐ ÍŶӳÉÔ±Õ¹ ÏÖÁË ¼Æ Ëã»úµÄÔË×÷ ºÍ²úÎ²¢ ½«ËùÓÐµÄ³Ì ÐòºÍÊý¾Ý¿´ ×÷ÊÇÍÅ¶ÓµÄ ËùÓÐ Î¶ø·Ç˽ȲÆú¡ ³ÌÐòÖ°Ô±µÄ×¨Ò »¯·Ö¹¤£¬Ê ³ÌÐòÔ±´ÓÊé¼ÇµÄÔ ÂÖнâ·Å³öÀ´£¬Í ʱ»¹¿ÉÒÔ¶ ÄÇЩ Ó Ê ½øÐϵͳÕûÀí£¬ È·±£ÁËüÃǵÄÖÊ¿¬ ²¢Ç¿»¯ÁËÍŶÓ×îмÛÖµÄƸ¡ª¹¤÷ú·£ ÉÏÊö¸ÅÄî ÏÔÈ»¿¼ÂǵÄÊÅú´¦Àí³ÌÐò¡£ µ±Ê¹Óý»¥Öնˣ¬ ÌرðÊÇÔÚûÓÐÖ½ÕÅä³öµÄé¿Ï£¬ ³ÌÐòÖ°Ô± µÄÖ°Ôð²¢Î´Ïûʧ£¬ Ö»ÊÇÓÐËù¸üÄ¡£ Ëû»á¼ÇÂС×é³ÌòºÍ½Ó¹¤÷¿±´Ö®äµÄ¸ü£¬ ÒÀÈ»¿ØÖÆ ËùÓгÌòµÄÔ£¬²¢Ê¹Ã×¼º½»¥¤¾ßÀ´¿ØÖÆú·ðöÍêÕû§¡ ¹¤¾ßά »¤ÈË Ô± ¡£ÏÖÔÚÒÑ ¾-ÓкܶàÎļþ± -¡¢ÎÄ ¾±à¼-ºÍ½» ¥Ê µ÷ Ô È¹¤¾ß£¬Òò´ËÍÅ¶Ó ºÜÉÙÔÐèҪ׼µÄ»úÆ÷ͲÈ˱¡£«ÊÇÕ⩹¤¾ßÓÃðÀ´ØëÁÎÞî¬ ¶øÇÒÐ誾߱¸½ÏµÄ¿ÉÔ¡£ Íâ¿ÆÒ½ÉúÔòÊÇÕЩ¹¤¾ß¡¢ ·þÎñ¿ÉÓÃÐԵĨһÆÀÅÈ˱¡£ ËûÐèÒª Ò»¸ö¹¤¾ßάÈËÔ±£ ±£Ö¤ËùÓл¾·þÎñµÄ¿ÉÔ¬ ÒÔ¼°³Ðµ£ÍŶÓɱËùèªÄÌØÊ⹤¾ß £¨ÌØ ±ðÊǽ»¥¼ÆËãú·þÎñ£© µÄ¹½¨¡¢ ά »¤ºÍÉý¼¶ÔðÈΡ£ ¼´Ê¹ÒѾ-ӵзdz£×¿Ô½Ä¡¢ ¿ÉµÄ¼¯ÖÐ Ëû µÄÍâ¿ÆÒ½ÉúËùÐ誹¤ ʽ·þÎñ£¬ ÿ¸öÍŶÓÈÔ»ÒªÐ×¼ºµÄ¹¤¾ß˱¡£ ÒòΪËûµÄ¹¤×÷ÊǼì²é ¾ß¡£¹¤Î¬»ÈËÔ±³Òª¿·¢Ð©ÊµÓÃÌòàÖÆļýâ°ºê ²âÊÔÈË ± ¡£ Íâ¿ÆÒ½ÉúÐè ª´óÁ¿ºÏÊ µÄ²â ÔÓÃÀý£¬ ´¶ÔËû ù±àдµÄ¹¤×÷Ƭ¶Î£ ÒÔ¼° Õû¸ö¹¤×÷½øвâÊÔ¡£ Òò´Ë£¬ ²âÊÔÈ˱¼ÇΪûµÄ¸÷ö¹¦ÜÉèÆÏͳÓÃÀý¶·£¬ ͬʱҲ ÊÇΪËûµÄÈÕ³£÷ÔÉè¼Æ²âý¾ÝÖú¡»¹¸ºð®½Í´î¨Ì ÓïÑÔר¼Ò æË£¡ Å× Algol ÓïÑԵijöÏÖ£¬ÈËÃÇ¿ªÊ¼¶½´óàýÆã»úîÐ×ÜÒÁ ¸öÀÖÓÚÕÆδԱà³ÌïѵÄÈË¡£ ÕâЩר¼Ò·Ç³£Ó°ïÖú¬ ºÜ¿ì´ó¼Ò»áÏòËû×Éѯ¡£ ÕâЩÌì²Å»Í¬ ÓÚÍâ¿ÆÒ½Éú£¬ Íâ¿ÆÒ½ÉúÖ÷ªÊÇϵ³è¼ÕßÔ°ÂÄûÌå±í¡£ ¶øÓïÑÔר¼Òò°Õ»Ö ¼ò½à¡¢ ÓЧµÄʹÃïÑÔ·½¨À´â¾ö¸¡¢ »ÞɬòÕß¼ÊÖµÄÎÌâ¡£ Ëûͨ³£ÐèÒª¶Ô¼Êõ½ø» ЩѾ¿£¨Á½µÈýÌì ¡£Í¨³Ò»¸öÓïÑÔ×¼¿ÉΪÁ½µÈýâÆú·þñ ÒÔÉϾÍÊÇÈçºÎ²Õâ¿ÆÖõ¶Ó飬 ÒÔ ¼°ÈçºÎ¶Ô 10 È˵ıà³Ì¶ÓÎé½øÐרһ¯ÇÉ«·Ö¹¤¡£ - 19 -
  • 32. ÎÄÖж¨Òåµ ¿ª·¢ÍŶÓÔÚºÜ à·½ÃæÂú×ãÁËÆÈÇÐ ÔµÄ èÒª¡£Ê®¸öÈË ¬ÆäÖР߸öרҵÈËÊ¿ ÔÚ ½â¾öÎÊÌ£¬¶øϵͳÇÒ»¸ÈËòÕß×îàÁ¼¿Ä²úï´¹ÛÉÅÖÂÐÔ¡ ÒªÌرð×¢ ⴫ͳµÄÁ½È˶ÓÎé ëÍâ¿ÆÒ½Éú¡ª ¸±ÊÖ¶ÓÎé¼Ü¹ Ö® äµÄÇø±ð¡£Ê×ÏÈ ¬´«Í³ µÄ ÍŶӽ«¹¤×÷øл®·Ö£¬ ÿÈ˸ºÔðÒ»²·Ö¹¤×÷µÄÉè¼ÆÍÊÏ¡£ ÔÚÍâ¿ÆÊÖõŶÓУ¬ Íâ¿ÆÒ½Éúº ¸±ÊÖ¶¼Á˽âùÓеÄÉèƺÍÈ«²¿´úÂë¡£ Õâ½ÚÊ¡ÁË¿¼ä·ÖÅ¢ ´ÅÌ·ÃÎʵÈÄÀͶ¯Á¿£¬ ͬʱҲȷ ±£Á˹¤×÷¸ÅÄîÉϵÍêÕûÐÔ¡ µÚ¶þ£¬Ô ´«Í³µÄ¶ÓÎéÖдó¼ÒÊÇƽµÈ Ä£¬³öÏÖ¹Ûµã IJîÒìʱ£¬ »¿É ÜÃâµØÐèÒªÌÖÂÛºÍ ½ø ÐÏ໥µÄÍ×-ºÈò½¡£ÓÉÚ¹¤÷ÊÔ´·Öâ¬Ò¼ûáì³ß¿ ÀýÈçË-µÄ¿Õ¼ä»á±ÓÃ×÷º³åÇø£¬ È»¶ø×îÖÕËüÃDZØÐëûºÏÔÚÒÆð¡£ ¶øÔÚÍâ¿ÆÊÖõÅÓУ¬ ²»´æ ÔÚÀûÒæµÄ²î±ð£¬ ¹ÛµãIJ»ÒÖÂÓÉÍâ¿Æ½ú¥·ÃæÀ´³¡£ ÕâÁ½ÖÍŶÓ×é¨ÉϵIJîÒ졪ÔÎÊ Ìâ²»½øзֺÍÉϼ¶µÄ¹Ø¡ªÊ¿ÆõÓÎéÒÔ´ïÛ£ ÁíÍ⣬ ŶÓÖÐÊ£ àÈËÔ±Ö°Äܵ ×¨Ò »¯·Ö¹¤ÊǸßЧµÄ¹Ø¼ü£¬Ë ʹ³ÉÔ±Ö®¼ä² Ó÷dz£¼ò µ¥ µÄ½»Á÷£Ê³ÉΪ¿Ü¡ úɽÒÆ¿âÍ ¸±ÊÖ ±Ô°ÖòÐ̳ ±ÔíÀܹ ±ÔËȤ»¬Îß¾ ¹ éÊØà ±ÔËÈ Êâ² -¼à± Ò¼¨×ÔÑïÓ éÊØà ͼ 3.1£º 10 È˳ÌÐò¿ª·¢¶ÓÎéµÄ¹Í¨£Ê½ 3 Baker µÄÎ Õ Ìá³öÁËרһµÄ¡¢Ð¹æ£²âÊÔ¶ÓÎéÚÇÖ ÄµÚƤÔùËÕ ´°Ü ü ¬£ÂÏö¿éÇ ½øÐÔË×÷£¬²¢¾ßÓÁ¼ºÃµÄ§¹û¡ - 20 -
  • 33. 5000 ÈËÄêµÏî¿£¬ ¶ø ¾ÍÄ¿Ç°éö¶øÑÔ£¬ »¹²´í¡£ È»¶ø£¬ ÏÖÔÚËùÃæÁÙµÄÎÊÌâÇÈçºÍê³É Õû¸ö ²»ÊÇ 20 »ò 30 ÈËÄê¹æ£µÏͳ¡çû ¹¤×÷ÄÜ¿ØÖÆÔÚ·¶Î§®£¬ 10 ÈË µÄÍŶÓÎÞÂÛÈçº×é Ö¯£¬ ×ÜÊDZȽϸßЧµÄ¡£ µ«ÊÇ£¬ µ±ÎÒÃÇÐèªæ¶Ô¼¸°ÙÈ˲ÓëÄ´óÍñÊ£¬ ÈçºÎÓ¦ÃÍâ¿ÆÊÖõ ÍŶӵĸîØ£¿ À©½¨¹ý³ÌµÄ É ¦ÒÀ µÓÚÕâÑùÒ»¸öÊ µ£¬¼´Ã¿¸ö² ·ÖµÄ Å îÍêÕûÐԵà ½Á˳¹ ×µÄÌá¸ß ¡ª ¡ª¾ö¶¨Éè¼ÆµÄÈËÔ±ÊÇ-À´ß·Ö®Ò»ò¸üÙ£ ËùÒÔ£¬ ¿ÉÒÔÈà 200 ÈË¥ ½â¾öÎÊÌ£¬ ¶ø½öÐèÒª Ð-µ÷ 20 ¸öÈË£¬¼´ÄÇЩ¡°Íâ¿ÆÒ½Éú±µÂ· ¶ÔÓÚÐ-µ÷ ÄÎÊÌ⣬»¹ ÇÐèÒªÊ Ó÷ֽâµÄ¼ Êõ£¬ÕâÔÚºóÐøµÄÕ½ÚÖлá¼Ì ø½ Ð ÖÂÛ¡£ ÔÚ ÕâÀ ¿ÉÒÔÈÏΪÕû¸öµÍ³±ØÐë¾ßÅÄî꣬ ÒªÓл¸öϵͳ½á¹Ê¦´ÉÖÁÂØøËù ÓеÄÉè¼Æ¡£ Ҫʹ¤×÷ÓÚÜÀí£¬ ±ØÐëÇåÎúµ»®·ÖÌϽá¹Éè¼ÆºÍÊäÄçߣ¬ ϵͳ½á¹ ʦ±ØÐëһ˿²¹¶µ×¨¢ÓÚÌåϽᡣ ×ܵÄËÀ´£¬ ÉÏÊöµÄ½Ç«·Ö¹¤ºÍ¼õ¿Ð£¬ ÔÚʵ¼¹¤ ×÷ÖУ¬¾ßӷdz¸µÄ§ÂÊ¡ - 21 -
  • 34. Aristocracy, Democracy, and System Design£© ´ó½ÌÃÊÇÒÕõ·ÉÏÎÞÓëÂױȵij¾Í¡£ ËüµÄÔ-ò¼È²»·¦Î¶Òì¡Õæý´ï½Áç¸ñÉÏ« Ö£¬ Íê³ÉÕâ¼þ×÷Æ·µÄÒÊõÃÇ£¬ ÍêÈ«Áì»áºÎüÊÕËÒÔùµÄ³É¹¦¾-Ñ飬 Ò²ÍêÈ«ÕÆÎÁËûÃÇĸö ʱ´úµÄ¼õ£¬¶øÇÒÔÚӦúò×ö½ÁË¡ÈçÆä·Ö¾²»á嬃 ÕýÊÇ Jean d ¡® Orbais ¹ ˼Á½¨ÖþµÄÕûÌåÉèÆ£¬â¸öúóßÈÏÍÙÔÚ±¾Ê ÉÏÈç´Ë¡£ÕâÒ²ÊǸö½¨ÖþºÍг»µÄÔ-ò® À¼Ë¹´ó½ÌÃÖ¸ÄÏ 1 - This great church is an incomparable work of art. There is neither aridity nor confusion in the tenets it sets forth. . . . It is the zenith of a style, the work of artists who had understood and assimilated all their predecessors ’ successes, in complete possession of the techniques of their times, but using them without indiscreet display nor gratuitous feats of skill. It was Jean d ‘Orbais who undoubtedly conceived the general plan of the building, a plan which was respected, at least in its essential elements, by his successors. This is one of the reasons for the extreme coherence and unity of the edifice. REIMS CATHEDRAL GUIDEBOOK1 - ¸ÅÄîÒ»ÖÂÐÔ ¾ø´ó¶àÊýÅ·Ö޵Ĵó½Ì ÃÖУ¬Óɲ»Í ʱ´ú¡¢²»Í¬½¨ÖþʦËù ÔìµÄ¸÷ ö²¿·Ö ®¼ä£¬ÔÚÉè ¼Æ »ò½á¹ ·ç ¸ñ É϶¼´æÔÚ ×Å Ðí¶à²îÒì ¡£ ºóÀ´µÄ½¨ Öþ ʦ×Ü ÇÊÔ Í¼ ÔÚ -Óн¨ Öþ ʦµÄ»ù´¡ ÉÏ ÓÐ Ëù ¡° Ìá ¸ß¡± £¬ÒÔ·´ Ó³ ËûÃÇÔÚÉè ¼Æ ·ç¸ñºÍö ÈË Æ·Î¶É쵀 ¸Ä ±ä¡£ËùÒÔ £¬ ÔÚÐÛΰµÄ ¸ç ÌØʽµÄ Ìà ÉÏ£¬ÒÀ¸½ ×ÅÏéºÍµÄÂüÚ·ç¸ñʮּܣ¬ËÔ¾ÉÛÈÙÒ«±Õ¹ÁÑùôÓ½¨þ¦°¡ ÓëÖ®¶Ô¦µÄÊÇ£¬ ·¨¹ú³ÇÊÐÀ¼Ë £¨ Reims£© ÔÚ½¨Öþ ·ç¸ñÉϵÄÒ»ÖÂÐÔºÍÃæËù´ó½ÌÎ - 22 -
  • 35. 8 ´úÓµÐ×ÔÎÒ¼ÊøºÍþÉü¾«ñĽ¨Ö¦ÃÇ£¬ ËûÃÇ¿Ò»¸öÈ ÎþÉüÁË×Ô¼ºµÄһЩ´â£¬ ÒÔ»ñµÃ´¿âÄÉè¼Æ¡£ ͬÑù£ Õâ²»½öÏÔʾÁËɵÛÄÈÙÒ«£¬ ͬʱҲÌåÏÖ ÁËûÕü¾ÈÄÇЩ³×íÔÚÎÒ½°ÖµÃ¦¿¡£ ¶ÔÓÚ¼ÆËã»úϵͳ¶øÑÔ£¬¾¡¹ÜËüÃÇͨ³£ »ÓÐ ·Ñ¼¸ öÊÀ 굀 ±¼äÀ´¹ ½¨£¬µ«¾ø´ó¶àÊý ϵ ͳÌåÏÖöµÄ¸Åî²Ò캻ÂÐÔ¶¬¹ý·Þ´ó½Ã¡£ Õâͨ³£²¢»ÊÇÒòΪËüÓɬµÄè¼Æ ʦÃÇ¿ª·¢£¬¶øÓÉÚè¼Æ±»Ö³ÁËÈô¸ÍêµÄÎñ¡ ×î ÖØÒªµÄ¿¼ÂÇòËØ¡£Ò²¾ÍÊÇ˵ΪÁ·´Ó³Ò» ÎÒÖ÷ÕÅÔÚϵͳÉè¼ÆÖУ¬¸ÅÄîÍêÕûÐÔÓ¦¸ÃÊÇ Ïµ ÁЬ¹áµÄÉè¼ÆË·£þ¿Ê¡ÔÒ»©²æòÌغ͸½ø³«¶À¢ÎÞ¨ÕûÏ ÄÅÂËüÃÇÆäʵ°º¬×Ðí¶àÜÉ輡£ ÔÚ±¾ÕºÍÒϵÄÁ½À ÎÒÃǽ«âÊÍÔÚ±à³ÌϵÉè¼Æ ÖУ¬Õâ¸ö÷̵ÄØÒªÔ¡ »ñµÃ¸ÅÄî ÍêÕûÐÔ ±à³ÌÏµÍ £¨Èí¼þ ©µÄ ¿ ÊÇ ¹¼ÆËã»ú¸ü ÓÈÝÒ×ʹ á£ÎªÁË×öµ½ÕâÒ» 㣬¼ÆË »ú×°±¸ ÁË ÓïÑԺ͸÷Ö¹¤¾ß£¬ ÕâЩ¹¤¾ßʵ¼ÉÏҲDZ»÷ÓÃijÌò£¬ Êܵ½±à³ÌÓïÑÔÄ¿ØÖÆ¡£ ʹÓÃÕâЩ¤¾ß ÊÇÓдú¼ÛµÄ£º Èí¼þÍⲿÃèÊöµÄ¹æ£´óСÇÆËã»úϳ±¾É÷®¶ Óû§á·¢ÏÖÑ°ÕÒ¸ö Ìض¨¹¦ÄÜÊǺÈÝÒ×µ£¬«ÏàÓ´ÐÑ¡Ôñª¼î͸½ Ö»Óе±Õ⩹¦ÄÜËÃ÷½ÚÔ¼ÏÂÀ´Ê䣬 ±ÈÓÃÔÚѧϰ¡¢ ¼ÇÒäºÍËÑ÷ÊÖ²áÉϵıªÙ£¬ Ò×ÓÃÐԲŻᵽ̸ߡ£ ÏÖ´ú±à³ÌµÍ½ÚʡļäÈ·¬¹ýÁË»¨Ñ£ µ«ÊǽüÄêÀ´£¬ Ëæ×Å Ô½À´¶àµÄ¹¦ÜÌí¼Ó£¬ ÊÕÒæºÍ³É±¾µÄÈÂýÖð½¥Ø¼õÙ¡£ ¶ø IBM 650 ʹ ÓõÄÈÝÒ׳̶ÜÆ - 23 -
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  • 41. The Second-System Effect£© ¾ÛɳËþ£¬¼¯Ò¸ôá °Âάµ - Adde parvum parvo magnus acervus erit. [Add little to little and there will be a big pile.] - OVID Èç¹û½«Öƶ© ¦Äܹæ¸ñ˵Ã÷ ÄÔðÈδӿª·¢ ìËÙ¡ ³É±¾µÍÁ® IJúÆ·µ ÔðÈÎÖз Àë³ö ´£¬ ÄÇ Ã´ÓÐʲÑùµÄ×¼ÔòºÍ»úÖÆÀø½á¹¦ìÈÇéØ£¿ »ù±¾ Ø´ðÊǽṠ¦ºÍ ¨ÖþÈËÔ± ®¼ä³¹µ×¡¢ ÐϸºÍ ³µÄ½»Á÷¡£ íÍâ ¬»¹ÓкܶàÖµ Ã¹Ø ×¢ µÄ¡¢¸üÏÖ´𰣠½á¹ ʦµÄ » ¥×¼ÔòºÍ úÖÆ ½¨ÖþÐ Òµ ĽṠÉè¼Æʦ ¹Óà ÀËã¼ Êõ ´±àÖÆÔ¤Ë㣬¸Ã¹À ¼ Êõ»áÓɺóÐøµÄ³ °üÉ̱¨ ¼Û À´ÑéÖ¤ºÍÐÞÕý¡£ ³Ð°üÉ̵ı¨¼Û×ܻᬹýÔ¤Ëã¡£ ½ÓÏÂÀ´£¬ Éè¼Æʦ»áÖØиĽøËûµÔ¤ãòÞ¶© ¼Æ£¬µ÷Õû½ÏÂÒ»Ú¹¤³Ì¡Ë²¿ÉÄÜáòаü¨éÊÓø±ã·À´Öè ÀàËƵĹý³ÌÒ²Ö§Åä× ¼ÆËã»úϵͳº ¼ÆËã»ú±à³ÌÏµÍ Ä½á¹ Ê¦¡£Ïà±ÈÖ® £¬ËûÓÐÄÜÔÚ Éè ¼ÆÔçڴӳаüÉ̦µÃ½±¨ÛÄÅÊ£¬ ¼¸ºõÊÇÖ»ÒªËûѯΣ¬ ¾ÍÄܵý´ð°¸¡£ ËûµÄ²»ÀÖ®´¦³£ ÊÇÖ»ÓÐÒ¸ö³°üÉÌ£¬ºóÕß¿Ôò½µÍĹÀ¼Æ´·¶èÃñ¡é ¾¡Ôç½»Á÷ºÍ³ÖÐø¹µ¨ÄÜÊá¦ÓÏÃɱÒⶣ¬ ÒÔ¼°Ê¹¿ª·¢È˱»ñµÃ¶ÉèÆÄÐÅ£¬ ²¢ ÇÒ²»áìÏý¸÷×ÔµÄðÈηֹ¤¡£ Ãæ¶Ô¹ÀËã ý¸ßµÄ ÑÌ⣬½á¹ ʦÓÐÁ½¸öÑ¡Ôñ£ºÏ÷¼õÉè Æ»òÕß½¨Òé³É±¾¸üµÍ ÄÊ ÏÖ·½ ¨ ¡ª ¡ªÌôÕ½¹ÀËãµÄáû£ ºóÕßÊǹÌÓеÄÖ÷Û¸Ô·´¦¡£ ´Ëʱ£¬ ½á ¹Ê¦ÇÔÚÏò¿ª·¢È˱µÄ×ö½ - 29 -
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  • 43. Stretch ϵͳ£¬ÎÒÄÓ¡óÊÇ´Ö½¶ÈøÑÔËü»¸ö²úÆ·ßÕáçÚ µÄ¼ÆËã»ú³ÌÐòÒÑù£¬ Ëü¼«¸»ÓдÔ죬 ¼«¶Ë¸´ÔÓ£¬ ·Ç³£¸ßЧ¡ µ«²»ÖªÎÊô£¬ ͬʱҲ¸Ð¾õ µ½ 1 ´Ö²Ú¡¢ÀË·Ñ»ÓÅ£¬ÒÔ¼°Èþõµ±Ø¶¨æij¸üº½ ¡£ ²Ù×÷ϵͳ 360 ¶ÔÓÚ´óàÊýÉè¼ÆÕßÀ˵£¬ Êǵڶþ¸öÏͳ¡£ ËüµÄÉè¼Æ С×é³ÉÔ±À´ 1410-7010 ´Å̲Ù×÷ϵͳ¡¢ Stretch ²Ù×÷ϵͳ¡¢ Mercury ʵ± ϵͳîÄ¿º 7090 µÄ IBSYS¡£ ¼¸ºõûÓÐÈË 2 Á½¸ö ÒÔÉÏçÆÚ²Ù×÷µÍ³Ä¾-Ñé ¡£ Ë´òÒ ¬£ OS/360 ÊÇ µäÐÍÄÚ¶þ´Î¿ª·¢ £¨ second-system effect£© µÄÀý×Ó£¬ ÊÇÈí¼þÐÒµÄ Stretch ϵͳ ¡£ Strachey µÄÔÞÓþºÍÅúÆÀ¿ÉÒÁθüئÃÚäÖС£ ÀýÈ磬 OS/360 ¿ª·¢ÁË 26 ×ֽڵij£¤ÈÕÆ·-ªÀý̴ئíòê 12 Ô 31 ÈÕµÄ ÎÊ Ì⣬ÆäʵËüÍêÈ«¿ÉÒÔÁô¸ø²Ù×÷±À´³¡ ¿ª·¢µÚ ¶þ¸ö ϵͳËù ÒýÆð µÄºó¹û £¨ second-system effect£©Óë ´¿ âµÄ ¹¦ÄÜ ÐÞÊÎºÍ ÔöÇ¿ Ã÷ ÏÔ²»Í¬£Ò¾ÊÇ˵´æڶijЩ¼õ½ø¸¯¡¢«Á÷ÆÓÉù±èë·úä ÕâЩ¼ÊõÒѾ-ÏÔµÃÂäºó¡£ OS/360 ÖÐӺܶàÕâÑùµÄÀýס£ ÀýÈ磬Á´½Ó±à¼-Æ÷µÄÉè £¬ËüÓÃÀ´¶Ô·Ö±ð àÒëºóµÄ³ÌÐò½ø ×°ÔØ£¬½â¾öËüÃÇÖ®¼äµÄ ½» ²æÒýÓᣠ³ýÁËÕâЩ»ù±¾µÄ¹¦Ü£¬ Ëü»¹Ö§³ÌÐòµÄ¸²Ç £¨ overlay£© ¡£ Õâ ÊÇ ËùÓÐʵÏÖĸ²Ç·þÎñ ³ÌÐòÖ×îºÃµÄÒ»¡£ ËüÔÊÐíÁ´½Ó±ÚÍⲿê³É¸Çá¹£¬ ¶øÎÞÐèÔÚ´úÂëֽɼơ£ Ëü»¹ ÔÊÐíÚ˱¿Ì¸Ää²Ç£¬ ¶ø²»±ØÖÐÂàÒë¡£ ËüÅ䱸Á·á»µÄÊÓÃÑ¡ÏîºÍ÷Ö¹¦Ü£ ijÖÒâ ÒåÉÏ£¬ËüÊÇÈô¸Ä꾲̼õ¿ª·¢µ¶¥¡ È»¶ø£¬ËüÍ Ê±Ò² Ç×îºó Í ÓÅÐãµÄ¿ÖÁú£¬ÒòΪËüÊôÓÚÒ»¸ö ù±¾ÔËÐ ·½Ê Ϊ¶àµÀ³ÌÐò £¬ ÒÔ¶¯Ì¬Äں˷ÖÅäΪ»ù´¡µÏͳ£ ÕâÖ±½Ó뾲̬¸ÇµÄÅîÏà³åÍ»¡£ Èç¹ûÎÒÃÇ°ÑͶëÔÚ¸²Ü ÀíÉϵŤ×÷Á¿£¬ ÓÃÔÚÌá¸ß¶¯¬ÄºË·ÖÅäͽ»²æÒýµÐÜÉÏ£ ÄÇôϵͳ½«»áÔËÐ¶à ºÃ°¡£ ÁíÍ⣬ ´½Ó±à¼-Æ÷ÐèÒªÈç´Ë óµÄ¿Õ¼ä£¬¶øÇÒËü±¾Éí Í° º¬ÁË Ü¶à ´½Ó¿â£¬ÒÔÖÁÓÚ¼´ ʹ ÔÚ²»Ê¹ÓøÇÜÀí¦Ä£¬ ½öʹÓÃÁ´¦Äܵ±ºò£¬ ËüÒ²±È¾ø´ó¶àÊýϵͳÄëÌÐò»¹ªÂ¡£ ¾ßÓзí´ÌÒâζµÄÊÇ£¬ Á´½Ó³ÌÐòµÄ¿ÊÇΪ˱ÜÃâÖØÂàÒë¡£ ÕâÖÇé¿ö¾ÍÏñÒ»¸¦×Å´ó¶ÓµÄ ½ÚʳÕßÒ»Ñù£¬Ö±µÏÍÄ˼ë¾-®·ÓÅÔ²¿ª¶Ðõø¸¯º«Á¡ TESTRAN µ÷ÊÔ ³ÌÐòÊÇÕâ¸ö÷ƵÄÁíÒ»Àý×Ó¡£ ËüÔÚÅúµ÷ʳÌÐòÖÇöÀà°ÎÝÍÄ£¬ Å䱸ÁË ÕæýÓÅѵĿìºÍÚ´ÐϢת¹¦Ü¡£ ËüʹÓÃÁ¿ØÖƶεĸÅîºÍ×Ô½Éú³¼õ£¬ ´Ó¶ø²»Ðè - 31 -
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  • 46. System/360 Principles of Operation µÄÒ»ÖÂÍêÕû ÐÔÀ´×½öÓÁÃû÷ÕßµÄÊ£º Gerry Blaauw ºÍ Andris Padegs¡£ ˼·ÊÇ´óÔ®¸öȵÄÏ먣¬ µ«Èç¹ûÏë±£³ÖÎÄ׺ͲúÆ·®¼äһ ÐÔ£¬ Ôò±ØÐëÓÉÒ»¸öÁ½ÈËÀ´Í곫ÆäáÂÛתÊéÃæ¹ñµ÷Ĥ¡£ ¶øÇÒ£¬ ½« ¶¨ÒåÊéд ³ÉÎÄ×Ö£¬ ±ØÐë¶ÔºÜà-ÏȲ¢»ÊÇ·³£ÖÒªµÄÎÌâ½øŬ ²¢µÃ³ö½áÂÛ¡£ ÀýÈ磬 System/360 ÐèÒª¾ö¶¨ÔÚÿ´Î²Ù×÷ºó£¬ ÈçºÎÉèÖ÷µ»ØÄÌõ¼þÂë¡£ Æäʵ£¬ ¶Ô ÓÚÔÕû¸öÉè¼ÆÖУ¬ ±£Ö¤ÕâЩ¿´ËÆ ¾ö²»ÊÇÒ¼þÎ޹ؽôªµÄÂé ËöéµÄÎÊÌâ´¦ÀíÔ-òÉÏÒ»ÖÂУ¬ ¡£ System360 Principles of Operation µÄ¸½Â¼¡£ ÎÒÏëËù¼û¹ýµÄ×îºÃ»·ÝÊÖ²áÇ Ëü ÏÞÖÆ ¾«È·×ÐϸµØ¹æ¶¨ÁË System/360 ¼æÈÝÐÔ µÄ ¡£Ëü¶¨ÒåÁ¼æÈÝÐÔ¬ÃèÊö½«´ïµÄ¿±ê ¾ÙÁ˺ܶàÍⲿÏÔʵĸ÷ö·Ö£ Ô´ÓÚij¸ö£ÐÍëÆäËû²îÒì¬ ´øÀ±ä»¯µÄ²¿·ÖºÍ£³ µÄ²¿·Ö£» »òÕßÊÇij¸öø¶¨£Ð͵¿½±´²¬ÓÚÆäËûØ· ÉõÖÁÊǹ¤³Ìϵıä¸üÒýÆ𿽴 ×ÔÉíϵIJîÒì¡£ ¶øÕâýÊÇÒ»¸ö¹æñ˵Ã÷×ßùÓ¦·óľ«È³Ì£¬ Ëû±ØÐëÔÚ×ϸ¶¨Òå¹æ ʲôµÄͬ±£¶¨ÒåÎ¹æ¡ ÐÎʽ»¯¶¨Òå Ó¢ï»òÕßÆäËûÈκµÄÀàÑÔ£¬ ´Ó¸ù±¾ÉÏ˵£¬ ¶¼²»ÊÇÒÖÄܾ«È·±í´ïÉÏö¨åµÎ¡£ Òò´Ë£¬ ÊÖ²áµÄ×÷Õß±ØÐë¢ÒâÔ¼ºË·ÍÓïÑ£¬ ´ïµ½ËùÐèҪľ«È·³Ì¶¡£ Ò»ÖÆľßÎüýÁ¦µ ×÷·¨ÊǶÔÉÏöÒå¹ÓÃÐν»¯±ê¼¡£ ±Ï¾¹£¬ ¾«È·¶ÊÇÎÒÃÐ誵Ä÷£¬ ÕâÒ²ýÊÇÐν»¯ ±ê¼Ç·½¨´æÔÚµÄÀíÓɺÍ-Òò¡£ ÈÃÎÒ ÇÀ´¿ » ÐÎʽ ¯¶¨ÒåµÄÓÅ ãºÍȱµ ¡£ çÎÄÖÐËùʾ£¬ Î ½»¯¶¨ÒåÊǾ«È·µÄ£¬Ëü ÃÇ ÇãÏòÓÚ¸ü¼ÍêÕû£»²îÒìµÃ÷Ô¬¿Éس¡«ÊÐν¯¶¨åÄȱ×Àíâ ¼ÇÐðÔÎÄ×Öò¿ÉÒÏʾ½á¹µ-£¬ ÃèÊö½×¶ÎÉÏ»ò²ã´µÄá¹£¬ ÒÔ¼°ÌṩÀý×Ó¡£ Ëü¿ÉÒÔ Ô-Òò ºÜÈÝÒ׵رí´ïì³£ÍÇ¿÷¶ÔĹϬ ×îÖØÒªµÄÊÇ£¬ Ëü¿ÉÒÔ½âÊÍ ¡£ ÔÚ±í´ïµÄ¾«È·ºÍ¼òÃ÷ ÐÔÉÏ£¬ Ä¿Ç°ËùÌá³öµÐÎʽ»¯¶¨Ò壬 ¾ßÓÐÁËîȪÒìµÄ§¹û£¬ ÔöÇ¿ÁËÎÒýøÐ׼ȷ±í´ïµÄÅ ¡£ µ«ÊÇ£¬ Ëü»¹ÐèÒª¼ÇðÔÎÄ×Öµ¸¨ú£¬ ²ÅÄÜʹÚÈÝÒ×ÓÁì»áºÍ½¡£ ³öÓÚÕâЩÔ-Òò£¬ ÎÒÏ뽫À´ µÄ¹æ¸ñËÃ÷ͬʱ°üÀ¨Ðν»¯º¼ÇðÔ¶ÒåÁÖ·¡£ - 34 -
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  • 50. System/360 µÄ½á¹Ê¦¾ßÓÐÁ¸ö¿ÕÇ°ÀûÌõ¼þ£º³ä×ã¤÷±¬ëÏÖÈËÔà ͬµÄ²ßÂÔÓ°ÏìÁ¦¡£ ³ä×ãʱ¼À´ÔÐÂõµÄ¿ª·¢ÈÕÌ£» ¶øàÖØʵÏÄͬ±¿ª·¢´ÀÁ˲ßÂÔÉ Æ½µÈÐÔ¡£²»Í¬ÊÏÖ®¼äѸñÒªÇóà¥æÝÕâ±Ø¿¹ËÃ÷Ä×î´ú ÔÚ´ó¶àÊý¼ÆËã»úÏîÄ¿ÖУ¬»úÆ÷ºÍÊÖ²á ®¼äÍù »áÔÚÄ³Ò Ìì öÏÖ²»Ò £¬ÈËÃÇͨ³£»á ºö ÂÔÊֲᡣ ÒòΪÓë»úÆ÷Ïà±È£¬ ÊÖ²á¸üÈÝÒ×Ķ¯£¬ ²¢Çҳɱ¾¸üµÍ¡£ È»¶ø£¬ µ±´æÔÚ¶àÖØÊÏ£¬ Çé ¿ö¾Í²»ÊÇÕâÑù¡£ Õâʱ£¬ Èç ʵØ×ñ´ÓÖ²á¸üлúÆ÷ËùÔì³ÉÄÑٺͱ¾Ïû£¬ ±È¸ù¾Ý»úÆ÷µ ÕûÊÖ²áÒªµÍ¡£ ÔÚ¶¨Òåij±à ÌÓïÑÔµÄʱºò£¬ÉÏ ö¸ÅÄî¿ÉÒÔ× Óг §µØ à ½Ó¦ ¡£¿ÉÒÔ Ï¶¨µÄÊÇ£¬³Ù Ôç »áÓкܶà±ÒëÆ÷ò½âÊͳö£¬ ÒÔÂú×ã¸÷ÖÑùµÄ¿±ê¡£ Èç¹ûÆð³õÖÁÉÙÓнÒÔϵÄÊ£¬ ÄÇô¶¨Òå»á¸ü¼ÓÕû½àºÍ¹æ·¡£ µç»°ÈÕÖ¾ Ëæ×ÅʵÏÖ ÄÍƽø£¬ÎÞÂÛ¹æ¸ñ˵Ã÷ÒѾ-¶à ´ «È·£¬»¹ÊÇ á³öÏÖÎÞÊý½á¹ Àí âºÍ½ Ê · Ãæ µÄÎÊÌâ¡£ÏÔÈ»ÓкܶàèÒª×Ö³Çåͽ¬¹©öòÀí²± ÏÔÈ»£¬¶ ÓÚ´æ ÐÒÉÎ浀 ÏÖÈËÔ±£¬Ó¦¹ÄÀøËûÃÇ´òµç»°Ñ¯ÎÊÏàÓ¦µÄ½á¹ Ê £¬¶ø²» ÇÒ ±ß ×ÔвÂâÒ»±ß¹¤÷£¬ ÕâÊÇÒ»ÏîºÜù±¾µÄ´ë©¡£ ËûÃÇ»¹ÐèÒªÈÏʶµ½Ä£¬ ÉÏÊöÎÌâµÄ´ð°¸±ØÐë ÊÇ¿ÉÒÔ¸æÖªÃöÈ˵ĨÍþнáÂÛ¡£ µç»°ÈÕÖ¾ Ò»Ö ÓРõĻúÖÆÊÇÓɽṠ¦±£´æ ¡£ÈÕÖ¾ Ð ¬Ëû¼Ç Á ÿһ¸öÎÊÌâºÍÏàÓ¦µÄ »Ø ´ð¡£ ÿÖÜ£¬ ¶Ô Èô¸É½á¹Ê¦µÄÕÖ¾øкϲ¢£¬ ÖØÐÂÕûÀí£¬ ²¢·¼¸øÓû§ºÍʵÏÖÈËÔ±¡£ ÕâÖ»úÆ ºÜ²»Õýʽ£¬µ«·Ç³¿ìÝÍÒ×ÓÚÀíâ¡ ²úÆ· âÊÔ /С×é£ ¸Ã ÏîÄ¿¾-Àí׺õÅóÓÑÍÊÇËûÌìÒªæ¶ÔÐÈ¡Á¢²úƷ⻹ С×é¸ù¾Ý¹æñ˵Ã÷¼ì²»úƺͳÌò£¬ ³äµ±Âé·Ä´úÑÔÈË£¬ ²éÃ÷¿Ò»¸öÉÄܵȱÏݺÍॠì¶ÜµÄØ·½¡£¿¸öª¢»ú¹¼ÐèÒÕâÑùÀÁÊõà²Å´±Ö¤Æä«ýÔ - 38 -
  • 51. - 39 -
  • 52. Why Did the Tower of Babel Fail?£© ¡-ÏÖÔÚÕû¸ö´óµØ¶¼²ÉÓÃÒ»ïÑ£¬ Ö»°üÀ¨ÎªÊý²¶àµÄ¥´¡£ ÔÚÒ»´ÎÓ¶«·½ÍùÎ÷·½Ç¨áãµÄ¹ý ³ÌÖУ¬ÈË ÃÇ ·¢ÏÖÁËÕ ÃÀ ¶ûµØÇø£¬ ²¢ ÔÚÄÇÀﶨ ¾Ó ÏÂÀ´¡£½Ó ×Å ËûÃDZ¼×ß Ïà ¸æ˵£º ¡°À´ £¬ ÈÃÎÒÇÖÆ Ôìש¿é£¬ ²¢°ÑËüÃÇÉÕº¡£ ¡± ÓÚÊÇ£¬ ËûÃÇÓש¿é´úÌæʯͷ£¬ ÓÃÁ¤Çà´úÌæ»ÒÄ £¨½Ôì·¿ÎÝ£© ¡£ È»ºó£¬ ËûÃÇÓÖµ£º ¡° À´£¬ÈÃÎÒ ÃÇ ½¨ÔìÒ»×ù ´ø ÓиßËþµÄ ³Ç ÊУ¬Õâ¸ö Ëþ ½«¸ß´ïÔÆ Ïü £¬Ò²½«Èà ÎÒ ÃÇÉùûÔ¶ ÑÍʱ £¬ ÓÐÁËÕâ¸ö ³Ç ÊУ¬ÎÒÃÇ ¾Í ¿ÉÒÔ¾ÛÓ ÔÚ ÕâÀÔÙ Ò² ²»á·ÖÉ¢ ÔÚ ¹ãÀ«µÄ´ó µØ ÉÏÁË¡£ ¡±ÓÚ ÊÇÉϵ۾ö ¶¨ ÏÂÀ´¿ ÈË Ãǽ¨ÔìµÄ ³Ç Êк͸ßËþ £¬ ¿´ÁËÒÔºó £¬ Ëûµ£º ¡°Ëû ÃÇ Ö»ÊÇÒ¸ö Ö ×壬ʹÓà һֵÄÓïÑÔ£¬Èç¹ûËÃÇ¿ªÊ¼¾Íܽ¨ì³Ðº¸ßþó²´Á¡À ÈÃÎÒÇÏ ȥ £¬ÔÚËûÃÇ µÄ ÓïÑÔÀÖÆ Ôì Щ»ìÏý£¬ Èà ËûÃÇÏ໥ Ö® ¼ä²»ÄÜÌý ¶®¡£ ¡±ÕâÑù£¬ ÉÏ µÛ°ÑÈËÃÇ ·ÖÉ¢µ½ÊÀç¸÷Ø£¬ÓÚÇËûò»ÍÖ¹¨ÔìÄ×ù³Ð¡ £¨´ÊÀ¼Í¬ 11:1-8£© Now the whole earth used only one language, with few words. On the occasion of a migration from the east, men discovered a plain in the land of Shinar, and settled there. Then they said to one another, quot;Come, let us make bricks, burning them well.quot; So they used bricks for stone, and bitumen for mortar. Then they said, quot;Come, let us build ourselves a city with a tower whose top shall reach the heavens (thus making a name for ourselves), so that we may not be scattered all over the earth.quot; Then the Lord came down to look at the city and tower which human beings had built. The Lord said, quot;They are just one people and they all have the same language. If this is what they can do as a beginning, then nothing that they resolve to do will be impossible for them. Come, let us go down, and there make such a babble of their language that they will not understand one another's speech.quot; Thus the Lord dispersed them from there all over the earth, so that they had to stop building the city. (Book of Genesis, 11:1-8). - 40 -
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  • 54. ÄÇô£¬ÍŶÓÈçºÎ½øÐÏ໥֮¼äµÁ÷¹¨Ø¿ýËùÉܾ¡ ÇåÎú¶¨Ò С×éÄÚ²¿µ Ï໥¹Ø µºÍ³ä·ÖÀûÓõ绰£¬Äܹ Àø´óÁ¿µÄ ç»°¹ ͨ£¬´Ó¶ø ïµ½ ¶Ô ËùÊéдÎĵ¹²Í¬Àí½â¡£ ³£¹æÏîÄ¿»áÒé¡ »áÒéÖУ¬ ÍŶÓÒ»¸ö½µØøмòªÄÊõ³Â¡£ ÕâÖ·½Êdz£ÓÐà £¬ ÄܳÎÇåÉ°Ùϧµ¸Ð¡ó½â£ ÔÚÏîÄ¿µ ªÊ¼½×¶Î£¬Ó¦¸Ã×¼± ÕýʽµÄÏî ¿¹¤×÷ÊֲᡣÀíËùÓ¦µ±£¬ÎÒÃÇר ÅÓ Ò»½ÚÀ´ ÌÖ ÂÛËü¡£ ÏîÄ¿¹¤×÷ÊÖ²á ÊÇ ²Ã´ ¡£Ïî Ä¿¹¤×÷ÊÖ²á » ǶÀÁ¢µÄһƪΠµ£¬ËüÊǶÔÏîÄ¿±ØÐë²ú³öµÄÒ»Ï ÁÐÎ µ ½ø ×éÖ¯µÄÒ»½á¹¡£ ËùÓÐ ÏîÄ¿ µÄÎ ¶¼±ØÐëÊǸýṠµÄÒ»²¿·Ö¡£Õâ°üÀ¨Ä¿µ ¡¢Íâ² ¹æ¸ñ˵Ã÷¡¢½Ó¿Ú˵Ã÷ ¡¢ ¼Êõ±êס¢ÄÚ²¿ËµÃ÷ºÍ¹ÜÀí¸ü£ Ϊʲô ¡£¼ Êõ˵Ã÷¼¸º ÊDZز»¿É ٵġ£Èç¹û ³ ˾ÍÓ²¼þº Èí µÄ ³²¿·Ö£¬È¥ 鿴һϵ ÁÐÏà¹ØµÄÓû§Êֲᡣ Ëû·¢ÏֵIJ»½öÊǼ£¬ ¶øÇÒ»¹ÓÐÄÜ×·Ëݵ½îÔ籸Íü¼íàÎÖºÕ ½Ú£¬ ÕâЩ±¸Íü¼¶Ô²úÆ·Ìá³ö½¨Òé»òßÊÉè¡£ ¶ÔÓÚ¼Êõ×÷ÕßøÑ£¬ ÎÄÕµ¼ô²Ã³ÌùÓë¸Ö±Ê Ò»ÑùÓÐᣠ»ùÓÚÉÏÊöÀí£¬ ÔÙ¼ÓÉÏ ¡°Î´À²úÆ·± µÄÖÊÁ¿²á½«®ÉúÓÚ ¡°½ñÌì²úÆ·± µÄ±¸Íü¼ £¬ Ëù ÒÔÕýÈ·µÄνá¹Ç³£Öت¡ ÊÂÏȽ«îÄ¿¹¤×÷Ö²áÉè¼ÆºÃ£¬ Äܱ£Ö¤Îµ½á¹¾ÉíÊÇæ·¶¬ ¶ø²»ÊÇÔÓÂÒÎÞյġ£ÁíÍâ¬Ð˽ṺóÀ´é×Ö¾¿É·ÅÃÚÏ Ê¹ÓÃÏîÄ¿ ֲᵠڶþ¸öÔ-ÒòÊÇ¿ØÖÆÐÅÏ¢· ²¼¡£¿ØÖÆÐÅÏ¢· ²¼ »ÊÇΪÁËÏÞÖÆÐÅ ¢£¬ ¶ø - 42 -
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  • 62. 2 ͼ 8.1 ½ ² Ê ö ÁËÕâ¸ö±¯²Ò µÄ¹Ê ¡£Ëü ²ûÊöÁË Nanus ºÍ Farr ÔÚ System Development Corporation ¹«Ë¾ù×öÑп£¬½áû±íÃ÷¸ÖÊýΪ 1.5£¬¼´£ 1.5 ¹¤×÷Á¿ £½ £¨³Êý©¡ÁÖ¸îµÄ¿ 3 Weinwurm µÄ SDC Ñо¿±¨¸æͬùÏÔʳöÖý½ÓüÚ 1.5¡£ ÏÖÔÚÒѾ-ÓÐÁË»©¹Ø±à³ÌÈÉú²ÂʵĿ£¬áöºÜ¶À¼Æõ¡ Morin ¶ÔËù 4 ·¢²¼µÄÊý¾Ý½øÐÁËÒ»©÷éÑ¿ ¡£ÕâÀï½ö¸ø³ÁËÈôÉÌرðÍ»µÄõ¿ ÈË Ô »úÆ÷Ö¸Áǧ ×¢£º incomplete£-δÖÕ½áµÄ ͼ 8.1£º±à³Ì¹¤×÷Á¿ÊÇÐòæÄ£µ¯ý Portman µÄÊý¾Ý Computer Equipment Organization£¨ Northwest£©µÄ ICL Èí¼þ²¿ÃÅ µÄ ¾- Âü³¹ËÌØ 5 Àí Charles Portman£¬Ìá³öÁËíÒ»ÖÓÐõĸȹÛã ¡£ Ëû·¢Ïֵıà³Ì¶ÓÎéÂäºó½øÈ´Ô¼ 1/2£¬ ÿÏ×÷ »¨·ÑµÄʱ¼ä´óÔǹÀÆÁ½¶¡£ ÕâЩ - 50 -
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