人月神话

3,368 views

Published on

Published in: Technology, Business
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
3,368
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
28
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
19
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

人月神话

  1. 1. THE MYTHICAL MAN-MONTH ÈË Ô Éñ »° FREDERICK P. BROOKS, JR. ·-Òë £º Adams Wang
  2. 2. ¹ØÓÚ×÷Õß Frederick P. Brooks£¬ Jr.ÊDZ¿¨ÂÞ À´ÄÉóѧ Kenan-Flagler ÉÌѧԺµÄ¼ÆËã»ú¿ ½Ì ÊÚ£¬±¿¨À´ÂÞÄÉóѧλÓùúÖݵ²é¼¶ûÏ¡ Brooks ±»ÈÏΪÊÇ¡° IBM 360 ϵͳ֮¸¡± £¬ Ëûµ£ÈÎÁ 360 ϵͳÄ-Àí£¬ÒÔ¼° 360 ²Ù×÷ϵͳ ÏîÄ¿Éè¼Æ½×¶Îµ¾-Àí¡£ ÔÚÉÏÊöîÄ¿µ½Ü³¹±×£¬Ëû¡¢ Bob Evans ºÍ Erich Bloch ÔÚ 1985 ÄêÈÙ»ñÁË ÃÀ¹ú¼ÒÊõ½± £¨ National Medal of Techology£© ¡£ ÔçÆÚ£¬ Brooks Ôøµ£ÈÎ IBM Stretch ºÍ Harvest ¼ÆËã »ú µÄÌåϽá¹Ê¦¡£ Ôڲ鼶ûÏ£¬ Brooks ²©Ê¿´Á¢Ë¼Æã»úѧϵ£¬ ²¢ÔÚ 1964 ÖÁ 1984 Äê Æڼ䵣ÈÎÖ÷ϯ¡ ËûÔøÈÎ Ö°ÓÚ ÃÀ¹ú ¼Ò¿Æ ¼¾ÖºÍ ¹ú·À ¿Æѧ¼ Êõί Ô±»á¡£ Brooks Ä¿Ç°µ½Ì ѧºÍÐ ¾¿·½ ÏòÊǼÆËã »úÌåϵ½á¹¡¢·Ö×ÓÄ£ÐÍ漺éâ¾³
  3. 3. 1975 Ä ê ° æ Ï × ´ Ç ÖÂÁ½Î»Ìرð·á¸ËÒ IBM ËêÔµÄÈ£º Thomas J. Watson, Jr.£¬ Ëû¶ÔÈÃǵĹػ³Ú«¾ÒÀÎÞù² ºÍ Bob O. Evans£¬ Ëû´óµ¨ÄÁì¼Ê¹¤×÷³ÉΪ̽ÏÕ¡£ 1995 Ä ê ° æ Ï × ´ Ç Ö Nancy£¬ Éϵ۴͸øÎÒÄÀñï¡£
  4. 4. Preface to the 20th Anniversary Edition£© 20 ÄêºóÈÔ È»¼ÌÐøÁ÷£¬ Ó¡Êý³¬¹ ÁË 250,000¡ÈË £ ¡¶ ÈËÔÂÉñ»° ÁîÎÒ¾ªÆæºÍ¸ßÐ˵ÄÊÇ£¬ ÚÔ·¡ ÃǾ-³£Îʬ ÎÒÔÚ 1975 Äê Ìá³öµÄ¹ÛãºÍ½¨Ò飬 ÄЩÊÇÎÒÈÔ»¼á³Öµ£¬ ÄЩÊÇÒѾ-¸±ä¹Ûµã£¬ ÊÇÔõÑù¸Ä±äµ£¿¾¡¹ÜÎÒڻЩ½²×ÉÏ·ÖöýÕâ̬ë°Ëü´³Â Peter Gordon ÏÖÔÚÊÇ Addison-Wesley µÄ³ö°æ»ï飬Ëû´Ó 1980 Ä꿪ʼºÍÎÒ¹²Â¡£Ëû ·Ç ³£ÄÍЬ¶ÔÎÒ°ïÖúºÜ´ó¡Ëû½¨éÃÇ×¼±¸»öîæ¾²-ÈÞ© Ö»ÊÇÔ-·â²¶¯µØÓ¡£¨³ýÁËÒЩϸÄÞÕ £¬²¢ÓøüеÄ˼ÏëÀ´©³ä¡ µÚ 16 ÕÂÖØÓ¡ ÁËһƪÔÚ 1986 Äê IFIPS »áÒéÉϵÄÂÛΡ¶ÃÓÐø¯£ºÈí¼þ¹¤³Ì¸ù±¾Í´ ÒªÎÊÌâ¡· ¡£ Õâ ƪÎÄÕÂÀ´ ×Ô ÎÒÔÚ¹ú·À ¿Æ ѧίԱ»á Ö÷ ³Ö¾üÓÃÈí ¼þ ·½ÃæÑо¿ ʱ µÄ¾-Ñé¡£ ÎÒ µ±ÊÄÑÐ ¾¿ºÏ×÷Õߣ¬Ò²ÊÇεÄÖ´ÐÃØé Robert L. Patrick °ïÖúÎÒ»Ø ÏëºÍ¸ÐÊÜÄÇ©×ö¹ýµÈí¼þ´óî ¼ÆËã»ú Ä¿¡£ 1987 Ä꣬ IEEE µÄ¡¶ ¡·ÔÓÖ¾ØÁËÕâƪÂÛÎÄ£¬Ê¹ü´«²¥µÃ¸ã ¡¶Ã»ÓÐÒøµ¯¡·±»Ö¤Ã÷ÊǸ ÓÐÉ¿¶¯ Եģ¬Ëü ¤ÑÔÊ®Äê ÚûÓÐÈκ ±à³Ì¼ ÇÉÄܹ»¸øÈí¼þ µÄ Éú²ÂÊ´ø À´ ÊýÁ¿¼¶ÉÏ µÄ Ìá¸ß¡£Ê® Äê ֻʣÏÂÒ Äê ÁË£¬ÎÒµÄ Ô¤ ÑÔ¿´À°² È« ÁË ¡£ ¡¶Ã»ÓÐ Òø µ¯¡·¼¤Æð ÈËÔÂÉñ»° ÁËÔ½À´¶àÎÄ×ÖÉϵ¾çÒÕùÂÛ£¬±È¡ ¡·»¹Òª¶à£ò´ËÔÚµ 17 Õ£¬ÎҶԻЩ¹«¿ªµÄ ÅúÆÀ×÷Á˵㬲¢¸üÐÂÔÚ 1986 ÄêÌá³öµ¹Ûã¡£ ÈËÔÂÉñ»° ÔÚ×¼±¸¡¶ ¡·µÄ»Ø¹ËºÍ¸üÐÂʱ£¬Ò»Ö ½øÐ µÄÈí¼þ¹¤³ÌÑо¿ºÍ - éÒѾ ÅúÆÀ¡¢ Ö¤ ʵºÍ·ñ¶¨ÁËÉÙýéÖÐÏÑÔĹÛ㣬 Ò²Ó°ÏìÁËΡ£ °þÈ¥¸¨ÖúµÄÕùÂÛºÍÊý¾Ýó£¬ °ÑÄÇЩ¹Ûµã´ÖÂÔ µØ·ÖÀ࣬¶ÔÎҴ˺ÜÓаïú¡Ú 18 ÕÂÁгö ÕâЩ¹ÛµãĸÅÒª£¬ÏÍû¥÷³ÂÊöÜ» ÒýÀ´ÕùÂÛºÍÖ¤¾Ý£¬È»óµÃ½Ê¡¢·ñ¶¨¸üÐò«Á µÚ 19 ÕÂÊÇÒ» ƪ¸üеĶÌΡ£ ¶ÁÕßÓ¦¸Ã×¢ÒâµÄÊÇ£¬ й۵㲢»ÏóÔ-À´ÄÊéÒÑù×Î Ç×Éí¾- Àú¡£ ÎÒÔÚ´ó ѧÀï ¹¤×÷£¬ ²»ÊÇ ÔÚ¹¤Òµ ½ç£¬ ×öµÄÊÇ Ð¡¹æ Ä£µÏî Ä¿£¬ ²»ÊÇ´ó ÏîÄ¿ ¡£×Ô 1986 ÄêÒÔÀ´£¬ ÎÒ¾ÍÖ»ÊǽÌÚÈí¼þ¹¤³£¬ ²»ÔÙ×öÕâ·½ÃæµÄÑо¿¡£ ÎÒÏÖÔÚµÄÑо¿ÁìÓòÊÇéâ»·³¼°Æä ӦᣠÔÚÕâ´Î»Ø¹ËµÄ×¼±¸ ý³ÌÖУ¬ÎÒÕ ÁË »Ð© ý¹¤×÷ÔÚÈí¼þ¹¤³ÌÁìÓòµÄÅó Ñ£¬Õ÷Ç Ëûà µÄ µ± -i-
  5. 5. Barry Boehm¡¢ Ken Brooks¡¢ Dick Case¡¢ James Coggins¡¢ Tom Demarco¡¢ Jim McCarthy¡¢ David Parnas¡¢ Earl Wheeler ºÍ Edward Yourdon¡Ð¸£ »Ð Fay Eard ³öÉ«µØ¶ÔÐÂÄ Õ½ÚøÐÁ˼ÊõÓ¹¤¡£ ¸Ð»ÎÒÔÚ¹ú·À¿Æѧ¯±á¾üÊÂÈí¼þ¤×÷éµÄͬ Gordon Bell¡¢ Bruce Buchanan¡¢ Rick Hayes-Roth£¬ ÌرðÊÇ David Parnas£¬ ¸Ð»ËûÃǵĶ´²ìÁ¦ºÍÉú¯Ïë·¨¡£ ¸Ð» Rebekah Bierly ¡° ¸ù±¾µÄ ´ÎÒªµÄ ¶Ô 16 ÕµÄÛ ÎĽøÐÁ˼ÊõÓ¹¤¡£ ÎÒ°ÑÈí¼þÊÌâ·Ö³É °¡Íº±¡ ¡± £¬ ÕâÊÇÜ Nancy Greenwood Brooks µÄÆô·¢ £¬ËýÔÚһƪ Suzuki СÌáÇÙ ½ÌÓýµÄÂÛÎÖЦÃÁËÕâÑù·ö¨ ¡£ ÔÚ 1975 Äê°æ ±¾µÄÐòÑÔÖ£¬ Addison-Wesleys ³ö°æ Éç°´¹æ¶¨²»ÔÊÐíÎÒÏòËüµÄ©ÑÝÁ ¹Ø¼ü½ÇÉ«µÄÔ±¤ÖÂл¡£ÓÁ¸öÈËÏ×ëÌðẴà- Norman Stanton ºÍÃÀÊõ Ö¸µ¼ Herbert Boes¡£ Boes Éè¼ÆÁËÓÅѵķç¸ñ£¬ ËûÔÚÆÀעʱÌØðáµ½£º ¡°Ò³ ±ßµÄ¿Õ°×Òªí£¬ ×Ö ÌåºÍ°æà Ҫ ÓÐÏëñÁ¦¡± ¡£ ¸üÖØÒªµÄ ÊÇ £¬ËûÌá³ö ÁË ÖÁ¹ØÒª µÄ ½¨Ò飺Ϊ ÿ Ò»ÕµĿª Í· ÅäÒ»·ùͼ Ƭ£¨µ±Ê ÎÒ Ö»ÓС°½¹ ÓÍ ¿Ó¡±ºÍ° À¼ ˹´ó½Ìà ¡± µÄͼƬ£© ¡£ Ñ° ÕÒâЩͼ Ƭ ʹÎҶ໨ ÁË Ò»ÄêµÊ± ¼ä£¬µ«ÎÒÓÀÔ¶¸Ð¤ÕâöÖæ¡ Soli Deo gloria£-Ô¸Éñ¶ÀµÃÈÙÒ«¡£ ²éçê¶ûÏ£¬±¿¨ÂÞÀ´ÄÉ F.P.B., Jr. 1995 Äê 3 Ô - ii -
  6. 6. Preface to the First Edition£© Ôںܶ෽Ã棬¹ÜÀíÒ»¸ö´óÐ͵ļÆËã»ú±à³ÌÏîÄ¿ºÍÆäËüÐ Òµ Ä´ó ͹¤³ÌºÜÏàËÆ¡ª ±È ´ó ¶àÊý³ÌÐòÔ±ËùÈÏΪµÄ»¹ÒÆ£ ÔںܶàÁíÍâµÄ·½Ã棬 ËüÓÖвî±ð¡ªÈ´ó¶àÊý°Òµ¾-ÀíùÏ ÎªµÄ²î±ð»¹Ò´ó¡£ Õâ¸öÁìÓòµÄ֪ʶÔÚÀÛ»ý¡£ ÏÖÔÚ AFIPS£¨ÃÀ¹úÐÅÏ¢´¦íѧ»áÁªº£© ÒѾ-ÓÐÁË»©ÌÖÂÛºÍ »áÒ飬 Ò²³ö°æÁ˻ЩÊé¼®ºÍÂÛÎÄ£¬ µ«ÊÇ»¹ÃÓгÉÍÄ·½¨À´ÏØø²ûö¡£ ÌṩÕâÑùÒ»±¾ Ö÷Òª·´Ó³¸öÈ˹۵ãÄСÊé¿ÀǺϣ ËäÈ»ÎÒÔ-À´ÓʼÆãú¿Ñ§µÄ±à³Ì·½Ã湤×÷£¬«ÇÚ 1956-1963 Äê ¼ä×Ô¶¯¿ØÖƳÌÐò ºÍ¸ß¼¶ÓïÑÔ±àÒëÆ÷¿ª·¢³öÀ´µÄÊò£¬ÎÖ²Çþ¹Ü½Ãæ¤×¡Ú 1964 Ä꣬ÎÒ ³ÉΪ²Ù×÷ÏµÍ OS/360 µÄ¾-Àí£¬·¢ÏÖǰЩê½øչʱà³Ìç¸äÁ˺ܶ¡ ¹ÜÀí OS/360 µÄ¿ª·¢ÊǺÜÓаïÖú¾-À£¬ ËäÈ»Êǧ°ÜµÄ¡£ ÄǸöÍŶӣ¬ °üÀ¨ÎҵļÌȾ- Àí F. M. Trapnell£¬Óкܶà ÖµÃ×ÔºÀĶ«Î÷¡£Ç¸öÏͳ°ü¨ÁËÜàÓÅÐãÉè¼ÆÊ©¬¹¦Ø Ó¦ÃÔںܶàÁìò£¬ ÌرðÊÇÉè¸ÎÞ¹µÄäÈë³öºÍⲿÜÀí£¬ ±»ºÜ¶à¼Êõ¸ïй㷴ÖÆ¡£ Ëü ÏÖÔÚÊÇ®·¿ÉµÄ£¬à±ÓЧºÍ³¨Ã¡ µ«ÊÇ£¬ ²¢»ÊÇËùÓеÄŬÁ¦¶¼³É¹¡£ ËùÓÐ OS/360 µÄÓû§ºÜ ¿ì¾ÍÄÜ·¢ÏÖËüÓ¦¸Ã×öµ ºÃ¡£ Éè¼ÆºÍʵÏÖÄȱÝÔڿسÌÐòðÕ飬 Ïà±È֮£¬ ÓïÑÔ±àÒëÆ÷¾ÍºÃµ¶¡£ ´ó¶àÊý ÕâЩȱÏÝ·¢ÉúÔÚ 1964-1965 ÄêµÉè¼Æ ½×¶Î£¬ ËùÒÔÕâ¿Ï¶¨ÊÇεÄðÈ¡£ ´ËÍ⣬ Õâ¸ö²úÆ·¢¼Í ³ÙÁË£¬ ÐèÒªµÄÚ´æ±È¼Æ»®Ö¶à£¬ ³É±¾Ò²ÊǹÀ¼ÆµÄºÃ¸¶£¬ ¶øÇÒµÚ»´Î·¢²¼Ê±Äܺà µØÔËУ¬Ö±½·¢²¼Á¸´ÎÒºó¡ ¾ÍÏóµ±³õ½ÓÊÜ OS/360 µÄ ÈÎñʱÐ-É̺õģ¬ ÔÚ 1965 ÄêÀ뿪 IBM ºó£¬ ÎÒÀ´µ½²éçê¶ûÏ£ ¡£ ÎÒ¿ªÊ¼·Öö OS/360 µÄ¾-Ñé £¬¿´Äܲ»ÓÖÐѧµ½ÊùÀíºÍ¼õÉÏ̡رðÎÒªË Ã÷ System/360 Ó²¼þ¿ª·¢ºÍ OS/360 Èí ¼þ¿ª·¢ÖеĹÜÀí¾-ÑéÊdz£²»Í¬¡¶Ô Tom Watson ¹Ø ÓÚΪʲô±à³ÌÄÑÒÔ¹ÜÀíµ½Ë÷Ð⣬վéÇ»·ÝÙ𰸡 ÔÚÕâ´Î̽Ë÷ÖУ¬ÎÒºÍ 1964-65 Ä ê µ Ä ¾-ÀíÖúÀí R.P.Case£ ¬ » ¹ ÓÐ 1965-68 Ä ê µ Ä ¾ - Àí F.M.Trapnell£¬ ½øÐÁ˳¤ ̸£¬ ´ÓÖÐÊÜÒæÁ¼¶à¡£ ÎÒ¶Ô±ÈÁËÆäû´óÐÍà³ÌÏîÄ¿µ¾-Àí½áÂÛ£¬ °ü À¨ M.I.T.µÄ F.J.Corbato£¬ Bell µç»°ÊÑéÒÄ V.Vyssotsky£¬ International Computers - iii -
  7. 7. Limited µÄ Charles Portman£¬ËÕÁª¿Æ ѧԺÎ÷²®ÀûÇ·Ö¿¼ÆËãʵéÒÄ A.P.Ershov£¬ºÍ IBM µÄ A.M.Pietrasanta¡£ ÎÒ×Ô¼ºµÄ½áÂÛÌåÏÖÔÚ ÂÃæµÄÎ ×Ö Ð£¬Ë͸øÖ°Òµ³ÌÐòÔ±¡¢Ö°Òµ¾-Àí¡¢ÌرðÊdz ÐòÔ±µÄ Ö° Òµ¾-Àí¡£ ËäȻд³öÀµÄÊÇ·ÖëÕ½ڣ¬ »¹ÊÇÓÐÒ¸öÖĵÂÛ㣬 Ìرð°üº¬ÔÚµ 2-7 Õ¡£ ¼òÑÔ Ö® £¬ ÎÒÏàÐÅÓÉÚÈËÔ±µÄ·Ö¹¤£¬ ´óÐͱà³ÌÏîÄ¿Åöµ½¹ÜÀíÎÊ⺡Çø𣻠ÎÒÏàÐŹؼüèª ÊÇά³Ö²úÆ·×ÔÉíµÄ¸ÅîÍêÕûС£ ÕâЩ½ÚÌÖÁËÆäµÄÀ§ÑºÍ¾ö·¨¡£ ºóÐøµÄÕ½ÚÌÖ Èí¼þ¹¤³ÌÜÀµÄÆäËû·½Ãæ¡£ Õâ¸öÁìÓòµÄÎ Ïײ¢ »¶à£¬µ«É¢²¼ºÜ¹ã¡£Òò´ËÎ ³¢ÊÔ¸ø ö²Î¿¼×ÊÁÏ£¬ËµÃ÷ij¸öÌض¨Öª ʶ µãºÍÖ¸ÒýÐËȤĶÁÕߥ¿´ÆäûÓù×÷¡£ ºÜ¶àÅóÓÑÁ¹ý˱¾ÊéµÄָ壬 ÆäÖÐÒ»©ÅóÓѸø ³öÁ˺ÜÓаïÖúµÄÒâ¼û¡£ ÕâЩҼûºÜÓÛÖµ£¬ µ«ÎªÁ˲»´òÂÒÄ×Öͨ³£¬ ÎÒ°ÑËüÃÇ×÷ª¢½â º¬ÔÚÊéÖС£ ÒòΪÕâ±¾Êé ÇËæ ²»Ê ¿Î±¾£¬ËùÓеIJο¼ Ï×ºÍ ¢½â¶¼±»·Åµ½Êé Ä ©Î²£¬½¨Òé¶ÁÕß ÔÚ ¶ÁµÚÒ»±éÊÂÔÈ¥²¿´¡£ ÉîÇи» Sara Elizabeth Moore С½ã£¬ David Wagner ÏÈÉú£¬ºÍ Rebecca Burris ·òÈË£¬ ËûÃÇ°ïÖúÎÒ×¼±¸ÁÊ塣л Joseph C.Sloane ½ÌÊÚÔͼâ·ÃæµÄ¨Òé¡£ ²éçê¶ûÏ£¬±¿¨ÂÞÀ´ÄÉ F.P.B., Jr 1974 Äê 10 Ô - iv -
  8. 8. Contents£© PREFACE TO THE 20TH ANNIVERSARY EDITION£© ¶þÊ®ÖÜÄê ¼Í Äî°æÐòÑÔ £¨ ...................... I µÚÒ»°æÐò ÑÔ £¨ PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION£© ............................................................ III Ŀ¼£¨ CONTENTS£© ..................................................................................................................... V ½¹ÓÍ¿ £¨ THE TAR PIT£© ..............................................................................................................1 ±à³ÌϵͲúÆ· ...............................................................................................................................1 Ö°ÒµÄÀȤ ...................................................................................................................................3 ְҵĿàÕ ...................................................................................................................................4 ÈËÔÂÉñ»° £¨ THE MYTHICAL MAN-MONTH£© ...........................................................................6 ÀÖ¹Û÷Òå .......................................................................................................................................7 ÈËÔ ...............................................................................................................................................8 ϵͳ²âÊÔ .....................................................................................................................................10 ¿Õ·ºµÄ¹ÀËã ................................................................................................................................. 11 Öظ´²úɵĽø¶ÈÔÑ .................................................................................................................12 Íâ ¿Æ ÊÖ Êõ¶ÓÎé £¨ THE SURGICAL TEAM£© ...............................................................................16 ÎÊÌâ .............................................................................................................................................16 MILLS µÄ½¨Òé .............................................................................................................................17 ÈçºÎÔË×÷ .....................................................................................................................................20 ÍŶӵÄÀ©½¨ .................................................................................................................................21 ¹ó×å ¨ÖÆ¡¢ ÃñÖ÷Õþ Î ºÍ ϵͳÉè¼Æ £¨ ARISTOCRACY, DEMOCRACY, AND SYSTEM DESIGN£© ........................................................................................................................................................22 ¸ÅÄîÒ»ÖÂÐÔ .................................................................................................................................22 »ñµÃ¸ÅÄîÍêÕûÐÔ .....................................................................................................................23 ¹ó×å¨ÖÆͳκÃñ÷Õþ .........................................................................................................24 Ôڵȴýʱ£¬ÏÖËÓ¦¸Ã×ö²¿ .........................................................................................26 »-ÉßÌí×ã £¨ THE SECOND-SYSTEM EFFECT£© ......................................................................29 ½á¹Ê¦µÄ»¥×¼ÔòºÍúÖÆ .........................................................................................................29 ×ÔÂÉ¡ª¿·¢µÚ¶þ¸öÏͳËù´øÀĺó¹û .................................................................................30 ¹á³ Ö´Ð £¨ PASSING THE WORD£© ..........................................................................................33 Îĵ»¯¹æ¸ñËÃ÷¡ªÊÖ²á .....................................................................................................33 ÐÎʽ»¯¶¨Òå .................................................................................................................................34 Ö±½ÓÕûºÏ .....................................................................................................................................36 »áÒéºÍ´ó .................................................................................................................................36 ¶àÖØÊµÏ .....................................................................................................................................38 -v-
  9. 9. .....................................................................................................................................38 ²úÆ·âÊÔ .....................................................................................................................................38 Ϊʲô°Í ±È Â×Ëþ»áʧ °Ü £¿ £¨ WHY DID THE TOWER OF BABEL FAIL?£© ...........................40 °Í±ÈÂ×ËþµÄ¹ÜÀí½ÌÑ .................................................................................................................41 ´óÐͱà³ÌÏîÄ¿Öµ½»Á÷ .............................................................................................................41 ÏîÄ¿¹¤×÷ÊÖ²á .............................................................................................................................42 ´óÐͱà³ÌÏîÄ¿µ×éÖ¯¼Ü¹ .........................................................................................................44 ÐØÓ ³ÉÖñ £¨ CALLING THE SHOT£© ..........................................................................................49 PORTMAN ýÊĵ ݾ ........................................................................................................................50 ARON µÄÊý¾Ý ..............................................................................................................................51 HARR µÄÊý¾Ý ..............................................................................................................................51 OS/360 µÄÊý ¾Ý ...........................................................................................................................53 CORBATO ýÊĵ ݾ ........................................................................................................................53 Ï÷×ãÊ ÂÄ £¨ TEN POUNDS IN A FIVE-POUND SACK£© ..........................................................55 ×÷Ϊ³É±¾µÄÌÐò¿Õ¼ä .................................................................................................................55 ¹æÄ£¿ØÖÆ .....................................................................................................................................56 ¿Õ¼äÄÜ .....................................................................................................................................57 Êý¾ÝµÄ±íÏÖÐνÇà³Ì¸ù .................................................................................................58 Ìá¸ÙêüÁì £¨ THE DOCUMENTARY HYPOTHESIS£© ...............................................................60 ¼ÆËã»ú²·µÄÎ .....................................................................................................................60 ´óѧ¿ÆϵÄÎ .........................................................................................................................62 Èí¼þÏîÄ¿µÎ .........................................................................................................................62 ΪʲôÒÓÐÕý½µÄ£¿ .........................................................................................................63 δÓê³ñçÑ £¨ PLAN TO THROW ONE AWAY£© ............................................................................64 ÊÔÑéй¤³§ºÍö´óæÄ£ .............................................................................................................64 Ψһ²±äµÄ¾ÍÊǯÉí .........................................................................................................65 Ϊ±ä¸ü¼Æ»®ÏµÍ³ .........................................................................................................................66 Ϊ±ä¸ü¼Æ»®×éܹ֯ .................................................................................................................66 Ç°½øÁ²£¬ºóÍËÒ» .................................................................................................................68 Ç°½øÒ»²£¬ºóÍË .................................................................................................................69 ¸É½«ÄªÐ° £¨ SHARP TOOLS£© ......................................................................................................71 Ä¿±ê»úÆ÷ .....................................................................................................................................72 ¸¨Öú»Æ÷ºÍÊý¾Ý·þÎñ .................................................................................................................73 ¸ß¼¶ÓïÑԺͽ»¥Ê±à³Ì .............................................................................................................76 ÕûÌ岿·Ö £¨ THE WHOLE AND THE PARTS£© ..........................................................................78 ÌÞ³ý BUG èÉĵ Ƽ ........................................................................................................................78 ¹¼þµ¥Ôª÷Ê .............................................................................................................................80 - vi -

×