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  • 1. All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 1 UMTS Radio Network Planning Fundamentals (FDD mode, R2/R3) Prerequisites:  GSM Radio Network Engineering Fundamentals  Introduction to UMTS
  • 2. All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 2 UMTS Radio Network Planning Fundamentals Table of content 1. Introduction 2. Inputs for Radio Network Planning 3. Link Budget (in Uplink) and Cell Range Calculation 4. Initial Radio Network Design 5. Basic Radio Network Parameter Definition 6. Basic Radio Network Optimization 7. UMTS/GSM co-location and Antenna Systems Appendix Abbreviations and acronyms
  • 3. All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 3 1. Introduction UMTS Radio Network Planning Fundamentals Duration: 2h30
  • 4. 4 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 1. Introduction Session presentation  Objective:  to get the necessary background information in regards of UMTS basics and RNP principles for a good start in UMTS Radio Network Planning.  Program: 1.1 UMTS Basics 1.2 UMTS RNP notations 1.3 UMTS RNP tool overview 1.4 UMTS RNP process overview
  • 5. 5 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 1. Introduction 1.1 UMTS Basics  Objective:  to be able to describe the UMTS network architecture and main radio mechanisms
  • 6. 6 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 1.1 UMTS Basics UMTS network architecture(1) Iu PLMN, PSTN, ISDN, ... IP networks External Networks USIM ME Cu UE Uu (air) User Equipment Node B Node B Iur UTRAN RNC RNC Node B Node B Iub RNS RNS UMTS Radio Access Network MSC/VLR CN GMSC GGSN HLR SGSN Iu-CS Iu-PS Core Network  Entities and interfaces Iub
  • 7. 7 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 1.1 UMTS Basics UMTS network architecture(2)  Alcatel OMC-UR architecture A9100 MBS UTRAN A9140 RNC Iub RNS RNS LAN A1353 OMC-UR RNO NM ItfB ItfR A9155 RNP tool Radio Network Optimizer Network Performance Analyzer Network Manager (used to perform supervision and configuration of the UTRAN) RNO NPA NM Note: NM is provided from R3 onwards. In R2, the NM function are implemented in two separate servers EM (Element Manager) and SNM (Sub-network Manager) + NPA A9140 RNC A9100 MBS A9100 MBS A9100 MBS Note: the Alcatel NodeB is called A9100 MBS (Multi- standard Base Station) from R2 onwards
  • 8. 8 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 1.1 UMTS Basics 3GPP: the UMTS standardization body  Members: ETSI (Europe) ARIB/TTC (Japan) CWTS (China) T1 (USA) TTA (South Korea)  UMTS system specifications:  Access Network  WCDMA (UTRAN FDD)  TD-CDMA (UTRAN TDD)  Core Network  Evolved GSM  All-IP Note: 3GPP has also taken over the GSM recommendations (previously written by ETSI)  Releases defined for the UMTS system specifications:  Release 99 (sometimes called Release 3)  Release 4  Release 5 In the following material we will only deal with UMTS FDD R99. (former Release 2000)
  • 9. 9 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 1.1 UMTS Basics 3GPP UMTS specifications  3GPP UMTS specifications are classified in 15 series (numbered from 21 to 35), e.g. the serie 25 deals with UTRAN aspects. Note: See 3GPP 21.101 for more details about the numbering scheme and an overview about all UMTS series and specifications.  Interesting specifications for UMTS Radio Network Planning: 3GPP TS 25.101: "UE Radio transmission and Reception (FDD)" 3GPP TS 25.104: "UTRA (BS) FDD; Radio transmission and Reception“ 3GPP TS 25.133: "Requirements for support of radio resource management (FDD)" 3GPP TS 25.141: "Base Station (BS) conformance testing (FDD) 3GPP TS 25.214: "Physical layer procedures (FDD)". 3GPP TS 25.215: "Physical layer - Measurements (FDD)” 3GPP TS 25.942: "RF system scenarios".
  • 10. 10 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 1.1 UMTS Basics Alcatel UTRAN releases  Alcatel UTRAN equipment (RNC, NodeB and OMC-UR) is designed by a joint-venture between Alcatel and Fujitsu, called Evolium. Note: the Alcatel UMTS equipment is called EvoliumTM 9100 MBS, EvoliumTM 9140 RNC and EvoliumTM 1353 OMC-UR  Relationship between Evolium UTRAN releases and 3GPP releases: Evolium UTRAN releases 3GPP releases R1 (former 3GR1) R99 (Technical Status December 2000) R2 R99 (Technical Status June 2001) R3 R99 (Technical Status March 2002) R4 R4 R5 R5 Prevision Stand: June 2004
  • 11. 11 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 1.1 UMTS Basics UMTS main radio mechanisms(1)  Sector/Cell/Carrier in UMTS Sector and cell are not equivalent anymore in UMTS:  A sector consists of one or several cells  A cell consists of one frequency (or carrier) Note: a given frequency (carrier) can be reused in each sector of each NodeB in the network (frequency reuse=1)
  • 12. 12 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 1.1 UMTS Basics UMTS main radio mechanisms(2)  CDMA (called W-CDMA for UMTS FDD) as access method on the air  a given carrier can be reused in each cell (frequency reuse=1)no FDMA  all active users can transmit/receive at the same timeno TDMA  As a consequence, there are inside one frequency:  Extra-cell interference: cell separation is achieved by codes (CDMA)  Intra-cell interference: user separation is achieved by codes (CDMA)  Multiple frequencies (carriers)  first step of UMTS deployment: a single frequency (e.g. frequency 1) is used for the whole network of an operator  second step of UMTS deployment: additional frequencies can be used to enhance the capacity of the network: an additional frequency (e.g frequency 2) works as an overlap on the first frequency. Frequency 1 Frequency 2
  • 13. 13 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 1.1 UMTS Basics UMTS main radio mechanisms(3)  Channelization and scrambling codes (UL side) 2chc 1chc scrambling c air interface Modulator 3chc UE Physicalchannels Channelization codes (spreading codes) short codes (limited number, but they can be reused with another scrambling code) code length chosen according to the bit rate of the physical channel (spreading factor) assigned by the RNC at connection setup Scrambling codes long codes (more than 1 million available) fixed length (no spreading) 1 unique code per UE assigned by the RNC at connection setup Bit rateA Bit rateB Bit rateC 3.84 Mchips/s 3.84 Mchips/s 3.84 Mchips/s 3.84 Mchips/s . . .
  • 14. 14 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 1.1 UMTS Basics UMTS main radio mechanisms(4)  Channelization and scrambling codes (DL side) 2chc 1chc scrambling c air interface Modulator 3chc NodeB sector Physicalchannels Channelization codes (spreading codes) same remarks as for UL side Note: the restricted number of channelization codes is more problematic in DL, because they must be shared between all UEs in the NodeB sector. Scrambling codes long codes (more than 1 million available, but restricted to 512 (primary) codes to limit the time for code research during cell selection by the UE) fixed length (no spreading) 1(primary) code per NodeB sector defined by a code planning: 2 adjacent sectors shall have different codes (see §5) Note: it is also possible to define secondary scrambling codes, but it is seldom used. Bit rateA Bit rateB Bit rateC 3.84 Mchips/s 3.84 Mchips/s 3.84 Mchips/s 3.84 Mchips/s . . .
  • 15. 15 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 1.1 UMTS Basics UMTS main radio mechanisms(5)  Physical channels  Physical channels are defined mainly by:  a specific frequency (carrier)  a combination channelization code / scrambling code  used to separate the physical channels (2 physical channels must NOT have the same combination channelization code / scrambling code)  start and stop instants  physical channels are sent continuously on the air interface between start and stop instants  Examples in UL:  DPDCH: dedicated to a UE, used to carry traffic and signalling between UE and RNC such as radio measurement report, handover command  DPCCH: dedicated to a UE, used to carry signalling between UE and NodeB such as fast power control commands  Examples in DL:  DPCH: dedicated to a UE , same functions as UL DPDCH and UL DPCCH  P-CCPCH: common channel sent permanently in each cell to provide system- and cell-specific information, e.g. LAI (similar to the time slot 0 used for BCCH in GSM)  CPICH: see next slide
  • 16. 16 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 1.1 UMTS Basics UMTS main radio mechanisms(6)  CPICH (or Pilot channel)  DL common channel sent permanently in each cell to provide:  srambling code of NodeB sector: the UE can find out the DL scrambling code of the cell through symbol-by-symbol correlation over the CPICH (used during cell selection)  power reference: used to perform measurements for handover and cell selection/reselection (function performed by time slot 0 used for BCCH in GSM)  time and phase reference: used to aid channel estimation in reception at the UE side Pre-defined symbol sequence Slot #0 Slot #1 Slot #i Slot #14 Tslot = 2560 chips , 20 bits = 10 symbols 1 radio frame: Tf = 10 ms  The CPICH contains: a pre-defined symbol sequence (the same for each cell of all UMTS networks) scrambled with the NodeB sector scrambling code at a fixed and low bit rate (Spreading Factor=256): to make easier Pilot detection by UE
  • 17. 17 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 1.1 UMTS Basics UMTS main radio mechanisms(7)  Power control  Near-Far Problem: on the uplink way an overpowered mobile phone near the base station (e.g. UE1) can jam any other mobile phones far from the base station (e.g. UE2). Node B UE1 UE2  an efficient and fast power control is necessary in UL to avoid near- far effect  power control is also used in DL to reduce interference and consequently to increase the system capacity  Power control mechanisms (see Appendix for more details):  open loop (without feedback information) for common physical channels  closed loop (with feedback information) for dedicated physical channels (1500 Hz command rate, also called fast power control)
  • 18. 18 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 1.1 UMTS Basics UMTS main radio mechanisms(8) RNC Node B  Soft/softer Handover (HO)  a UE is in soft handover state if there are two (or more) radio links between this UE and the UTRAN  it is a fundamental UMTS mechanism (necessary to avoid near-far effect)  only possible intra-frequency, ie between cells with the same frequency Note: hard handover is provided if soft/er handover is not possible  A softer handover is a soft handover between different sectors of the same Node B Soft handover (different sectors of different NodeBs) Softer handover (different sectors of the same NodeB) RNC Node B Node B UE UE
  • 19. 19 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 1.1 UMTS Basics UMTS main radio mechanisms(9)  Active Set (AS) and Macro Diversity Gain  All cells, which are involved in soft/softer handover for a given UE belong to the UE Active Set (AS):  usual situation: about 30% of UE with at least 2 cells in their AS.  up to 6 cells in AS for a given UE  The different propagation paths in DL and UL lead to a diversity gain, called „Macro Diversity‟ gain:  UL  one physical signal sent by one UE and received by two different cells  soft handover: selection on frame basis (each 10ms) in RNC  softer handover: Maximum Ratio Combining(MRC) in NodeB  DL  two physical signals (with the same content) sent by two different cells and received by one UE  soft/softer handover: MRC in UE
  • 20. 20 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 1. Introduction 1.2 UMTS RNP notations and principles  Objective:  to be able to understand the vocabulary and notations* used in this course in regards of UMTS planning * unfortunately, UMTS RNP notations are not clearly standardized, so that the meaning of a notation can be quite different from one reference to another one.
  • 21. 21 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 Received power and power density Power [dBm] Power Density [dBm/Hz ] Comment (Power Density=Power/B with B=3.84MHz) Received (useful) signal C (or RSCP) Ec Ec = Energy per chip=C/B Thermal Noise -108.1 Nth=-174 Nth = k.T0 with k=1.38E-20mW/Hz/K (Bolztmann constant) and T0=293K (20°C) Thermal Noise at receiver N - N =-108.1dBm+NFreceiver [dB] (=Thermal noise + Noise generated at receiver) Interference intra-cell Iintra (Iown) - interference received from transmitters located in the same cell as the receiver Note: C is included in Iintra Interference extra-cell Iextra (Iother;Iinter) - interference received from transmitters not located in the same cell as the receiver Interference I - I=Iintra+ Iextra (no “Thermal noise at receiver” included) 1.2 UMTS RNP notations and principles Notations (1)
  • 22. 22 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 Received power and power density Power [dBm] Power Density [dBm/Hz] Comment Power Density=Power/B with B=3.84MHz Total received power (“Total noise”) I+N (RSSI) Io I+N= Iintra+ Iextra +N Note: C is included in (I+N) Total received power (“Total noise” without useful signal) I+N-C No (Nt) No=( Iintra+ Iextra +N-C)/B Note: C is not included in No 1.2 UMTS RNP notations and principles Notations (2) Note: Io can be measured with a good precision, whereas No is not easy to measure (but it is useful for theoretical demonstrations)
  • 23. 23 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 Ratio in [dB] Comment Received energy per chip over “noise” Ec/Io Here “noise”=Io This ratio can be accurately measured: it is used for physical channels without real information bits, especially for CPICH (Pilot channel) Ec/No (“C/I”)* Here “noise”=No This ratio is difficult to measure, but is useful for theoretical demonstrations: it is used for physical channels with real information bits, especially for P-CCPCH and UL/DL dedicated channels. Received energy per bit over “noise” Eb/No Eb/No=Ec/No+PG with PG (Processing Gain) = 10 log [(3.84 Mchips/s) / (service bit rate)] e.g. for speech 12.2 kbits/s, Processing Gain = 25dB Required energy per bit over “noise” (Eb/No)req Fixed value which depends on service bit rate...(see §3.5) Eb/No shall be equal or greater than the (Eb/No)req 1.2 UMTS RNP notations and principles Notations (3) *This ratio is often written with the classical GSM notation “C/I” (Carrier over Interference ratio): this notation is incorrect, it should be C/(I+N-C)
  • 24. 24 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 Two more interesting ratios! in [dB] Comment f (or little i) Iextra / Iintra In a homogenous network (same traffic and user distribution in each cell), f is a constant in uplink. Typical value for macro-cells with omni-directional antennas: 0.55 (in uplink) Noise Rise (I+N)/N Very useful UMTS ratio to characterize the moving interference level I compare to the fixed “Thermal Noise at receiver” level N. 1.2 UMTS RNP notations and principles Notations (4)
  • 25. 25 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 1.2 UMTS RNP notations and principles Exercise (1/2) Assumptions: - n active users in the serving cell with speech service at 12.2kbits/s and (Eb/No)req =6 dB - Received power at NodeB: C=-120dBm (for each user) - homogenous network (f=0.55) - NFNodeB = 4dB and NFUE =8dB Node B Serving cell Surrounding cells
  • 26. 26 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 1.2 UMTS RNP notations and principles Exercise (2/2) 1. What is the processing gain for speech 12.2kbits/s ? 2. The users in the serving cell are located at different distance from the NodeB: is it desirable and possible to have the same received power C for each user? 3. What is the value of the “Thermal Noise at receiver” N? 4. Complete the following table: n [users] I [dBm] I +N [dBm] Noise Rise [dB] Ec/No [dB] Eb/No [dB] Comment 1 10 25 100
  • 27. 27 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 1. Introduction 1.3 UMTS RNP Tool Overview  Objective:  to be able to describe briefly the structure of a RNP tool
  • 28. 28 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 1.3 UMTS RNP Tool Overview RNP tool requirements(1)  Digital maps  topographic data (terrain height)  Resolution:  typically 20m for city areas and 50 m for rural areas  possibly building and road databases for more accuracy  Coordinates system  important for interfacing with measurement tools  e.g. UTM based on WGS-84 ellipsoid  morphographic data (clutter type)  Resolution: same as topographic data  Propagation model dialog  e.g. setting Cost-Hata propagation model parameters (see §3.2)  Site/sector/cell/antenna dialog  importing sites (e.g GSM sites)  setting site/sector/cell/antenna parameters (“Network design parameters”, see §4.1) Note: in UMTS, sector and cell are not equivalent
  • 29. 29 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 1.3 UMTS RNP Tool Overview RNP tool requirements(2)  Link loss calculation  Traffic simulation  Setting traffic parameters (§2.2)  Traffic map generation  Resolution: same as topographic data  UE list generation (a snapshot of the UMTS network)  Coverage predictions  displaying the results on the map  showing the results as numerical tables  Automatic neighborhood planning  Automatic scrambling code planning  Interworking with other tools (dimensioning tools, OMC-UR, measurements tools, transmission planning tool...)
  • 30. 30 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 1.3 UMTS RNP Tool Overview Example: A9155 UMTS/GSM RNP tool A9155 screenshot
  • 31. 31 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 1. Introduction 1.4 RNP Process Overview  Objective:  to be able to describe briefly the 11 steps of the RNP Process, which starts with Radio Network Requirements definition and ends with Radio Network Acceptance.
  • 32. 32 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 (12. Further Optimization) 1.4 RNP Process Overview The 11 steps of RNP process 1. Radio Network Requirements (see §2.4) 2. Preliminary Network Design (see §3) 3. Project Setup and Management 4. Initial Radio Network Design (see §4) 5. Site Acquisition Procedure 6. Technical Site Survey 7. Basic Parameter Definition (see §5) 8. Cell Design CAE Data Exchange over COF 9. Turn On Cycle 10. Basic Network Optimization (see §6) 11. Network Acceptance
  • 33. 33 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 1.4 RNP Process Overview Step 1: Definition of Radio Network Requirements  The Request for Quotation (RfQ) from the operator prescribes the requirements which consists mainly in:  Coverage  Traffic  QoS  see §2.4 for more details
  • 34. 34 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 1.4 RNP Process Overview Step 2: Preliminary Network Design  The preliminary design lays the foundation to create the Bill of Quantity (BoQ)  List of needed network elements  Geo data procurement  Digital Elevation Model DEM/Topographic map  Clutter map  Definition of standard equipment configurations dependent on  clutter type  traffic density  Definition of roll out phases  Areas to be covered  Number of sites to be installed  Date, when the roll out takes place.  Network architecture design  Planning of RNC, MSC and SGSN locations and their links  Frequency spectrum from license conditions
  • 35. 35 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 1.4 RNP Process Overview Step 3: Project Setup and Management  This phase includes all tasks to be performed before the on site part of the RNP process takes place.  This ramp up phase includes:  Geo data procurement if required  Setting up „general rules‟ of the project  Define and agree on reporting scheme to be used  Coordination of information exchange between the different teams which are involved in the project  Each department/team has to prepare its part of the project  Definition of required manpower and budget  Selection of project database (MatrixX)
  • 36. 36 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 1.4 RNP Process Overview Step 4: Initial Radio Network Design  Area surveys  As well check of correctness of geo data  Frequency spectrum partitioning design  RNP tool calibration  For the different morpho classes: Performing of drive measurements Calibration of correction factor and standard deviation by comparison of measurements to predicted received power values of the tool  Definition of search areas (SAM – Search Area Map)  A team searches for site locations in the defined areas  The search team should be able to speak the national language  Selection of number of sectors/cells per site together with project management and operator  Get „real‟ design acceptance from operator based on coverage prediction and predefined design level thresholds
  • 37. 37 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 1.4 RNP Process Overview Step 5: Site Acquisition Procedure  Delivery of site candidates  Several site candidates shall be the result out of the site location search  Find alternative sites  If no site candidate or no satisfactory candidate can be found in the search area  Definition of new SAM (Search Area Map)  Possibly adaptation of radio network design  Check and correct SAR (Site Acquisition Report)  Location information  Land usage  Object (roof top, pylon, grassland) information  Site plan  Site candidate acceptance and ranking  If the reported site is accepted as candidate, then it is ranked according to its quality in terms of Radio transmission High visibility on covered area No obstacles in the near field of the antennas No interference from other systems/antennas Installation costs Installation possibilities Power supply Wind and heat Maintenance costs Accessibility Rental rates for object Durability of object
  • 38. 38 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 1.4 RNP Process Overview Step 6: Technical Site Survey  Agree on an equipment installation solution satisfying the needs of  RNE (Radio Network Engineer)  Transmission planner  Site engineer  Site owner  The Technical Site Survey Report (TSSR) defines  Antenna type, position, orientation and tilt  Mast/pole or wall mounting position of antennas  EMC rules are taken into account Radio network engineer and transmission planner check electro magnetic compatibility (EMC) with other installed devices  BTS/Node B location  Power and feeder cable mount  Transmission equipment installation  Final Line Of Site (LOS) confirmation for microwave link planning E.g. red balloon of around half a meter diameter marks target location  If the site is not acceptable or the owner disagrees with all suggested solutions  The site will be rejected  Site acquisition team has to organize a new date with the next site from the ranking list
  • 39. 39 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 1.4 RNP Process Overview Step 7: Basic Parameter Definition  After installation of equipment the basic parameter settings are used for  Commissioning  Functional test of BTS/NodeB and VSWR check  Call tests  RNEs define cell design data  Operations field service generates the basic software using the cell design CAE data  Cell parameters definition  LAC/RAC...  Frequencies  Neighborhood/cell handover relationship  Transmit power  Cell type (macro, micro, umbrella, …)  Scrambling code planning
  • 40. 40 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 1.4 RNP Process Overview Step 8: Cell Design CAE Data Exchange over COF A956 RNOA956 RNO OMC 1 COF ACIE ACIE POLO BSS Software offline production 3rd Party RNP or Database A9155 V5/V6 RNP A9155 PRC Generator Conversion OMC 2 ACIE = PRC file
  • 41. 41 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 1.4 RNP Process Overview Step 9: Turn On Cycle(1)  The network is launched step by step during the Turn On Cycle.  A single step takes typically two or three weeks  Not to mix up with rollout phases, which take months or even years  For each step the RNE has to define „Turn On Cycle Parameter‟  Cells to go on air  Cell design CAE parameter  Each step is finished with the „Turn On Cycle Activation‟  Upload PRC/ACIE files into OMC-R  Unlock sites
  • 42. 42 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 1.4 RNP Process Overview Step 9: Turn On Cycle(2)  Site Verification and Drive Test  RNE performs drive measurement to compare the real coverage with the predicted coverage of the cells.  If coverage holes or areas of high interference are detected  Adjust the antenna tilt and orientation  Verification of cell design CAE data  To fulfill heavy acceptance test requirements, it is absolutely essential to perform such a drive measurement.  Basic site and area optimization is preventing to have unforeseen mysterious network behavior afterwards.
  • 43. 43 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 1.4 RNP Process Overview Step 9: Turn On Cycle(3)  HW / SW Problem Detection  Problems can be detected due to drive tests or equipment monitoring Defective equipment will trigger replacement by operation field service Software bugs Incorrect parameter settings are corrected by using the OMC or in the next TOC Faulty antenna installation Wrong coverage footprints of the site will trigger antenna re- alignments  If the problem is serious Lock BTS/NodeB Detailed error detection Get rid of the fault Eventually adjusting antenna tilt and orientation
  • 44. 44 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 1.4 RNP Process Overview Step 10: Basic Network Optimization  Network wide drive measurements  It is highly recommended to perform network wide drive tests before doing the commercial opening of the network  Key performance indicators (KPI) are determined  The results out of the drive tests are used for basic optimization of the network  Basic optimization  All optimization tasks are still site related  Alignment of antenna system  Adding new sites in case of too large coverage holes  Parameter optimization No traffic yet -> not all parameters can be optimized  Basic optimization during commercial service  If only a small number of new sites are going on air the basic optimization will be included in the site verification procedure
  • 45. 45 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 1.4 RNP Process Overview Step 11: Network Acceptance  Acceptance drive test  Calculation of KPI according to acceptance requirements in contract  Presentation of KPI to the operator  Comparison of key performance indicators with the acceptance targets in the contract  The operator accepts  the whole network  only parts of it step by step  Now the network is ready for commercial launch
  • 46. 46 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 1.4 RNP Process Overview (Step 12: Further Optimization)  Network is in commercial operation  Network optimization can be performed  Significant traffic allows to use OMC based statistics by using A956 RNO and A985 NPA
  • 47. All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 47 2. Inputs for Radio Network Planning UMTS Radio Network Planning Fundamentals Duration: 2h00
  • 48. 48 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 2. Inputs for Radio Network Planning Session presentation  Objective:  to be able to describe the UMTS RNP inputs in regards of frequency spectrum, traffic parameters, equipment parameters and radio network requirements  Program: 2.1 UMTS FDD frequency spectrum 2.2 UMTS traffic parameters 2.3 UMTS Terminal, NodeB and Antenna overview 2.4 UMTS Radio Network Requirements
  • 49. 49 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 2. Inputs for Radio Network Planning 2.1 UMTS FDD frequency spectrum  Objective:  to be able to describe the UMTS FDD frequency parameters defined by the 3GPP
  • 50. 50 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 2.1 UMTS FDD frequency spectrum Frequency spectrum 1920-1980 2110-2170  Frequency spectrum (UMTS FDD mode)  UL: 1920 MHz – 1980 MHz  DL: 2110 MHz – 2170 MHz  Duplex spacing: 190 MHz
  • 51. 51 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 2.1 UMTS FDD frequency spectrum Carrier spacing  Carrier spacing: 5MHz  2110 MHz – 2170 MHz = 60 MHz; 60 MHz / 5 MHz =12 frequencies  One operator gets typically 2–3 frequencies (carriers)  So typically 4–6 licenses per country as a maximum  Required bandwidth: 4.7MHz  The chip rate is 3.84Mchip/s, therefore at least 3.84MHz bandwidth are needed to avoid inter-symbol interference (Nyquist-Criterion)  The roll-of factor of the pulse-shaping filter is 0.22 (root-raised cosine)  The needed minimum bandwidth is 3.84MHz x 1.22  4.7MHz Examples: 60MHz 5MHz 6 operators 4 operators
  • 52. 52 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 2.1 UMTS FDD frequency spectrum Frequency channel numbering  UTRA Absolute Radio Frequency Channel Number (UARFCN)  UARFCN formula (3GPP 25.101 and 25.104): MHz.fMHz with [MHz]fUARFCN nlinkUplink/DowCenter nlinkUplink/DowCenternlinkUplink/Dow 632760.0 5    UARFCN is integer:  0 <= UARFCN <= 16383
  • 53. 53 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 2.1 UMTS FDD frequency spectrum Center Frequency  Center Frequency fcenter  Consequence of UARFCN formula (see previous slide):  fcenter must be set in steps of 0.2MHz (Channel Raster=200 kHz)  fcenter must terminate with an even number (e.g 1927.4 not 1927.5)  fcenter values  Uplink (1920Mhz-1980MHz)  1922.4MHz <= fcenter <= 1977.6MHz  9612 <= UARFCN Uplink <= 9888  Downlink (2110Mhz-2170MHz)  2112.4MHz <= fcenter <= 2167.6MHz  10562 <= UARFCN Downlink <= 10838
  • 54. 54 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 2.1 UMTS FDD frequency spectrum Further comments  Frequency adjustment  If an overlap between frequency bands belonging to same operator is set, guard band between different operators will increase.  This feature can be used to enlarge the guard band between frequency blocks belonging different operators and prevent dead zones. Example: it shows an overlap of 0.3 MHz between two carriers of one operator0.6 MHz additional channel separation between the operators is created. 0.6 MHz additional guard band 5 MHz 5 MHz 4.7 MHz 4.7 MHz 0.3 MHz overlap 1920 1940 Operator 1 Operator 2 Frequency coordination at country borders (see Appendix) 0.3 MHz overlap
  • 55. 55 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 2. Inputs for Radio Network Planning 2.2 UMTS traffic parameters (UMTS traffic map)  Objective:  to be able to describe the method to create a traffic map
  • 56. 56 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 2.2 UMTS traffic parameters Step 1: Terminal parameters Tx power (dBm) Terminal parameters (typical values) Min Max Antenna Gain (dB) Internal Losses+ Indoor Margin (dB) Noise Factor (dB) Active set size Deep Indoor 20 Indoor 18 Indoor First Wall 15 Incar 8 Mobile phone Outdoor 21 0 Deep Indoor 20 Indoor 18 Indoor First Wall 15 Incar 8 Personal Digital Assitent (PDA) Outdoor -50 24 0 0 8 3  The indoor margin (also called penetration loss) is part of UE parameters.
  • 57. 57 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 2.2 UMTS traffic parameters Step 2: Service parameters(1) (Eb/ No)req (dB) DL traffic Power (dBm) 3 Km/ h 50 km/ h 120 km/ h Service parameters (typical values) UL DL UL DL UL DL Type SHOallowed Priority ULnominalrate (Kb/sec) DLnominalrate (Kb/sec) CodingFactor UL/DL ActivityFactor (UL/DL) Min Max Bodyloss (dB) Speech 12.2 3 12. 2 12.2 0.6 3 CS64 CS 2 64 64 PS64 1 64 64 PS128 0 64 128 PS384 see next page PS Y 0 64 384 1 1 -50 + 40 0  Activity factor and Body loss are part of service parameters
  • 58. 58 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 2.2 UMTS traffic parameters Step 2: Service parameters(2) (Eb/No)req typical values • fixed values which depends on link direction (UL or DL )service bit rate, BLER (or BER), UE speed, UE multipath environment, TX/RX diversity and processing/hardware imperfection margin (2dB) Uplink Downlink 2 rx ants 1 tx ant Vehicular A - 3 km/h 5,8 7,6 Vehicular A - 50 km/h 6,2 8,1 Vehicular A - 120 km/h 7,1 8,7 SPEECH 12.2 Uplink Downlink 2 rx ants 1 tx ant Vehicular A - 3 km/h 3,2 6,2 Vehicular A - 50 km/h 3,5 6,5 Vehicular A - 120 km/h 4,4 7,1 CIRCUIT 64 Uplink Downlink 2 rx ants 1 tx ant Vehicular A - 3 km/h 2,8 5,5 Vehicular A - 50 km/h 3,2 6,2 Vehicular A - 120 km/h 4,2 6,7 PACKET 64 Uplink Downlink 2 rx ants 1 tx ant Vehicular A - 3 km/h 2,1 4,8 Vehicular A - 50 km/h 2,5 5,5 Vehicular A - 120 km/h 3,4 6,1 PACKET 128 Uplink Downlink 2 rx ants 1 tx ant Vehicular A - 3 km/h 1,8 5,2 Vehicular A - 50 km/h 2,2 6,1 Vehicular A - 120 km/h 3,0 6,8 PACKET 384 PS services for a target BLER of 0.05 CS services for a target BLER of 0.0001 (10-4) Speech services for a target BLER of 0.01(10-2) Source: Alcatel simulations
  • 59. 59 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 2.2 UMTS traffic parameters Step 3: User Profile parameters Traffic Density Volume (Kb/ sec) User Profile (Examples) Service (see Step2) Terminal (see Step1) Calls/ hour Duration (sec) UL DL Surfing user PS384 PDA Deep Indoor 1 - 8 60 Videocall user PS64 PDA Deep Indoor 1 - 5 20 Phonecall user Speech 12.2 Mobile phone Deep Indoor 1 115.2 - - Speech 12.2 1 72 - - CS64 1 72 - - PS64 PS128 City user PS384 Mobile Phone Outdoor 0.2 - 40 200 Standard user same as City User without PS384 service  All of this data has to be provided by the operator: as the user profiles will be different for different operators in different countries, no typical values can be given.
  • 60. 60 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 2.2 UMTS traffic parameters Step 4: Environment Class parameters  User profiles have been used to describe single user types.  Environment classes are used to distribute and quantify these user profiles on the planning area. Environment class* (Examples) User profiles (see Step 3) Geographical density (users/km2) low traffic medium traffic high traffic Dense Urban city user 1000 3000 6000 Urban city user 750 1500 3000 Suburban city user 50 250 500 Rural standard user 10 20 40 *BE CAREFUL: environment classes and clutter classes have often the same names, although they refer to quite different concepts: an environment class refers to a traffic property whereas a clutter class refers to an electromagnetic wave propagation property. The reason is that environment classes are very often mapped on clutter classes to generate a traffic map (see Step 5)
  • 61. 61 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 2.2 UMTS traffic parameters Step 5: Traffic Map definition  Mapping of Environment Classes (see Step 4) on a map: Example with 4 environment classes: Dense Urban, Urban, Suburban, Rural Dense Urban Urban Rural Suburban Resolution: 20m…100m Planning Area (also called Focus Area) Map Traffic map Note: an easy way to generate a traffic map is to use the clutter map and to associate each clutter class to an environment class (e.g. Dense Urban environment class is mapped on Dense Urban clutter class…)
  • 62. 62 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 2. Inputs for Radio Network Planning 2.3 UMTS Terminal, NodeB and Antenna overview  Objective:  to be able to describe briefly the main characteristics of the UMTS radio equipment (UE, Alcatel NodeB and antenna)
  • 63. 63 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 2.3 UMTS Terminal, NodeB and Antenna overview UE characteristics  According to 3GPP 25.101 (Release 1999):  UE power classes at antenna connector*:  Power class 1: (+33 +1/-3)dBm  Power class 2: (+27 +1/-3)dBm  Power class 3: (+24 +1/-3)dBm  Power class 4: (+21 ±2)dBm  UE minimum output power: <-50dBm  According to UE manufacturers:  UE Noise Figure: 8dB (typically)  UE internal losses + UE antenna gain = 0dB  What is EIRP for a UE of power class 4? * the notation means e.g. for class 1: - Maximum output power: +33dBm - Tolerance: +1dBm/-3dBm Answer: UEEIRP=UETXPower+UEAntennaGain-UEInternalLoss=21dBm+0dB=21dBm
  • 64. 64 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 2.3 UMTS Terminal, NodeB and Antenna overview Alcatel NodeB(1)  The EVOLIUMTM Alcatel 9100 MBS (=Alcatel NodeB)  is a multi-standard base station, which can handle the UMTS and GSM functions  is available in 3 types of configurations: UMTS only, GSM only, mixed UMTS/GSM  is available from UTRAN Release 2 (R2) onwards* Iub MBS RNC MBS UE UE UE GSM part UMTS part BSC GSM part UMTS part A-bis Iub A-bis The UMTS part is a Node_B in charge of radio transmission handling (with W-CDMA method) The GSM part is a BTS in charge of radio transmission handling (with FDMA/TDMA method) * in UTRAN release 1 (former 3GR1) there was the Alcatel NodeB V1. This product is no more produced and no more supported from UTRAN R3 onwards.
  • 65. 65 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 SUMU BBTEU BB BB TEU ANRU ANRU TMA Option TMA Option RF BASE BAND COMMON GSM Part UMTS Part Iub DL 2.3 UMTS Terminal, NodeB and Antenna overview Alcatel NodeB (2) only 4 types of modules for the MBS: SUMU, BB, TEU and ANRU UL up to 4 E1 interfaces (2Mbits/s) on Iub (hardware limit) 2 antennas per sector: -necessary due to RX diversity -can also be used with optional TX diversity
  • 66. 66 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 2.3 UMTS Terminal, NodeB and Antenna overview Alcatel NodeB (3) SUMU BBTEU BB BB TEU ANRU ANRU TMA Option TMA Option RF BASE BAND COMMON Iub Functions: O&M (alarm, software…), clock, transmission towards RNC Capacity:1 SUMU board per MBS Functions: pool of processing resources to be shared between all cells of the MBS for UL/DL channel coding, interleaving, spreading, scrambling, power control (inner loop), softer handover… Capacity: •64 speech channels (AMR) or 1536 kbits/s per BB board* •number of boards depends on the required traffic capacity ( not on the number of sectors) * Soft/softer handover overhead capacity has already been taken into account in these figures. BB board dimensioning rule for mixed traffic: K + L + M + N < 64 user channels K x 12.2 kbps + L x 64 kbps + M x 128 kbps + N x 384 kbps < 1536 kbps Where K = number of speech12.2kbps users L = number of 64 kbps channel users M = number of 128 kbps channel users N = number of 384 kbps channel users
  • 67. 67 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 2.3 UMTS Terminal, NodeB and Antenna overview Alcatel NodeB (4) SUMU BBTEU BB BB TEU ANRU ANRU TMA Option TMA Option RF BASE BAND COMMON Iub Functions: DL multi-carrier modulation and DL multi-carrier power amplification Capacity: •1 TEU board per sector (2 per sector with optional TX diversity ) •TEU output power at antenna connector: 20 W (43 dBm) for TEUM 35 W (46 dBm) for TEUH (only available from R3 onwards) Note: the output power is shared between all the carriers of one sector (symmetrically or asymmetrically). Functions: UL/DL filtering and duplexing, and UL multi-carrier low noise amplification Capacity: •as many ANRU as number of sectors •NF(Noise Figure)=4dB
  • 68. 68 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 2.3 UMTS Terminal, NodeB and Antenna overview Alcatel NodeB (5)  MBS hardware limits (due to number of connectors, space constraints…)  up to 6 sectors and up to 24 cells per MBS  up to 4 carriers (cells) per sector  up to 13 BB boards per MBS  MBS limits in R2  up to 3 sectors and up to 3 cells per MBS  up to 1 carrier (cell) per sector  up to 2 BB boards per MBS  MBS limits in R3 (Stand: June 2004)  up to 6 sectors and up to 6 cells per MBS  up to 3 carriers (cells) per sector  up to 4 BB boards per MBS
  • 69. 69 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 2.3 UMTS Terminal, NodeB and Antenna overview UMTS antennas (1)  Constraints for antenna system installation:  visual impact  space or building constraints  co-siting with existing GSM BTS (see §7) Note: the antenna system includes not only the antennas themselves, but also the feeders, jumpers and connectors as well as diplexers (in case of antenna system sharing) and TMAs (tower mounted amplifiers)  Whenever possible, a solution with a standard antenna has to be chosen:  Model: 65° horizontal beam width  Azimuth: 0°, 120° and 240° (3 sectored site)  Gain: 17-18dBi  Height (above ground): 20-25 m for urban and 30-35 m for suburban  Downtilt: electrical downtilt adjustable between 0° and 10°
  • 70. 70 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 2.3 UMTS Terminal, NodeB and Antenna overview UMTS antennas (2)  Antenna parameters are key parameters which can be tuned to decrease interference in critical zones, especially:  Antenna downtilt  by increasing the antenna downtilt of the interfering cell  downtilt changes with a difference less than 2° compared to the previous value do not make sense, since the modification effort (requiring on-site tuning) does not stand in relation to the effect.  rule of thumb: the downtilt in UMTS should be at least 1°-2° higher than the value a planner would chose for GSM  Antenna azimuth  by re-directing the beam direction of the interfering cell  azimuth modifications of  10°-20° compared to the previous value do not make sense Note: Azimuth/downtilt modifications can be restricted or even forbidden due to antenna system installation constraints (especially the constraints for UMTS/GSM co- location, see §7 for more details)
  • 71. 71 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 2. Inputs for Radio Network Planning 2.4 Radio Network Requirements  Objective:  to be able to understand the parameters, which define the UMTS radio network requirements in terms of coverage, traffic and quality of service
  • 72. 72 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 2.4 Radio Network Requirements Definition of radio network requirements (1)  Traffic mix and distribution for traffic simulation with the aim to predict power load in DL and UL noise rise (see §2.2)  Covered area  Polygon surrounding the area to be covered (focus zone for RNP tool)  Definition of what coverage is  CPICH Ec/Io coverage  (CPICH Ec/Io)required=-15dB (Alcatel value coming from simulations and field measurements)  Required coverage probability for CPICH Ec/Io: e.g. Average probability {CPICH Ec/Io > (CPICH Ec/Io)req} > 95% (with this definition a minimum average quality in the covered area is guaranteed*) *other definitions of required coverage probability are possible, e.g. 95% of area with CPICH Ec/Io > (CPICH Ec/Io)required (with this definition, a minimum percentage of covered area is guaranteed)
  • 73. 73 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 2.4 Radio Network Requirements Definition of radio network requirements (2)  UL and DL service coverage  (Eb/No)reqspecific value for each service and for each direction (UL/DL), see §2.2  Required coverage probability for DL and UL services: e.g. Average probability {Eb/No > (Eb/No)req} > 95% (for each direction UL/DL and for each service) Note: It is possible to define different required coverage probabilities for different services. Eb/No values can not easily be measured, but nevertheless service coverage predictions are a good source of information to improve the radio network design (to find the limiting resources).
  • 74. 74 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 2.4 Radio Network Requirements Definition of radio network requirements (3)  CPICH RSCP coverage (optional)  (CPICH RSCP)required: it can be defined, if the maximum allowed path loss is determined by calculating a link budget and taking into account the CPICH output power (if no traffic mix is available, the link budget would base on the limiting service)  Required coverage probability for CPICH RSCP e.g. Average probability {CPICH RSCP > (CPICH RSCP)req}>95% (To guarantee an average reliability, that the minimum level is fulfilled in the covered area) CPICH RSCP prediction is not mandatory, but:  it can be a help to guarantee a certain level of indoor coverage from outdoor cells, taking into account different indoor losses for different areas.  CPICH RSCP can easily be measured using a 3G scanner.
  • 75. All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 75 3. Link Budget (in Uplink) and Cell Range Calculation UMTS Radio Network Planning Fundamentals Duration: 4h00
  • 76. 76 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 3. Link Budget (in Uplink) and Cell Range Calculation Session presentation  Objective:  to be able to calculate the cell range for a given service by doing a manual link budget in UL.  to be able to describe the typical UMTS radio effects in UL and in DL.  Program: 3.1 Inputs for a manual UL link budget 3.2 UMTS propagation model 3.3 UMTS shadowing and fast fading modeling 3.4 Calculation of Node B reference sensitivity 3.5 UMTS interference modeling 3.6 Calculation of cell range
  • 77. 77 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 3. Link Budget (in Uplink) and Cell Range Calculation 3.1 Inputs for a manual UL link budget  Objective:  to be able to define the necessary inputs for an UL link budget (in order to prepare cell range calculation).
  • 78. 78 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 3.1 Inputs for a manual UL link budget Principle for Cell Range calculation  We consider a link budget in UL (assuming that the coverage is UL limited).  It is known that:  the pathloss Lpath depends on the distance UE-NodeB d (see §3.2).  Lpath = MAPL for d=Cell Range.  We calculate MAPLk for the limiting service k in UL: Node B UE            dBGainsdBLossesdBMargins dBmysensitivitReference_dBmEIRPdBMAPL kNodeB,UEk    EIRPUE (see §2.3) Reference_sensitivityNodeB,k (see §3.4) d=Cell Range
  • 79. 79 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 3.1 Inputs for a manual UL link budget Inputs for the UL link budget Margins Shadowing margin* see §3.3 Fast fading margin see §3.3 Interference margin see §3.5 Losses Feeders and connectorsNodeB typically 3dB (it depends on the feeder length..) Body loss see §2.2 Penetration loss (indoor margin) see §2.2 Gains* Antenna gainNodeB typically 18dBi *Soft/softer handover gain is included in the shadowing margin (see §3.3)
  • 80. 80 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 3. Link Budget (in Uplink) and Cell Range Calculation 3.2 UMTS propagation model  Objective:  to be able to describe the parameters involved in UL/DL wave propagation.  to find out the relationship between the pathloss and the distance UE-NodeB
  • 81. 81 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 3.2 UMTS propagation model How to calculate the Pathloss Lpath?  For UMTS link budget calculations, we have to find out the value of the Pathloss Lpath between the NodeB and the UE using:  The free-space formula: It cannot be used in mobile networks such as UMTS, because the Fresnel ellipsoid is obstructed in the environment of the UE over a big distance (due to low height above the ground of the UE).  Empirical formulas: The most effective approach is based on the classical COST 231-Hata formula, extended for the usage on higher frequencies or additional propagation effects. e.g. Alcatel selected as UMTS propagation model a slightly modified COST 231-Hata model, called the Standard Propagation Model*.  In UMTS radio environment, the propagation waves are subject to complex mechanisms:  Free Space Propagation  Reflections/Refractions/Scattering  Diffraction  Slow fading (Shadowing)  Fast Fading (Multipath fading) *see Appendix for the relationship between COST231- Hata and the Alcatel Standard Propagation Model
  • 82. 82 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 3.2 UMTS propagation model Alcatel Standard Propagation Model  Lpath formula: Important: this formula takes into account  free space propagation, reflections /refractions/scattering and diffraction  not slow and fast fading effects (never considered in propagation model, but as margins see §3.3)           (m)UEofheightantennaeffective:H (m)NodeBofheightantennaeffective:H (m)UE-NodeBdistance:d *with eff eff UE NodeB path            clutterfKHfKHdK ndiffractiofKHKdKK L clutterUENodeB NodeB effeff eff )(loglog )(loglog 65 4321 *see next slides for the values of the 7 multiplying factors K1, ..., K6, Kclutter and the calculations of the 3 functions f(diffraction), f(HUEeff), f(clutter)
  • 83. 83 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 3.2 UMTS propagation model Alcatel Standard Propagation Model  Can we consider for the antenna height in the Lpath formula the height above the sea? the height above the ground?  What is the effective antenna height of NodeB and UE?  Typical values for the antenna height of NodeB and UE above the ground level are: HNodeB above ground = 20-25 m for urban and 30-35 m for suburban HUE above ground = 1.5 m  These values and the topographic information between NodeB and UE are used to calculate an effective antenna height HNodeB eff and HUE eff , in order to model the real effect of antenna height on the pathloss.  The effective height and the height above the ground :  are equal on a flat terrain (of course)  can be very different on a hilly terrain Answer: Heightabovethesea:no(Mexicoisn‟tbetterthanShanghaiduetoitshigheraltitude!) Heightaboveground:itiscanbeastrongapproximationonahillyterrain.Indeedassumea20mantennaislocatedonthetopofa500mhill.Theheightabove groundis20m,buttheantennaheightshoudbe520m.
  • 84. 84 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 3.2 UMTS propagation model Alcatel Standard Propagation Model Multiplying factors (directly derived from COST-Hata model) Name Value Factor related to Comment K1 23.6 (for f= 2140MHz) constant offset used to take into account free space propagation and reflections/refractions/scattering mechanisms for a standard clutter class. K2 44.9 d same comment as K1. K3 5.83 HNodeB eff same comment as K1. K5 -6.55 d , HNodeB eff same comment as K1. K6 0 HUEeff same comment as K1. As the contribution of f(HUEeff) is close to zero, K6 is set to zero.  Propagation model parameters (1)
  • 85. 85 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 3.2 UMTS propagation model Alcatel Standard Propagation Model Multiplying factors (not included in COST-Hata model) Name Value Factor related to Comment K4 1 f(diffracti on) used to take into account diffraction mechanisms see further comments on f(diffraction). Kclutter 1 f (clutter) used to take into account the necessary correction compared to the standard clutter class see further comments on f(clutter).  Propagation model parameters (2)
  • 86. 86 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 3.2 UMTS propagation model Alcatel Standard Propagation Model Clutter Class* Clutter Loss1 buildings -1.0 2 dense urban -3.0 3 mean urban -6.0 4 suburban -8.0 5 residential -11.0 6 village -14.0 7 rural -20.0 8 industrial -14.0 9 open in urban -12.0 10 forest -9.0 11 parks -15.0 12 open area -24.0 13 water -27.0  Propagation model parameters (3)  clutter losses based on experienced values *BE CAREFUL: do not confuse clutter classes and environment classes (see §2.2)
  • 87. 87 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 3.2 UMTS propagation model Alcatel Standard Propagation Model  Calculation of the diffraction loss f(diffraction) Approximation: an obstacle of height H between NodeB and UE is modeled as an infinite conductive plane of height H.  Case 1: one obstacle Node B UE  What is the diffraction loss in case 1 (use the curve on the next page)? r h0 Fresnel Ellipsoid (first order) Infinite conductive plane H Answer: h0=rv=-1f(diffraction)=14dB
  • 88. 88 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 3.2 UMTS propagation model Alcatel Standard Propagation Model Knife-edge diffraction function -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 -9 -8 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 Clearance of Fresnel ellipsoid (v) F(v)[dB]  Calculation of the diffraction loss f(diffraction)  Case 1: one obstacle (continuing)  Diffraction loss for one obstacle: v: clearance parameter, v=-h0/r r: Fresnel ellipsoid radius, h0: height of obstacle above line of sight (LOS) Note: h0 = 0  v =0  F(v) = 6 dB
  • 89. 89 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 3.2 UMTS propagation model Alcatel Standard Propagation Model  Calculation of the diffraction loss f(diffraction)  Case 2: several obstacles Node B UE  The diffraction loss in case 2 is not easy to calculate: it is not equal to the sum of the contributions of each obstacle alone (it is usually smaller).  Different calculations methods can be applied based on the General method for one or more obstacles described in ITU 526-5 recommendations, e.g Deygout, Epstein-Peterson or Millington
  • 90. 90 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 3.2 UMTS propagation model Alcatel Standard Propagation Model  Calculation of f(clutter):  In the Lpath formula, the multiplying factors K1,..,K6 are calculated for a standard clutter class: f(clutter) is a correction factor compared to the standard clutter class.  f(clutter) is calculated taking into account a clutter loss* average of all pixels located in the line of sight and in a circle around the UE (the circle radius, called Max distance, is typically 200m). Pixel Node BUE Water clutter class pixel  clutter loss = -27 dB (typically) Forest clutter class pixel  clutter loss = -9 dB (typically) *(also called clutter or morpho correction factor) in this example, 3 pixels are considered to calculate f(clutter)
  • 91. 91 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 3.2 UMTS propagation model Alcatel Standard Propagation Model  Calculation of f(clutter):  How are provided the clutter loss values?  based on experienced values: simple, accuracy of +/-3 dB (see previously)  based on calibration measurements: complex and expensive way, but accuracy of +/-1 dB.  Is it possible to reuse GSM1800 calibration measurements(in order to save costs of expensive measurement campaigns)? The difference between 1850 MHz (middle of GSM1800 band) and 2140 MHz (middle of DL UMTS FDD band) involves:  fixed offset of 0.9dB for all clutters taken into account in K1: K1=24.5 (COST-Hata value for f=2140MHz) – 0.9dB = 23.6  no significant correction offset per clutter except if large vegetation is penetrated Conclusion: GSM 1800 calibrations can be reused. Only for clutter type mainly covered by vegetation, additional calibration is recommended.
  • 92. 92 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 3.2 UMTS propagation model Alcatel Standard Propagation Model  Calculation of f(clutter) (simplified*):  all the values are negative and are given compared to the “standard clutter class” for which f(clutter) =0 dB (the worst case)  Example: Clutter Class f(clutter) (simplified*) Dense urban -3 Urban -6 Sub-urban -8 Rural -20 *Assumption: homogeneous clutter class around the UE
  • 93. 93 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 3.2 UMTS propagation model Other Propagation Models  Other propagation models can be applied, especially for micro-cell planning:  e.g. Walfish-Ikegami or Ray-Tracing  necessary to have building and road databases (expensive)
  • 94. 94 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 3.2 UMTS propagation model Alcatel Standard Propagation Model (simplified formula) Clutter class dUE- NodeB [km] C1 [dB] C2 x log(dUE-NodeB) [dB] Lpath [dB] Dense Urban 0.5 1 2 Suburban 0.5 1 2 *Assumptions: -HNodeBeff=30m -no diffraction -homogeneous clutter class around the UE  Exercise:  Let‟s consider the simplified* formula of the Alcatel Standard Propagation Model: Lpath[dB] = C1 + C2 x log(dUE-NodeB[km])  Can you complete the table?
  • 95. 95 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 3. Link Budget (in Uplink) and Cell Range Calculation 3.3 UMTS shadowing and fast fading modeling  Objective:  to be able to find out the UL margins due to fading effects (fast fading and shadowing)  to be able to describe the fading effects in UL and in DL
  • 96. 96 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 3.3 UMTS shadowing and fast fading model Definition of fading(1)  Let‟s consider a the received power level C of a UE at the cell edge, taking into account the pathloss, all gains, all losses and all margins, except shadowing and fast fading margins. Node BUE EIRPUE Reference_SensitivityNodeB,k= Cthreshold (fixed value for a given service k) UE received power C Time Cmean =Cthreshold (fixed value) UE received power C oscillates around a mean value Cmean equal to Cthreshold Cell Range
  • 97. 97 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 3.3 UMTS shadowing and fast fading model Definition of fading(2) Shadowing (or Slow Fading or long- term fading ) Fast Fading (or Multipath fading or small-scale fading or Rayleigh fading) Cmean Cthreshold (fixed value) Time UE received power C Shadowing and fast fading margins are necessary to maintain the UE received power C above the fixed Cthreshold during the most part of the time
  • 98. 98 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 3.3 UMTS shadowing and fast fading model Shadowing (1)  Cause: Shadowing holes appear in the received power C when the UE is in the “shadow” of large objects (size>10m)  Modeling: The received power C can be modeled as a Log-normal distribution with:  a mean value Cmean  a standard deviation , typically =7-8 dB (clutter dependent) Note: GSM1800 calibrations can be reused for the  values. Signal distribution Probability std dev=8 dB std dev = 4dB std dev= 2dB std dev= 6dB Cmean
  • 99. 99 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 3.3 UMTS shadowing and fast fading model Shadowing (2)  Definition of reliability level and reliability margin:  Reliability level* =% of time for the received power C to be above Cthreshold (for a sufficient observation time period) at a given pixel  Reliability marginx% =Cmean offset compared to the fixed Cthreshold to get a reliability level of x% Wanted reliability level=50%  Reliability margin50%=0dB  Cmean = Cthreshold UE received power C Time Cmean =Cthreshold (fixed value) UE received power C Time Cthreshold (fixed value) Cmean reliability margin 50 % 95 % Wanted reliability level=95%  Reliability margin95%=10dB (for =6) Cmean = Cthreshold +10dB (see next slide for calculation of Reliability marginx%) *also called local coverage probability or coverage probability per pixel
  • 100. 100 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 3.3 UMTS shadowing and fast fading model Shadowing (3) Reliability level (also called local coverage probability or coverage probability per pixel) 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% -20 -10 0 10 20 F = (Fmed - Fthr) /dB  Reliability margin95.2%=10dB 95,2 % 50% probability for Fmed=Fthr Curve for a standard deviation =6dB k - -0.5 0 1 1.3 1.65 2 2.33 + Reliability level 0% 30% 50% 84% 90% 95% 97.7% 99% 100% Reliability margin*=k * be careful! the reliability margin (defined above) corresponds to the GSM shadowing margin, but not to the UMTS shadowing margin (see further)  Calculation of reliability margin*:  It depends on the reliability level and on the standard deviation 
  • 101. 101 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 3.3 UMTS shadowing and fast fading model Shadowing (4)  Values for the standard deviation  :  Power level [dBm] (e.g CPICH RSCP):  it can be modeled as a log-normal variable with a standard variation  (clutter dependent value, typically 7dB or 8dB)  Ratio [dB] (e.g CPICH Ec/Io or UL/DL Eb/No)  it can normally NOT be modeled as a log-normal variable, because the numerator and the denominator are modeled as separate log-normal variables with separate standard deviations.  Approximation: a ratio is modeled as a log-normal variable with a standard deviation  which is estimated according to the correlation between the numerator and the denominator:   CPICH Ec/Io : strong correlation between shadowing effect on Ec and shadowing effect on Io.  CPICH Ec/Io is constant (Field value:3dB)   DL Eb/No: same as CPICH Ec/No   UL Eb/No: no specific correlation between Eb and No.  UL Eb/No is a clutter dependent value as for CPICH RSCP
  • 102. 102 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 3.3 UMTS shadowing and fast fading model Shadowing (5) Reliability level=87% Reliability level=98% Reliability level=95% Cell coverage probability=95%  Definition of area (cell) coverage probability:  If the reliability levels are provided at each pixel of a area (or a cell), it is easy to calculate the Area(or cell) coverage probability as the average of all reliability levels.  Area (cell) coverage probability=% of time for the received power C to be above Cthreshold (for a sufficient observation time period) in average over the area(cell). Average
  • 103. 103 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 3.3 UMTS shadowing and fast fading model Shadowing (6)  Definition of shadowing margin:  If the area (cell) coverage probability is provided (from the radio network requirement, see §2.4), it is possible to find out the reliability levels in the area (cell). Reliability level=? Reliability Margincell edge=? Reliability level=? Reliability level=? Cell coverage probability=95%  For a UE at cell edge: Shadowing margin* = Reliability Margincell edge – Soft/Softer HO Gain *the UMTS shadowing margin (defined above) is NOT the same as the GSM shadowing margin(=Reliability Margin)
  • 104. 104 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 3.3 UMTS shadowing and fast fading model Shadowing (7)  How to calculate the shadowing margin for a received power C?  It depends on:  Wanted cell coverage probability  Clutter class of the UE  UE soft/softer handover state and correlation factor between UE radio links (0=no correlation, typically 0.5)  Examples in uplink (Source: Alcatel simulations) Note:in case of soft/er handover (it is typically the case for a UE at cell edge), the soft/er handover gain partially compensates for the additional path loss caused by shadowing. Shadowing margin (dB) (no SHO) UL Shadowing margin (dB) (SHO, 2 legs) Cell coverage probability = 6 = 8 = 12 = 6 = 8 = 12 95 % 5.9 8.7 14.6 3.1 4.8 8.5 90 % 3.3 5.4 10.0 0.6 2.1 6.4
  • 105. 105 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 3.3 UMTS shadowing and fast fading model Fast Fading (1)  Cause: summation and cancellation of different signal components of the same signal which travel on multiple paths  Modeling  Rayleigh distributed fading with correlation distance /2 Note: =15 cm for f=2GHz  positive fades are less strong than negative fades (unequal power variance) Rayleigh Small-Scale Fading Rayleigh PDF
  • 106. 106 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 3.3 UMTS shadowing and fast fading model UL Fast Fading (2)  How to compensate for fast fading losses in UPLINK?  Case 1: slow moving UE (0-50km/h) Power control (inner loop at 1500Hz) compensates fairly well with a TX power increase for the fast fading losses in the serving cell, but:  It works only if the UE has enough TX power Power Control Headroom (called Fast Fading Margin) necessary, especially for the UEs at the cell edge (see further)  Side effect: increase of f value (little i value) for the surrounding cells (see further)  Case 2: fast moving UE (>50km/h)  Power Control loop is too slow to compensate for fast fading  A margin is necessary to compensate for the fast fading losses: this margin is not explicit, but implicitly included in the (Eb/No)req values (see §2.2)
  • 107. 107 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 3.3 UMTS shadowing and fast fading model UL Fast Fading (3)  How to calculate Power Control Headroom (Fast Fading Margin) for slow moving UEs (Case 1)?  Fast fading depends on:  required BER (or BLER)  UE speed  Multipath environment (Vehicular A, Pedestrian A…)  UE soft/softer handover state and power difference between UE radio links  Example for uplink (Source: Alcatel simulations) Fast fading margin (dB) for several target BLER Multipath environment 10-1 10-2 10-3 10-4 Dense urban, urban, suburban (Veh. 3km/h) 0.6 1.7 2.5 3.3 Rural (Veh. 50 km/h) -0.3 -0.3 -0.3 -0.2 Assumption: Soft handover considered with 2 links and 3dB power difference between the 2 links
  • 108. 108 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 3.3 UMTS shadowing and fast fading model UL Fast Fading (4) - 5 - 10 - 15 0 5 10 15 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 Seconds, 3km/h dB Channel Transmitted power Node-B received power Average transmit power Power rise  What about the side-effect for slow moving UE (Case 1)? Fast fading in serving cell and in neighboring cells are not correlated:  impact on neighboring cells due to UE TX power increase which causes additional UL extra-cell interference (called average power rise)  increase of f value (little i value)
  • 109. 109 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 3.3 UMTS shadowing and fast fading model DL Fast Fading (5)  How to compensate for fast fading losses in DOWNLINK? Case 1: slow moving UE (0-50km/h) As in uplink, power control compensates fairly well with a TX power increase the loss due to fast fading in the serving cell, but:  Power Control Headroom (called Fast Fading Margin) necessary for NodeB, but much smaller than in uplink, because:  NodeB TX power is a shared power resource: the NodeB has to compensate channel variations due to fast fading for all UEs in the cell  There is a very low probability that all UEs be in a fading dip at the same time Typical value: 2 dB on the overall available power Case 2: fast moving UE (>50km/h) same as in UL (see previous slides)
  • 110. 110 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 3. Link Budget (in Uplink) and Cell Range Calculation 3.4 Calculation of Node B reference sensitivity  Objective:  to be able to calculate the reference sensitivity for a given service bit rate, BER, UE speed and UE multipath environment
  • 111. 111 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 3.4 Calculation of Node B reference sensitivity Definition of Reference_Sensitivity  The received Eb/No for a given UE at the NodeB reference point must apply: Eb/No[dB] > (Eb/No)req[dB] Note:  Eb/No=C/(I+N – C) + PG (definition, see §1.3)  NodeB reference point=NodeB antenna connector (see 3GPP 25.104) [dB] N N-CI N[dBm][dB][dB]– PG(Eb/No) )[dBm]N-C(I[dB][dB]– PG(Eb/No)[dBm]C req req min minmin    Reference_Sensitivity [dBm] defined with reference to N  it is service dependent Interference Margin [dB] = Noise Rise [dB] –10log{1+ (Ec/No)req} see §3.5 for more details Node B UE As a consequence, the minimum received power Cmin shall apply: NodeB antenna connector Feeder Antenna
  • 112. 112 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 3.4 Calculation of Node B reference sensitivity Calculation of Reference_Sensitivity with:  N=-108.1dBm+ NFNodeB =-104.1dBm (assuming NFNodeB=4dB)  PG is the Processing Gain (service dependent):  PG=25dB for speech 12.2k  PG=17.8dB for CS 64k  PG=10dB for PS 384k  (Eb/No)req is a fixed value (see §2.2) Note: (Eb/No)req depends in UE speed and UE multipath environment (Vehicular A 50km/h...) in order to take into account the multipath diversity effect:  gain due to multipath combining in the rake receiver  loss due to multipath fading holes (see §3.4) N[dBm][dB][dB]– PG(Eb/No)[dBm]nsitivityference_Se req Re
  • 113. 113 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 3. Link Budget (in Uplink) and Cell Range Calculation 3.5 UMTS interference modeling  Objective:  to be able to calculate the UL interference margin for a given traffic load  to be able to describe the interference effects in UL and in DL
  • 114. 114 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 3.5 UMTS interference modeling Calculation of interference margin  The NodeB reference_sensitivity is defined with reference to the fixed received „thermal noise at receiver“ N: it is necessary to apply a correction factor, called Interference Margin in order to take into account the effect of the movable received interference I: }linear(Ec/No){e [dB] –Noise Risin [dB]ce MInterferen req ][1log10arg  with:  Noise Rise [dB] depends on the interference level I (ie on the traffic load):  I=Cmin  Noise Rise ~ 0,2dB  I=N  Noise Rise=3dB  I=3N Noise Rise=6dB  {10 log {1+ (Ec/No)req[linear]}  typically between 0.1dB (for speech 12.2k) and 0.8dB (for PS 384k)  small value because (Ec/No)req (linear value) <<1 (the useful signal level is always far below the noise floor in W-CDMA )  it can be neglected except for very high bit rates
  • 115. 115 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 3.5 UMTS interference modeling Noise Rise and Traffic load(1)  Definition: Cj[dBm]: received power of the transmitter j (UEj in UL, NodeBj in DL) Xj[%]: load factor for j defined as the contribution of j to the total noise (I+N) Cj=Xj x (I+N) X[%]: load factor defined as the sum of the contributions for all transmitters XUL=sumall UEs in the network(Xj) ; XDL=sumall NodeBs in the network(Xj)  We can demonstrate that: X [dB]Noise Rise         1 1 log10 Example in Uplink 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 0 11 21 31 41 51 61 71 81 91 100 XUL (%) 50% of cell load (3dB of interference) max loading : 75% NoiseRisel(dB)
  • 116. 116 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 3.5 UMTS interference modeling Noise Rise and Traffic load(2) Uplink Noise Rise and XUL are cell specific parameters (useful to characterize UL cell load) XUL can tend toward 100% (just by adding new UEs in the network)  Noise Rise can tend towards infinity  the system can be unstable. Downlink Noise Rise and XDL are UE specific parameters (not convenient) XDL can not tend toward 100% (because the TX power of NodeBs has a fix limit  Noise Rise can not tend towards infinity  the system can not be unstable.
  • 117. 117 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 3.5 UMTS interference modeling Traffic load and UL load factor (1)  Relationship between XUL and traffic load for one cell:  Does XUL depend on:  the traffic mix?  the user distribution in the serving cell?  the user distribution in the surrounding cells?  XUL can be calculated analytically with the assumption that Iextra=f x Iintra with f constant value: Answer: DoesXULdependon: -thetrafficmix?yes(duetodifferent(Eb/No)reqvaluesandPGvalues) -theuserdistributionintheservingcell?no(duetopowercontrol) -theuserdistributioninthesurroundingcells?yes,butthemostpollutingusersinthesurroundingcellsshouldstoptopollutbytakingtheservingcellintheiractive set(soft/softerhandover)andbeingthereforepowercontrolledbytheservingcell     cellservingtheinusersofnumberNwith FactorActivity rateChip RateBitService No Eb1 FactorActivity rateChip RateBitService No Eb f)(1[%]X N 1k k k kreq, k k kreq, UL               
  • 118. 118 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 3.5 UMTS interference modeling Traffic load and UL load factor (2)  XUL typical values (commonly used):  Very low loadXUL=5%Noise Rise=0.2dB  Medium loadXUL=50%Noise Rise=3dB(typical default value)  High loadXUL=75%  Noise Rise=6dB (at the limit of system instability)
  • 119. 119 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 3.5 UMTS interference modeling What about DL load factor?  As Noise Rise and XDL are not convenient to characterize the DL cell load, another parameter is commonly used:  Orthogonality effect  In downlink, the orthogonality of channelization codes reduces the intra- cell interference Iintra: Iintra [W]=(1-) x sumDL users in the cell (Ci) with  Orthogonality Factor  =0no orthogonality Iintra= sumDL users in the cell (Ci)  =1perfect orthogonality Iintra= 0 W  3GPP values for Orthogonality Factor :  =0.6 for Vehicular A  =0.94 for Pedestrian A Note: there is no orthogonality effect in UL because the codes of UL physical channels come from different UEs and are therefore not synchronized each over. cell[W]theforNodeBpowerTXMaximum cell[W]theforNodeBpowerTX [%]factorloadpowerDL 
  • 120. 120 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 3. Link Budget (in Uplink) and Cell Range Calculation 3.6 Calculation of cell range  Objective:  to be able to calculate the MAPL with a manual UL link budget and to deduce the cell range
  • 121. 121 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 3.6 Calculation of cell range Exercise: MAPLUL calculation (1)  Fixed assumptions:  Antenna gainUE + Internal lossesUE = 0dB  Antenna gainNodeB=18dBi  Feeder and Connector losses=3dB  Thermal noise=-108.1 dBm and NFNodeB=4dB  EXAMPLE 1:  Service/UE mobility assumptions are given (see table EXAMPLE 1)  Can you complete the table EXAMPLE 1?  EXAMPLE 2:  EIRP, Reference_sensitivity, margins, losses and MAPL are given (see table EXAMPLE 2)  Can you find the service/UE mobility assumptions?
  • 122. 122 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 3.6 Calculation of cell range Exercise: MAPLUL calculation (2) EXAMPLE 1— UL link budget for:  UE power class 4  Speech12.2kbits/s  Vehicular A 3km/h  UE in soft(or softer) handover state with 2 radio links  Deep Indoor  Cell coverage probability=95%, =8  UL load factor=50% Value in Comment f.a.=fixed assumption (see previously) A. On the transmitter side A1 UE TX power dBm see §2.3 A2 Antenna gainUE + Internal lossesUE dB f.a. A3 EIRPUE dBm A1+A2 B. On the receiver side B1 (Eb/No)req dB see §2.2 B2 Processing Gain dB see §1.3 B3 NFNodeB dB f.a. B4 Thermal noise dBm f.a. B5 Reference_SensitivityNodeB dBm B1-B2+B3+B4 (continuing on next slide)
  • 123. 123 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 3.6 Calculation of cell range Exercise: MAPLUL calculation (3) EXAMPLE 1— continuing Value in Comment f.a.=fixed assumption (see previously) C. Margins C1 Shadowing margin dB see §3.3 C2 Fast fading margin dB see §3.3 C3 Noise Rise dB see §3.5 C4 10 log {1+ (Ec/No)req} dB see §3.5 C5 Interference margin dB C3-C4 D. Losses D1 Feeders and connectors dB f.a. D2 Body loss dB see §2.2 D3 Penetration loss (indoor margin) dB see §2.2 E. Gains E1 Antenna gainNodeB dBi f.a. MAPL dB =?
  • 124. 124 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 3.6 Calculation of cell range Exercise: MAPLUL calculation (4) EXAMPLE 2— UL link budget for:  UE power class ?  Service: ?  Multipath Environment: ?  UE in soft(or softer) handover state?  Indoor margin:?  Cell coverage probability=?, =?  UL load factor=? Value in Comment f.a.=fixed assumption (see previously) A. On the transmitter side A1 UE TX power 24 dBm see §2.3 A2 Antenna gainUE + Internal lossesUE 0 dB f.a. A3 EIRPUE 24 dBm A1+A2 B. On the receiver side B1 (Eb/No)req 3.2 dB see §2.2 B2 Processing Gain 17.8 dB see §1.3 B3 NFNodeB 4 dB f.a. B4 Thermal noise -108.1 dBm f.a. B5 Reference_SensitivityNodeB -118.7 dBm B1-B2+B3+B4 (continuing on next slide)
  • 125. 125 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 3.6 Calculation of cell range Exercise: MAPLUL calculation (5) EXAMPLE 2— continuing Value in Comment f.a.=fixed assumption (see previously) C. Margins C1 Shadowing margin 4.8 dB see §3.3 C2 Fast fading margin -0.3 dB see §3.3 C3 Noise Rise 3 dB see §3.5 C4 10 log {1+ (Ec/No)req} 0.1 dB see §3.5 C5 Interference margin 2.9 dB C3+C4 D. Losses D1 Feeders and connectors 3 dB f.a. D2 Body loss 3 dB see §2.2 D3 Penetration loss (indoor margin) 8 dB see §2.2 E. Gains E1 Antenna gainNodeB 18 dBi f.a. MAPL 139.3 dB
  • 126. 126 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 3.6 Calculation of cell range Exercise: cell range calculation (6)  Can you complete the following table by using the simplified formula of the Alcatel Standard propagation model (see exercise in §3.2)? Limiting Service Clutter class Cell Range [km] Speech 12.2k Dense urban Urban Suburban Rural PS64 Dense urban Urban Suburban Rural
  • 127. All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 127 4. Initial Radio Network Design UMTS Radio Network Planning Fundamentals Duration: 4h00
  • 128. 128 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 4. Initial Radio Network Design Session presentation  Objective:  to be able to have the theoretical background to create an initial network design using a RNP tool*: the aim is to fulfill the radio network requirements with lowest possible costs.  Program: 4.1 Positioning the sites on the map 4.2 Coverage Prediction for CPICH RSCP 4.3 UMTS Traffic Simulations 4.4 Coverage Predictions for CPICH Ec/Io and DL/UL services 4.5 “Traffic emulation approach” or “fixed load approach”? * the aim of this training is not to learn how to use A9155 RNP tool. There is another training course for that purpose (3FL 11195 ABAA Alcatel 9155 RNP Operation)
  • 129. 129 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 4. Initial Radio Network Design Overview Cell range calculation (see §3) Positioning the sites on the map (§4.1) CPICH RSCP coverage prediction (§4.2) Traffic simulation (§4.3) Coverage predictions(§4.4) - CPICH Ec/Io -UL Eb/No -DL Eb/No Basic radio network parameter definition (§5) RNP requirements fulfilled? Fixed load default values Traffic parameters Propagation model parameters Network design parameters Basic radio network optimization (§6) Traffic map Traffic emulation approach Fixed load approach Change network design parameters Initial Radio Network Design YES NO RNP requirements fulfilled? NO
  • 130. 130 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 4. Initial Radio Network Design 4.1 Positioning the sites on the map  Objective:  to be able to get a coarse positioning of NodeB sites on the planning area and to apply a UMTS parameter set for network design parameters.
  • 131. 131 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 4.1 Positioning the sites on the map Calculation of inter-site distance  Manual Method:  Description: 1. calculate MAPLUL for the limiting service by performing a manual UL link budget (see §3) 2. deduce the cell range and the inter-site distance: Inter-site distance = 1.5 x Cell Range for a 3-sectored site  Advantage: quick, because it can be performed by hand even if RNP tool and digital maps are not available yet.  Inconvenient: imprecise, because topographic data and detailed clutter data are not taken into account.  Typical inter-site distance: Dense urban: 350-450 m, Urban: 500-650 m, Sub-urban:900 -1200 m, Rural: 2000 - 3000 m
  • 132. 132 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 4.1 Positioning the sites on the map Site map  The sites are positioned in the planning area roughly respecting the inter-site distance for each clutter class:  Existing GSM sites can be reused  The sites should be positioned close to the dense traffic zones (see traffic map in §2.2) Planning area  The initial site map is regularly updated based on site acquisition and site survey results. Note: At this stage, search radii may already be issued, in order to start the long process of site acquisition Site map
  • 133. 133 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 4.1 Positioning the sites on the map Network Design Parameters (1)  .Network design parameters – site wise Typical value Comment Number of UL/DL hardware resources R2: 2BB boards R3: 4 BB boards see §2.3 Number of sectors 3
  • 134. 134 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 4.1 Positioning the sites on the map Network Design Parameters (2)  .Network design parameters – sector wise Typical value Comment Number of carriers 1 TMA usage no Antenna parameters model 65° horizontal beam width azimuth 0°, 120° and 240° 3 sectored site height 20-25m for urban 30-35 m for suburban gain 18dBi downtilt 6° mechanical +electrical downtilt RXdiv yes TXdiv no DL feeder and connector losses 3dB see §3.1 UL feeder and connector losses 3dB see §3.1 Noise Figure 4dB see §2.3
  • 135. 135 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 4.1 Positioning the sites on the map Network Design Parameters (3)  .Network design parameters – cell wise also called Cell Parameters Typical value Comment see Appendix for a complete description of Cell Parameters. Here are only described the cell parameters which have an impact on traffic simulations and coverage predictions (§4) Max. total power (for the cell) 43dBm see §2.3 CPICH (Pilot) power 33dBm 10% of Total power Other common physical channels power 35dBm CPICH power + 2dB AS threshold 3dB maximum threshold between the CPICH Ec/Io of the best transmitter and the CPICH Ec/Io of another transmitter so that this transmitter becomes part of the UE active set
  • 136. 136 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 4. Initial Radio Network Design 4.2 Coverage Prediction for CPICH RSCP (=CCPICH=Pilot level= Pilot field strength)  Objective:  to be able to check that the CPICH RSCP coverage probability is in line with the network requirements  perform, interpret and improve a CPICH RSCP coverage prediction
  • 137. 137 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 4.2 Coverage Prediction for CPICH RSCP (=CCPICH =Pilot level) How to perform the prediction?(1) Calculation Radius of NodeBj Calculation Area of NodeBj NodeBj Virtual UE scanning the Calculation Areas of all NodeBs  Step1: enter the prediction inputs e.g. definition of Calculation Areas Planning Area
  • 138. 138 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 Node B Virtual UE CPICH TX power CPICH RSCP(=CPICH RX power) No shadowing (Shadowing margin=0dB in this step) at each pixel*: CPICH RSCP[dBm] = CPICH TX power[dBm] +GainNodeB antenna [dB] – LossNodeB feeder cables [dB] – Lpath [dB]  Step2: the tool calculates the CPICH RSCP values for the virtual UE (without considering shadowing effect) *The calculation is performed for a given resolution, typically at each pixel of the Calculation Areas (see Step1) 4.2 Coverage Prediction for CPICH RSCP (=CCPICH =Pilot level) How to perform the prediction?(2)
  • 139. 139 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 4.2 Coverage Prediction for CPICH RSCP (=CCPICH =Pilot level) How to perform the prediction?(3)  Step3: the tool calculates the reliability level for each CPICH RSCP value (calculated in Step2) in order to consider the shadowing effect (at each pixel)  CPICH RSCP- (CPICH RSCP)minimum=Reliability Margin with (CPICH RSCP)minimum =fixed value Reliability Margin = f(Reliability Level, Standard deviation )   is given by the clutter map  we can deduce a CPICH RSCP reliability level (per pixel) Example: assume CPICH RSCP=-94 dBm, (CPICH RSCP)minimum =-104dBm, =6dB  What is the reliability level for this CPICH RSCP value (use the curve in§3.3)? Answer: ReliabilityMargin=10dBReliabilitylevel=95%(=6dB)
  • 140. 140 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04  From the radio network requirements (see §2.4), it is known:  (CPICH RSCP)minimum  required Area Coverage Probability (typically 95%)  Area Coverage Probability:  it is the average of all Reliability Levels per pixel (calculated in Step3) over the Planning Area  it can be calculated by a tool and has to be compared with the required Area Coverage Probability 4.2 Coverage Prediction for CPICH RSCP (=CCPICH =Pilot level) How to interpret the prediction? Reliability level=80% Reliability level=98% Reliability level=95% Area coverage probability>required value? if yes, network design is OK else network design has to be improvedReliability level=50% Reliability level=99% Reliability level=98% Reliability level=95% Reliability level=70% Reliability level=98% Planning Area
  • 141. 141 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 1. What happens if you have a bad CPICH RSCP coverage in an area? 2. Does the CPICH RSCP coverage depend on traffic load? 3. Which are the input parameters for the CPICH RSCP coverage prediction? 4. Shall the calculation radius be greater or smaller than the inter-site distance? 5. Make some suggestions to improve the prediction results 4.2 Coverage Prediction for CPICH RSCP (=CCPICH =Pilot level) Exercise
  • 142. 142 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 4. Initial Radio Network Design 4.3 UMTS Traffic Simulations  Objective:  to be able to check that the network capacity is in line with the traffic demand by performing traffic simulations with a RNP tool
  • 143. 143 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 4.3 UMTS traffic simulations Why do we need traffic simulations?(1) Traffic Map (see§2) Traffic demand modeling Can the capacity cope with the demand in UL and in DL? Site map (see §4.1) Network capacity modeling  it is necessary to calculate the UL/DL network capacity to check that it is in line with the traffic demand.
  • 144. 144 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 4.3 UMTS traffic simulations Why do we need traffic simulations?(2)  How to calculate the UL/DL network capacity?  Problem: the capacity depends on the user distribution (at least in DL)  Solution: a traffic simulation can be performed (= a snapshot of UMTS network at a given time, one possible scenario among infinite number of scenarii). User distribution 1 User distribution 2 384k 12.2k Cell NodeB 12.2k 384k (in outage) Cell NodeB Suburban environment class  Network capacity 1 > Network capacity 2 (for the same traffic map)
  • 145. 145 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 4.3 UMTS traffic simulations How to perform a traffic simulation?(1) Traffic simulation inputs typical value Comment Traffic simulation parameters (only used for traffic simulations) Maximum UL load factor 75% limit of system instability. If this threshold is overcome, some UEs are put in outage. Number of iterations 100 RNP tool dependent values. Trade off between precision and calculation time Convergence criteria 3% Orthogonality factor (per clutter) 0.6 0.6 for Vehicular A ; 0.94 for Pedestrian A Traffic mapsee §2.2 Propagation model parameterssee §3.2 Network design parameterssee §4.1  Step 1: enter the traffic simulation inputs
  • 146. 146 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 4.3 UMTS traffic simulations How to perform a traffic simulation?(2)  Step 2: the RNP tool provides a realistic user distribution  Used input: traffic map  The RNP tool provides a snapshot of the network at a given time (based on the traffic map and Monte-Carlo random algorithm):  a distribution of users (with terminal used, speed and multipath environment) in the planning area  a distribution of services among the users  a distribution of activity factors among the speech users in order to simulate the DTX (Discontinuous Transmission) feature Example: Mobile phone Vehicular 50km/h Speech 12.2k (active) PDA Vehicular 3km/h PS384 24 users
  • 147. 147 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 4.3 UMTS traffic simulations How to perform a traffic simulation?(3)  Step 3: the RNP tool checks the UL/DL service availability for each user  Used inputs: user distribution (see Step1) +Propagation model parameters+Network design parameters+ traffic simulations parameters  UL/DL link loss calculations are performed iteratively due to (fast) power control mechanisms in order to get:  needed UE TX power for each UE  needed NodeB TX power for each cell  Each of the following conditions is checked: if one of them is not fulfilled, the concerned user will be ejected (service blocked): Conditions in UL: 1) needed UE TX power < Maximum UE TX power 2) UL load factor < Maximum UL load factor (typical value: 75%) 3) enough UL NodeB processing capacity Conditions in DL: 1) CPICH Ec/Io < ( CPICH Ec/Io)required 2) needed NodeB TX power < Maximum NodeB TX power (ie DL Power load<100%) 3) (for each traffic channel) needed TX power < Max TX power per channel 4) enough DL NodeB processing capacity 5) needed number of codes < max number of codes
  • 148. 148 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 4.3 UMTS traffic simulations Traffic simulation outputs  DL (power) load factor per cell  UL load factor per cell  Percentage of soft handover  Percentage of blocked service requests and reasons for blocking (ejection causes) Example of ejection causes with A9155 RNP tool:  the signal quality is not sufficient: on downlink:  not enough CPICH quality: Ec/Io<(Ec/Io)min  not enough TX power for one traffic channel(tch): Ptch > Ptch max on uplink:  not enough TX power for one UE (mob): Pmob > Pmob max  the network is saturated:  the maximum UL load factor is exceeded (at admission or congestion).  not enough DL power for one cell (cell power saturation)  not enough UL/DL NodeB processing capacity for one site (channel element saturation)  not enough DL channelization codes (code saturation)
  • 149. 149 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 4.3 UMTS traffic simulations Limitation of traffic simulation  Limitation:  a simulation is only based on one user distribution  another simulation based on the same traffic map but on a different user distribution can give different results for DL/UL service availabilities  Solution:  to average the results of several simulations (statistical effect) to be closer to the reality  Other interest of traffic simulation  Some traffic simulation ouputs (that are DL (power) and UL load factors per cell) can be used as inputs for CPICH Ec/Io and DL/UL service coverage predictions (see §4.4).
  • 150. 150 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 4. Initial Radio Network Design 4.4 Coverage Predictions for CPICH Ec/Io and DL/UL services  Objective:  to be able to check that the coverage probabilities for UL/DL services are in line with the networks requirements by performing coverage predictions with an RNP tool
  • 151. 151 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 4.4. Coverage Predictions for CPICH Ec/Io and DL/UL services (based on traffic simulations) Why do we need coverage predictions? What is the coverage probability at this pixel for: -CPICH Ec/Io? -UL service coverage? -DL service coverage?  What is the probability for a user to get UL/DL services at a given point of the planning area?  Problem: traffic simulations can be used, but it is necessary to average an enormous number of traffic simulations (see§4.3) to get the answer for each service at each pixelunrealistic calculation time  Solution: Coverage Predictions can be performed
  • 152. 152 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 4.4. Coverage Predictions for CPICH Ec/Io and DL/UL services (based on traffic simulations) Different types of coverage predictions  CPICH RSCP prediction plot (see §4.2)  CPICH Ec/Io prediction plot  Only the pilot quality from best server is considered (no soft handover)  Standard deviation: 3dB  no UL/DL service coverage if CPICH Ec/Io < (CPICH Ec/Io)minimum  UL Coverage area prediction plots for each service  soft/softer handover possible  Standard deviation: same as clutter map values  Uplink service area is limited by maximum terminal power.  DL Coverage area prediction plots for each service  soft/softer handover possible  Standard deviation: 3dB  Downlink service area is limited by maximum allowable traffic channel power
  • 153. 153 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 4.4. Coverage Predictions for CPICH Ec/Io and DL/UL services (based on traffic simulations) How to perform a coverage prediction?(1)  Step 1: enter the Coverage Prediction inputs Traffic simulation inputs typical value Comment Coverage Predictions parameters (only used for predictions) Calculation Radius (per cell) 4 km same as for CPICH RSCP prediction (see §4.2) Probe UE Service parameters see §2.2 The probe UE characterizes the service/terminal/multi- path environment for which the Coverage Prediction is performed, e.g. PS64/PDA/Vehicular 3km/h Note: in case of CPICH/Io prediction, no service parameters are entered. Multipath environment Terminal parameters and indoor margin UL load factor(per cell) 50% used to simulate UL/DL interference level Fixed load approach: same values for all cells Traffic emulation approach: specific values for each cell (see §4.5)DL(power) load factor(per cell) 50% (ratio value)minimum -15dB (typically) for CPICH Ec/Io ratio (see §2.4) (Eb/No)req values for UL/DL (Eb/No) ratios (see §2.2) Stand. deviation  (per clutter) 3dB for CPICH Ec/Io and DL (Eb/No) ratios, clutter map values for UL (Eb/No) ratio (typically 7-8dB) Orthogonality factor (per clutter) 0.6 0.6 for Vehicular A ; 0.94 for Pedestrian A Propagation model parameters(see §3.2) + Network design parameters(see §4.1)
  • 154. 154 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 4.4. Coverage Predictions for CPICH Ec/Io and DL/UL services (based on traffic simulations) How to perform a coverage prediction?(2)  Step 2: calculation of the ratio values (e.g. CPICH Ec/Io values) at each pixel  A probe UE (causing no interference) is scanning each pixel of the planning area.  Pathloss calculations are performed for this probe UE to get the ratio values: e.g. CPICH Ec/Io values per pixel or UL PS64 (Eb/No) values per pixel Probe UE scanning each pixel of the calculation areas
  • 155. 155 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 4.4. Coverage Predictions for CPICH Ec/Io and DL/UL services (based on traffic simulations) How to perform a coverage prediction?(3)  Step 3: calculation of the reliability level for each ratio value (calculated in Step2) in order to consider the shadowing effect. (at each pixel)  Ratio value - (ratio value)minimum=Reliability Margin with (ratio value)minimum =fixed value  Reliability Margin = f(Reliability Level, Standard deviation )   is given by the prediction inputs (see Step 1)  we can deduce a reliability level (per pixel) for the ratio value Example: what is the reliability level for the following pixels(use the curve in §3.3):  CPICH Ec/Io value = -12 dB?  UL (Eb/No) value= 4dB (for PS64, Vehicular 50km/h)? Answer: CPICHEc/Io(CPICHEc/Io)minimum=-15dBReliabilityMargin=3dBk=1(=3dB)Reliabilitylevel=84% UL(Eb/No)(Eb/(No)req=3.2dBReliabilityMargin=0.8dBk=0.1(=8dB)Reliabilitylevel~50%
  • 156. 156 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 4.4. Coverage Predictions for CPICH Ec/Io and DL/UL services (based on traffic simulations) How to interpret a coverage prediction?  From the radio network requirements (see §2.4), it is known:  (ratio value)minimum  required Area Coverage Probability (for a given ratio)  Area Coverage Probability (for a given ratio):  it is the average of all Reliability Levels per pixel (calculated in Step3) over the Planning Area  it can be calculated by a tool and has to be compared with the required Area Coverage Probability Reliability level=80% Reliability level=98% Reliability level=95% Area coverage probability>required value? if yes, network design is OK else network design has to be improved Reliability level=50% Reliability level=99% Reliability level=98% Reliability level=95% Reliability level=70% Reliability level=98% Planning Area
  • 157. 157 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 4. Initial Radio Network Design 4.5 “Traffic emulation approach” or “fixed load approach”?  Objective:  to be able to describe the different approaches which lead to an acceptance test
  • 158. 158 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 4.5 “Traffic emulation approach” or “fixed load approach”? Traffic emulation approach(1) Traffic map (§2.2) Traffic simulations (§4.3) Predictions (§4.4) in line with RNP requirements? Result1 Change Network Design Parameter(s) Field traffic emulation Field measurements Result2 Acceptance Test Result1=Result2? yes no Fixed DL(power)/UL load factors per cell RNP tool Field
  • 159. 159 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 4.5 “Traffic emulation approach” or “fixed load approach”? Traffic emulation approach(2)  Advantages:  accurate (but the accuracy depends on the accuracy of traffic map)  Disadvantages:  complex:  traffic forecast and traffic map for the coming years must be provided by the operator  traffic simulations must be performed with RNP tool and if any parameter is changed, it is necessary to recalculate traffic simulations before recalculating coverage predictions  no acceptance test possible, because it is not realistic to emulate the traffic map in the field.
  • 160. 160 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 4.5 “Traffic emulation approach” or “fixed load approach”? Fixed load approach(1) Default DL(power)/UL load factors values for each cell”Fixed load” Predictions (§4.4) in line with RNP requirements? Result1 Change Network Design Parameter(s) Field Fixed load emulation Field measurements Result2 Acceptance Test Result1=Result2? yes no RNP tool Field
  • 161. 161 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 4.5 “Traffic emulation approach” or “fixed load approach”? Fixed load approach(2)  Advantages:  simple: no need of traffic map and traffic simulations  acceptance test can be realized, because “fixed load” can be emulated and measured in the field (at least in DL, see further)  Disadvantages:  inaccurate (no traffic map considered)  all planning efforts targeting to optimize the network by reducing traffic per cell can not be modeled by this approach (“Fixed Load Trap” effect):  adding cells/sites  real effect: big enhancement of the total network capacity  modeled effect: little enhancement of the network capacity indeed, as the same load is mandatory for all cells (“fixed load”), the new cell/site will add (artificial) load and therefore bring a lot of (artificial) interference and only very little new capacity  downtilting antenna for one cell  real effect: cell load decrease (because it makes the cell area smaller)  modeled effect: no cell load decrease (due to “fixed load”)
  • 162. 162 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 4.5 “Traffic emulation approach” or “fixed load approach”? Fixed load approach(3)  How to emulate DL “fixed load” in the field?  DL load can be emulated with the OCNS (Orthogonal Code Noise Simulator) feature of the Alcatel NodeB:  It generates artificial interference in downlink  It is used to emulate downlink load and perform tests with a reduced number of UEs  Typical default value: 50% for DL (power) load factor Node B Common channels OCNS channels Dedicated channels AvailablepowerTXDLMaximum UETracepowerTXOCNS loadDL powerDL TX  __ (%)_ Virtual mobiles (due to OCNS) Trace mobile Real traffic Simulated traffic Maximum output power
  • 163. 163 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 4.5 “Traffic emulation approach” or “fixed load approach”? Fixed load approach(4) UE AttTx RxTx Rx RxTx  How to emulate UL fixed load in the field?  UL load could be emulated by generating artificial interference at the NodeB receiver (a kind of “UL OCNS feature”): such a feature is not provided by Alcatel NodeB.  Workaround: UL load can be emulated at the MS side by placing an Attenuator (Att) in the MS transmit path Typical default value: 50% for UL load factor (ie 3dB Noise Rise, ie 3dB Attenuation)
  • 164. 164 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 4.5 “Traffic emulation approach” or “fixed load approach”? A medium approach(1) Traffic map (§2.2) Traffic simulations (§4.3) Predictions (§4.4) in line with RNP requirements? Result1 Change Network Design Parameter(s) Field fixed load emulation Field measurements Result2 Acceptance Test Result1=Result2? yes no Fixed DL(power)/UL load factors per cell RNP tool Field Default UL load factor values for each cell”Fixed load” DL(power) load factor per cell
  • 165. 165 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 4.5 “Traffic emulation approach” or “fixed load approach”? A medium approach(2)  Alcatel strategy is to use the fixed load approach as it is measurable on the field and less ambiguous if commitments have to be fulfilled.  Nevertheless, a medium approach can be considered to overcome the disadvantages of the fixed load approach (see previous slide):  Advantages:  accurate (but the accuracy depends on the accuracy of traffic map)  acceptance test can be realized  Constraints:  traffic forecast and traffic map for the coming years must be provided by the operator  traffic simulations must be performed with RNP tool  DL: the operator shall agree that the DL field traffic emulation is realized from the traffic simulation outputs of the RNP tool  UL: default value for UL load factor must be taken for the whole network (no “UL OCNS feature”)
  • 166. All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 166 5. Basic Radio Network Parameter Definition UMTS Radio Network Planning Fundamentals Duration: 1h00
  • 167. 167 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 5. Basic Radio Network Parameter Definition Session presentation  Objective:  to be able to define the basic radio network parameters (neighborhood planning and code planning parameters)  Program: 5.1 Neighborhood planning 5.2 Scrambling code planning
  • 168. 168 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 5. Basic Radio Network Parameter Definition 5.1 Neighborhood planning  Objective:  to be able to describe the criteria and methods used to perform neighborhood planning.
  • 169. 169 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 5.1 Neighborhood planning Overview  The purpose of neighborhood planning is to define a neighbor set (or monitored set) for each cell of the planning area  The neighbor set is broadcasted in each cell in the P-CCPCH and can therefore be accessed by each UE  Each UE monitors the neighbor set to prepare a possible cell re- selection or handover  The neighbor set may contain:  Intra-frequency neighbor list : cells on the same UMTS carrier  Inter-frequency neighbor list: cells on other UMTS carrier  Inter-system neighbor lists: for each neighboring PLMN a separate list is needed. Note: it is NOT the aim of neighborhood planning to define a ranking of the cells inside the neighbor set. This ranking is performed by the UE using UE measurements and criteria defined by UTRAN radio algorithms.  The neighborhood planning plays a key role in UMTS. Indeed, as UMTS is strongly interference limited, a wrong neighbors plan will bring interference increase and therefore capacity decrease.  e.g. if a possible soft handover candidate is not selected, because it is not in the neighbor list, it is fully working as “Pilot Polluter”
  • 170. 170 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 5.1 Neighborhood planning Criteria and methods  Criteria: Let‟s consider one cell (called cell A). One or several of the following criteria can be used to decide to take a candidate cell as neighbor of cell A :  the distance between cell A and the candidate cell is less than a given maximum inter-site distance.  the overlap area between cell A and the candidate cell is more than a given minimum value. Note: overlap area between cell A and cell B = intersection between SA and SB, with SA[km2]=area where  (CPICH RSCP)cellA and (CPICH Ec/Io)cellA better than given minimum values  (CPICH Ec/Io)cell A is the best SB[km2]=area where  (CPICH RSCP)cellB better than given minimum value  (CPICH Ec/Io)cell B>(CPICH Ec/Io)cell A – (a given margin)  the candidate cell is a co-site cell (=cell of the same NodeB).  cell A is neighbor of the candidate cell (neighbor symmetry).  Methods:  manually (not possible to consider the overlap area criterion)  with an RNP tool see example with A9155 tool on next slides
  • 171. 171 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 5.1 Neighborhood planning Automatic neighborhood allocation with A9155(1) Neighborhood parameters Typical value Comment Minimum CPICH RSCP -105 dBm parameters used for overlap area criterion Minimum CPICH Ec/Io -18 dB Ec/Io margin 8 dB Reliability level 87% Minimum covered area 2% Maximum inter-site distance between 8km and 25km 8 km for dense urban and urban, 10 km for sub-urban and around 25 km for rural areas Force co-site cells as neighbors Yes co-site cells=cells of the same NodeB Force neighbor symmetry Yes e.g. if cell A is neighbor of cell B, cell B will be neighbor of cell A Max number of neighbors 14  Step1: enter input parameters
  • 172. 172 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 5.1 Neighborhood planning Automatic neighborhood allocation with A9155(2)  Step2: for each cell, A9155 RNP tool calculates the neighbor list as follows  if “Force co-site cells as neighbors=Yes”, co-sites cells are taken first in the neighbor list.  cells which fulfill the following criteria are taken in the neighbor list:  the maximum inter-site distance criterion  the overlap area criterion Note: if the maximum number of neighbors in the list is exceeded, only the cells with the largest overlap area are kept.  if “Force neighbor symmetry”=Yes, cells with a neighbor symmetry are taken in the neighbor list, under the condition that the maximum number of neighbors has not already been exceeded.
  • 173. 173 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 5. Basic Radio Network Parameter Definition 5.2 Scrambling code planning  Objective:  to be able to describe the criteria and the methods used to perform the scrambling code planning
  • 174. 174 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04  Scrambling code planning in UMTS FDD is similar to frequency planning in GSM. However it is not such a key performance factor:  it concerns only DL scrambling code (channelization codes and UL scrambling codes are automatically assigned by the RNC)  In contrast to frequency planning, it is not crucial which scrambling codes are allocated to neighbors as long as they are not the same code. 5.2 Scrambling code planning Overview
  • 175. 175 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04  DL scrambling codes:  used to separate cells  restricted to 512 (primary) scrambling codes (easy planning)  Criteria:  the reuse distance between two cells using the same scrambling code inside one frequency shall be higher than 4 x inter-site distance  (preferable) the same scrambling code should not be used in two cells of the same sector  Methods  manually  with a RNP tool (see see example with A9155 tool on next slide) 5.2 Scrambling code planning DL scrambling code planning (1)
  • 176. 176 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04  Method with a RNP tool: Note: Neighborhood planning (see §5.1) must be performed before performing scrambling code planning, because neighborhood relationships are used in the following method. 1. define the set of allowed codes for each cell (there can be some restrictions for cells at country borders) 2. (optional) define the set of allowed codes per domain (one domain per frequency) 3. define the minimum reuse distance 4. define forbidden pairs (for known problems between two cells) 5. run automatic code allocation and check consistency  A9155 assigns different primary scrambling codes to a given cell i and to its neighbors.  For a cell j which is not neighbor of the cell i, A9155 gives it a different code:  If the distance between both cells is lower than the manually set minimum reuse distance,  If the cell i / j pair is forbidden (known problems between cell i and cell j).  A9155 allocates scrambling codes starting with the most constrained cell and ending with the lowest constrained one. The cell constraint level depends on its number of neighbors and whether the cell is neighbor of other cells. 5.2 Scrambling code planning DL scrambling code planning (2)
  • 177. 177 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 5.2 Scrambling code planning Definition of UL scrambling code pool for a RNC  UL scrambling codes:  used to separate UEs  more than one million of codes available (very easy planning)  2 different UEs mustn‟t have the same code (inside one frequency)  Criterion for definition of UL scrambling code pools: 2 RNC mustn‟t have the same scrambling code in their pool  Method: each RNC is assigned manually a unique pool of codes (e.g. 4096 codes in R2) Note: when a UE performs a connection establishment to UTRAN (RRC connection), the Serving RNC will assigned dynamically an UL scrambling code out of its pool to the UE. The code is released after RRC connection release.
  • 178. All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 178 6. Basic Radio Network Optimization UMTS Radio Network Planning Fundamentals Duration: 2h30
  • 179. 179 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 6. Basic Radio Network Optimization Session presentation  Objective:  to be able to discuss optimization possibilities in terms of capacity and coverage  Program: 6.1 Coverage and Capacity Improvement features 6.2 Design optimization based on drive measurements
  • 180. 180 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 6. Basic Radio Network Optimization 6.1 Coverage and Capacity Improvement features  Objective:  to be able to describe the Alcatel R2/R3 UTRAN features in term of coverage/capacity improvements in UL/DL
  • 181. 181 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 6.1 Coverage and Capacity Improvement features UTRAN features UTRAN features Release 2 (R2) Release 3 (R3) in UL RX diversity with 2 RX chains (this is a standard feature) TMA (Tower Mounted Amplifier) - in DL - High power amplifier (multi-carrier TEU with 35W TX power at antenna connector) TX diversity (STTD mode and TSTD mode) in UL and in DL support of 3 sectors per MBS (support of 1 carrier (cell) per sector) support of 6 sectors per MBS support of 3 carriers (cells) per sector
  • 182. 182 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 6.1 Coverage and Capacity Improvement features TMA - Tower Mounted Amplifier (1)  A TMA can be used at a UMTS Node B to improve the effective receiver system noise figure when a long feeder cable is used  The reduction in the receiver system noise figure is translated into an improvement in the uplink power budget  This can be interpreted as compensating the losses of the feeder and connectors between the antenna and the input of the base station  Additional downlink loss (~0.5 dB) BTS / Node B Feeder Antenna Tx / Rx Duplexer Duplexer Tx Rx TMA
  • 183. 183 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04  For RX antenna diversity operation, the configuration has to be doubled  One TMA for each antenna needed Dual TMA  Alcatel TMA is a dual TMA Node B Feeder Antenna Tx / Rx Duplexer Duplexer Tx Rx TMA Duplexer Duplexer Tx Rx TMA Tx / Rx Feeder 6.1 Coverage and Capacity Improvement features TMA - Tower Mounted Amplifier (2)
  • 184. 184 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04  Network Design and Planning relevant TMA parameters  RX Part  RX passband: 1920–1980 MHz  fixed nominal Gain: 10-12dB  Noise figure at 25°C: < = 2dB  Max. input power: 10 dBm  TX Part  TX passband: 1920–1980 MHz  Insertion Loss: < 0.5dB  TX ANT Filter  out-of-band attenuation: > 35 dB in all GSM bands  RX ANT Filter  out-of-band attenuation: > 60 dB in GSM TX band > 63 dB in DCSTX band 6.1 Coverage and Capacity Improvement features TMA - Tower Mounted Amplifier (3)
  • 185. 185 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04  Calculation of the resulting NF with Friies-Formula DXcableTMA BS cableTMA DX TMA cable TMATMAtot ggg n gg n g n nn         111 , DXcable BS cable DX cableTMAnotot gg n g n nn      11 ,with 10 10 elementNF elementn  and 10 10 elementG elementg  Element Noise Figure (NF) Gain TMA 2dB 12dB Cable 25m 3dB -3dB Node B (incl. ANRU) 4dB Noise Figure of TMA & cable & nodeB Noise Figure of cable & node B 2.7dB 7dB 4.3 dB gain on total NF in this example due to TMA DX means Diplexer or Filter 6.1 Coverage and Capacity Improvement features TMA - Tower Mounted Amplifier (4)
  • 186. 186 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 Cell Range R (km) TotalInterferenceI(dB) Link Budget Curve with TMA Link Budget Curve w/o TMA I(R) for High_Traffic I(R) for Low_Traffic Typical reduction of the required number of sites:  ~40% for low traffic scenario  ~30% for high traffic scenario  Uplink coverage gain depends on the traffic density!  TMA impacts Link Budget curve but not Traffic curve 6.1 Coverage and Capacity Improvement features TMA - Tower Mounted Amplifier (5)
  • 187. 187 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04  Example of Gain on Coverage  Assuming UL limited scenarios  Conclusion: In UL limited scenarios a TMA can reduce the number of required sites by 30 to 40 % without TMA with TMA without TMA with TMA Cell range/ km 0,377 0,481 0,318 0,383 UL load 14% 18% 53% 63% Site area / sqkm 0,277 0,451 0,197 0,286 # of sites for reference coverage area of 1000sqkm 3608 2217 5071 3496 Gain in # of sites 39% 31% Low Traffic Scenario High Traffic Scenario Dense Urban without TMA with TMA without TMA with TMA Cell range/ km 0,517 0,665 0,448 0,539 UL load 18% 20% 50% 62% Site area / sqkm 0,520 0,863 0,392 0,567 # of sites for reference coverage area of 1000sqkm 1921 1159 2552 1763 Gain in # of sites 40% 31% Urban Low Traffic Scenario High Traffic Scenario without TMA with TMA without TMA with TMA Cell range/ km 1,287 1,659 1,126 1,377 UL load 18% 21% 49% 61% Site area / sqkm 3,230 5,367 2,472 3,697 # of sites for reference coverage area of 1000sqkm 310 186 404 270 Gain in # of sites 40% 33% Suburban Low Traffic Scenario High Traffic Scenario without TMA with TMA without TMA with TMA Cell range/ km 4,945 6,273 4,397 5,305 UL load 26% 32% 51% 62% Site area / sqkm 47,691 76,721 37,699 54,882 # of sites for reference coverage area of 1000sqkm 21 13 27 18 Gain in # of sites 38% 31% Low Traffic Scenario High Traffic Scenario Rural 6.1 Coverage and Capacity Improvement features TMA - Tower Mounted Amplifier (6)
  • 188. 188 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04  TMA allows x dB higher interference level: gain in UL budget  cell radius can be maintained without shrinking with x dB more interference  can be translated in capacity gain  increase of interference only up to max. allowed level  high gain for low traffic (A)  negligible gain for high traffic (B) 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 Cell Load Interferencelevel max. allowed interference level Capacity gain A A Capacity gain B B 6.1 Coverage and Capacity Improvement features TMA - Tower Mounted Amplifier (7)
  • 189. 189 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04  Example of UL capacity gain:  UL limited scenario  Conclusion: In UL limited scenarios a TMA can improve the overall UL throughput, if the interference (noise rise) is not close to the limit  Note: gain is service independent Low traffic scenario Medium traffic scenario High traffic scenario 1 3 5 0,21 0,50 0,68 Interference before adding TMA in dB Load before adding TMA 232,5% Gain in Throughput relative to initial throughput 50,4% 9,7% Max UL load of 75% used in simulation Noise Rise 6.1 Coverage and Capacity Improvement features TMA - Tower Mounted Amplifier (8)
  • 190. 190 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 128 kbps coverage 384 kbps coverage Introduction of 384kbps  Compensate for introduction of higher bit rate services  Required received level (sensitivity) of high data rate services is bigger than for low data rate services  E.g. difference between Rx sensitivities of 128kbit/s and 384kbit/s services: 4.5 dB  Introduction of high data rate service means potential decrease of cell range  Gain through TMA in uplink budget can be used to compensate for this effect Simultaneous introduction of TMA and new service helps keeping coverage range Higher bit rate services 6.1 Coverage and Capacity Improvement features TMA - Tower Mounted Amplifier (9)
  • 191. 191 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 GSM 900/ GSM1800 BTS UMTS Node B Feeder Dualband antenna Diplexer Diplexer TMA DC block Band 1 (GSM) DC pass Band 2 (UMTS) Feeder sharing solution  DC feed has to be resolved in case of diplexer usage (DC block for GSM band, DC pass of UMTS band)  It is not possible to have more than one TMA in case of feeder sharing (alarm handling, DC feed)  If a TMA is required for each system, use separate feeders  It is not possible to use a common TMA in case of broadband antenna usage (interleaved UL and DL signals) Usage in co-siting scenarios 6.1 Coverage and Capacity Improvement features TMA - Tower Mounted Amplifier (10)
  • 192. 192 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04  Blocking aspects  In-Band-Blocking  Potential Problem: “Excess gain” of TMA  Blocking performance decreases be the amount of excess gain=amplifier gain – feeder cable loss  Solution: Amplification reduction in node B to  Out-of-Band-Blocking and Co-Siting with GSM  RX ANT filter attenuates all out of band signals and improves the out-of-band-blocking situation (better than without TMA!) 6.1 Coverage and Capacity Improvement features TMA - Tower Mounted Amplifier (11)
  • 193. 193 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04  Conclusion  Tower mounted amplifiers (TMA) enable to increase the uplink coverage  The reduction of the number of sites to cover a given area with TMA depends on the traffic density assumptions and is higher for low traffic conditions than for high traffic conditions.  In the Uplink, setting up sites with TMA will require between 30% and 40% less sites than without TMA.  However, implementing TMA may accelerate DL power limitation, A carrier on TX diversity may be required in such cases. 6.1 Coverage and Capacity Improvement features TMA - Tower Mounted Amplifier (12)
  • 194. 194 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04  Basics  The transmit antenna diversity techniques consist in using several transmit antennas, broadcasting de-correlated complementary signals  2 modes :  Open loop (first phase : already available)  TSTD - Time Switch Transmit Diversity (Synchronization channel only)  STTD - Space-Time transmit diversity (Other physical channels)  Closed loop (second phase) : higher diversity gain 6.1 Coverage and Capacity Improvement features TX diversity (1)
  • 195. 195 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04  Open-loop techniques (i.e. STTD) are statistical and rely on a non- coherent combining in the receiver.  Performance gain due to ability to fight against fast fading b0 b1 b2 b3 b0 b1 b2 b3 -b2 b3 b0 -b1 Antenna 1 Antenna 2 Channel bits STTD encoded channel bits for antenna 1 and antenna 2.  STTD= Space-Time transmit diversity  Signal is shifted in space and in time to obtain the second signal 6.1 Coverage and Capacity Improvement features TX diversity (2)
  • 196. 196 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04  Performance gain:  doubling the TX power by adding a power amplifier (PA or TEU)  Reducing the required transmit power for each downlink channel (transmit power raise due to fast fading is reduced)  Improving the RX Eb/No (slight reduction for open loop TxDiv, higher for closed loop TxDiv) 6 7 8 9 3 6 10 25 50 120 TargetRxEb/N0(dB) Speed (km/h) Speech 8 kbps, 1 rx antenna, downlink, pedestrian A Without Tx diversity STTD 0.8 dB 6.1 Coverage and Capacity Improvement features TX diversity (3)
  • 197. 197 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04  STTD-Gain on DL Capacity  “Pure Diversity” Gain:  Independent of cell range  Service dependent  High difference between multipath environments:  low to medium gain in Vehicular A (valid in macrocells)  significant gain in Pedestrian A (valid in microcells)  Gain through adding a second PA:  Highly dependent on cell range 6.1 Coverage and Capacity Improvement features TX diversity (4)
  • 198. 198 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 Monoservice NRT 128kbit/s, Urban, Vehicular A  Pure Diversity gain in capacity: ~8%  Gain through 2nd PA: dependent on cell range Example for typical cell range (0.6km): 8%+3%=11% total gain STTD-Gain on DL Capacity - Example 6.1 Coverage and Capacity Improvement features TX diversity (5)
  • 199. 199 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04  STTD-Gain on DL Capacity  Typical Values Typical Values in Vehicular A environment  Typical Value in Pedestrian A environment (microcell) Pure Diversity gain: ~20% Gain through 2nd PA: negligible Dense Urban Urban/ Suburban Rural Capacity gain through diversity ~ 8% ~ 10% ~ 12% Capacity gain through 2nd PA (for typical cell ranges) ~ 0%-2% ~ 1%-8% ~ 2%-11% Typical Total Capacity Gain ~ 8% ~ 15% ~ 20% 6.1 Coverage and Capacity Improvement features TX diversity (6)
  • 200. 200 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 PA Carrier Power Amplifier Antenna Antenna 120 W TRX1 TX PA PA Carrier Power Amplifier Antenna Antenna 1 TRX1 TX Antenna 2 20 W 20 W TXdiv Adding second PA  doubling power Implementation in Alcatel Node B V1 6.1 Coverage and Capacity Improvement features TX diversity (7)
  • 201. 201 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 Adding second TEU  doubling power TEU PA Power Amplifier Antenna Antenna 1 20 W TXBus TX1 TEU PA TEU PA Power Amplifier Antenna Antenna 1 Antenna 2 20 W 20 W TXBus TX1 TX1div Implementation in Alcatel MBS 6.1 Coverage and Capacity Improvement features TX diversity (7bis)
  • 202. 202 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04  Conclusion  Transmit diversity enables to increase the DL capacity of a UMTS cell.  2 different TxDiv Techniques are defined: STTD (open loop) and closed loop (feedback from the UE to the node B)  Performance depending on the scenario.  Low multipath channel (Vehicular A) the performance is better, but the potential improvement is lower compare to a channel with higher multipath diversity (Pedestrian A).  The performances achieved depend also on the type of TxDiv used: closed loop TxDiv is better for low speeds than STTD. 6.1 Coverage and Capacity Improvement features TX diversity (8)
  • 203. 203 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 Throughput NRT 128 (kbps) Transmitpower(Watt) RURAL 7 km RURAL 5 km SUBURBAN 1,3 km URBAN 0,5 km URBAN DENSE 0,35 km +9% +3 % +1,5% Impact of Node B power rise on capacity  high impact in rural  negligible impact in urban Basics 6.1 Coverage and Capacity Improvement features High Power Amplifier (1)
  • 204. 204 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04  DL Capacity gain  The capacity curves show that the effect of doubling the available transmit power is far from doubling the capacity  Due to downlink behaviour, higher transmit power will be more efficient (in terms of capacity gain) in rural environments than in urban environments  Capacity gain is higher when increasing the power from 5.3 Watts to 10 Watts than from 10 Watts to 20 Watts or 20 Watts to 40 Watts  At a given threshold of transmit power, increasing the transmit power will not help in increasing the cell capacity  The Capacity gain depends on the cell range 6.1 Coverage and Capacity Improvement features High Power Amplifier (2)
  • 205. 205 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 NRT 128 kbps / URBAN 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 0 0,2 0,4 0,6 0,8 1 1,2 1,4 1,6 1,8 2 Cell Radius (km) Throughputpersector(kbit/s) 40 Watts per carrier -1 carrier 24 Watts per carrier - 1 carrier Traffic Curve (low traffic/kmІ) Traffic Curve (high traffic/kmІ) 6.1 Coverage and Capacity Improvement features High Power Amplifier (3)  Cell range and traffic dependency of capacity gain
  • 206. 206 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04  Example of downlink capacity gain  results for fixed cell ranges in high traffic scenarios (uplink coverage limited) : Dense Urban Urban Suburban Rural 350m 550m 1700m 7km 1 carrier: 20W to 40W 1% 2% 4% 8% 2 carriers: 10W to 20W 4% 6% 11% 20% 3 carriers: 5.3W to 10W 6% 9% 17% 31% Maxpower per carrier Higher PA Feature Name Output Powers (Node-B v2) Output Powers (theoretical extended Node- B) 1 carrier 24 Watts 40 Watts 2 carriers 10 Watts per carrier 20 Watts per carrier 3 carriers 5.3 Watts per carrier 10 Watts per carrier 6.1 Coverage and Capacity Improvement features High Power Amplifier (4)
  • 207. 207 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04  Conclusion  To increase the power per carrier is only interesting in environments, where the MAPL allowed is high:  In suburban and rural environments  Where Low data rate services are offered in UL  Where coverage enhancement features are used in UL such as TMA and 4RxDiv 6.1 Coverage and Capacity Improvement features High Power Amplifier (5)
  • 208. 208 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04  Coverage Gain  Results of simulation done with Alcatel RNP tool A9155V6  No topo or morpho  hexagonal site design , tilt optimized for each environment  NodeB power 46.8 dBm, fixed traffic scenario 3-sector 6-sector 3-sector 6-sector 3-sector 6-sector Antenna height [m] 20 20 25 25 30 30 HPBW 65° 32° 65° 32° 65° 32° Tilt (total) 5° 5° 3° 3° 1° 1° Antenna Gain [dBi] 18 21 18 21 18 21 Intersite distance [m] 1525 1950 4300 4500 13350 15000 Coverage area / site [km²] 2.0 3.3 16.0 17.5 154.3 194.9 Gain on coverage 64% 10% 26% Less sites required 39% 9% 21% More sectors required 22% 83% 58% URBAN SUBURBAN RURAL 6.1 Coverage and Capacity Improvement features 6 sector site (1)
  • 209. 209 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04  Capacity Gain with NodeB V1  Simulations done with A9155V6 have shown, that the limiting factor in terms of capacity is not the power, but mainly the base band boards for V1.  As the BB boards are common resource of the NodeB it is useless to install a 6 sector site for capacity reasons NodeB V1 Number of carriers # 1 2 3 1 2 Global Scaling Factor - 8 8 8 8 8 Total number of rejections % 5.0 4.2 4.4 4.9 5.0 Channel elements saturation % 2.4 4.2 4.4 4.8 5.0 Multiple Causes % 1.4 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 Ptch> PtchMAX % 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 TXPower Saturation % 1.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 3 sector site 6 sector site 6.1 Coverage and Capacity Improvement features 6 sector site (2)
  • 210. 210 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04  Capacity gain with MBS V2  for different configurations compared to 3x1 and 3x2 configurations (dense urban, 500m inter-site distance) Less transmit power per carrier Higher inter-sector interference for 6 sector site because less frequencies used MBS V2 Number of carriers # 1 2 3 1 2 Max. Output Power dBm 46.8 43.0 40.3 46.8 43.0 Global Scaling Factor - 11.7 19 17 16.3 30 Capacity gain (rel. 3x1) % - 62.4 45.3 39.3 156.4 Capacity gain (rel. 3x2) % - - -11% -14% 58% Total number of rejections % 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.1 5.0 Channel elements saturation % 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Ec/Io < (Ec/Io)min % 2.5 0.0 0.0 4.2 0.2 Multiple Causes % 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 Ptch> PtchMAX % 0.4 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.0 TXPower Saturation % 2.1 5.0 5.0 0.7 4.7 3 sector site 6 sector site 6.1 Coverage and Capacity Improvement features 6 sector site (2bis)
  • 211. 211 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04  Assumptions  Adding a carrier leads to less transmit power per carrier, if no additional Power Amplifier is installed  Even with less transmit power, there is a capacity gain possible for high traffic areas (low cell range)  No adjacent channel interference considered in this simulation  Coverage gain strongly depended on traffic mix -> not considered here 6.1 Coverage and Capacity Improvement features Adding a carrier (1)
  • 212. 212 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04  Basics for Uplink  Uplink Coverage: Link Budget curve stays the same, traffic curve depends on # of carriers  Uplink Capacity: doubling # of carriers: ~doubled uplink capacity 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 Cell Range R (km) TotalInterferenceI(dB) link budget curve I(Traffic),1 carrier I(Traffic), 2 Carriers 6.1 Coverage and Capacity Improvement features Adding a carrier (2)
  • 213. 213 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 1 TRX 2 TRX 3 TRX 1 TRX two TRX 3 TRX Cell range/ km 0,377 0,386 0,389 0,318 0,357 0,370 UL load 14% 7% 5% 53% 29% 20% Site area / sqkm 0,277 0,291 0,295 0,197 0,249 0,267 # of sites for reference coverage area of 1000sqkm 3608 3442 3389 5071 4024 3746 Gain in # of sites 5% 6% 21% 26% Low Traffic Scenario High Traffic Scenario Dense Urban 1 TRX 2 TRX 3 TRX 1 TRX two TRX 3 TRX Cell range/ km 4,945 5,170 5,248 4,397 4,899 5,065 UL load 26% 14% 9% 51% 28% 20% Site area / sqkm 47,683 52,121 53,706 37,701 46,800 50,026 # of sites for reference coverage area of 1000sqkm 21 19 19 27 21 20 Gain in # of sites 9% 11% 19% 25% Rural Low Traffic Scenario High Traffic Scenario Results consider upgrade from 1 carrier to 2 carriers and from 1 carrier to 3 carriers 6.1 Coverage and Capacity Improvement features Adding a carrier (3) UL Coverage gain - Examples
  • 214. 214 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04  Adding a carrier means: reducing power per carrier (20W  2x10W)  Downlink Coverage:  Gain is dependent on traffic density and cell range  Downlink Capacity:  Capacity is not doubled when doubling # of carriers because of power reduction per carrier  Gain depends on the hardware configuration (Note of PA per sector, # of carriers, etc…) and cell range TEU PA Carrier Power Amplifier Antenna Antenna 1 10 W per carrier TX C1 C2 6.1 Coverage and Capacity Improvement features Adding a carrier (4)
  • 215. 215 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 NRT 128 kbps / URBAN 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 0 0,2 0,4 0,6 0,8 1 Cell Radius (km) Throughputpersector(kbit/s) 24 Watts per carrier - 1 carrier 10 Watts per carrier - 2 carriers 5,3 watts per carrier - 3 carriers Traffic Curve (low traffic/kmІ) Traffic Curve (high traffic/kmІ) 6.1 Coverage and Capacity Improvement features Adding a carrier (5) DL Coverage gain - Example
  • 216. 216 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04  DL capacity gain (rural)  Capacity gain due to add. carriers in RURAL area NRT 128 kbps/ RURAL -20,0% 0,0% 20,0% 40,0% 60,0% 80,0% 100,0% 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Cell range (km) Capacitygain(%) (24W,1C)>(24W,2C) (24W,1C)>(10W,2C) (10W,2C)>(10W,3C) (10W,2C)>(5.3W,3C) 6.1 Coverage and Capacity Improvement features Adding a carrier (6)
  • 217. 217 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04  DL capacity gain (urban)  Capacity gain due to add. carriers in URBAN area NRT 128 kbps/ URBAN -25,0% 0,0% 25,0% 50,0% 75,0% 100,0% 0 0,5 1 1,5 2 2,5 3 Cell range (km) Capacitygain(%) (24W,1C)>(24W,2C) (24W,1C)>(10W,2C) (10W,2C)>(10W,3C) (10W,2C)>(5.3W,3C) 6.1 Coverage and Capacity Improvement features Adding a carrier (7)
  • 218. 218 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04  DL Capacity gain - Typical Values  Example for monoservice NRT 128kbit/s and fixed intersite distances, high traffic scenarios Dense Urban Urban Suburban Rural 350m 550m 1700m 7km 1C> 2C 92% 87% 77% 60% 2C> 3C 41% 37% 27% 15% Carrier configuration 1 PA DL Capacity gain 6.1 Coverage and Capacity Improvement features Adding a carrier (8)
  • 219. 219 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 6. Basic Radio Network Optimization 6.2 Design optimization based on drive measurements  Objective:  to be able to describe briefly the principles of optimization based on drive measurements  to be able to suggest countermeasures which can be taken to solve typical problems
  • 220. 220 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 6.2 Design optimization based on drive measurements Overview Step 1 Define Measurement Areas Step 2 Define Measurement Test Cases Step 3 Perform Measurements Step 4 Analyze results and modify design Step 5 Re-launch predictions
  • 221. 221 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 6.2 Design optimization based on drive measurements Step 1: define Measurement Areas  First, the regions and routes have to be defined on the map where measurements (and, consequently, the measurement based optimization) should be carried out.  In the first UMTS networks, there used to be a sub-division of the network into so-called clusters of about seven sites. The advantage of such a relatively small network region is the lower complexity, the drawback is that there are a high number of “border regions” between the clusters which are not optimally treated.  When sub-dividing into clusters, it is important not to define the clusters at an early stage of the network planning process in a rigid way, but with high flexibility during the TOC (turn-on-cycle). As soon as a contiguous area of about seven node B is on air, they can constitute a cluster to be measured.
  • 222. 222 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 6.2 Design optimization based on drive measurements Step 2: define Measurement Test Cases  Measurement test cases have to be fixed:  In general, 3G scanner measurements in combination with trace mobile measurements on a dedicated channel are performed. The 3G scanner measurements give the received CPICH RSCP and Ec/Io values for all received cells.  The UE measurements give (among others) the SIR on the dedicated channel and the cells in the active set. In addition, they give an indication on critical points of network quality by call drops, reduced bit rate etc.  Note that the settings of the network (office data, OCNS power…) have to be known at the time of the measurement, otherwise, no analysis is possible.
  • 223. 223 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 6.2 Design optimization based on drive measurements Step 3 to 5  Step 3: Perform measurements  Measurements have to be performed according to test cases. Please take care of detailed documentation (e.g. on office data settings, on measurement conditions, points and routes....).  GPS coordinates have to be traced along with the measurements  Step 4: Analyze Measurement Results and Modify Design  The measurement result analysis has to identify critical points and the reason for them being critical  see next slides for typical problem sources and the potential countermeasures  Step 5: Re-Launch Prediction  The predictions (described in §4) have to be re-launched with the modified design.  The planner has to repeat the loop (design modification  prediction) until she/he is satisfied with the result (interference sufficiently low, coverage acceptable)
  • 224. 224 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 6.2 Design optimization based on drive measurements Typical problems and potential countermeasures (1)  CPICH level coverage CPICH coverage problems occur when the pathloss is getting too high and the received CPICH level (RSCP) is dropping below the minimum required value. Problem indication:  RSCPBest < RSCPmin (RSCP of Scanner preferred), where RSCPmin is the threshold value for CPICH RSCP reception and/or  There is a call drop or significant bit rate reduction in a region where the CPICH RSCP monitored by the scanner is very low. Countermeasures: can you suggest some countermeasures? CountermeasuresforinsufficientCPICHlevelcoverage: •Adaptantennadirection(azimuthand/ortilt)ofbestpossibleserver PotentialProblemofthissolution: Thereisatrade-offbetweenCPICHlevelandCPICHqualitycoverage.ThismeasureenhancesRSCPbutmaydecreaseEc/Io •Addnewsite •IncreasetheCPICHPowerofthecellwithRSCPBest. Potentialproblemsofthissolution: Theinterferenceforothercellsmaybeincreased.Inaddition,thereislessdownlinkpowerfortheDCH(i.e.thetrafficchannels)left.Thismeansareduced capacity.
  • 225. 225 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 6.2 Design optimization based on drive measurements Typical problems and potential countermeasures (2)  CPICH quality CPICH quality problems occur in case of high interference. The received CPICH Ec/Io is dropping below the minimum required value. The CPICH quality is in contrary to the CPICH level coverage depending on the intra-cell load, the extra-cell load and the interference caused by extra-cell Common Channels. Problem indication:  ((Ec/IoBest < Ec/Iomin) AND (RSCPBest > RSCPmin)) (to be measured by Scanner) and/or  There is a call drop or significant bit rate reduction in a region where the Ec/Io monitored by the scanner is very low and where the RSCP has still a high enough value. Countermeasures: can you suggest some countermeasures? CountermeasuresforinsufficientCPICHquality: ReducetheowncellsizeifthereasonforlowEc/Ioismainlyintracellload,toreducetheload(doesnotworkinfixedloadscenario!).Note:Inthis case,anothercellhastoovertaketheremainingload. Possibilitiestoreduceowncellsizeare 1.increasedowntilt 2.reduceCPICHtransmitpower (Notethatinthiscase,notonlytheloadandthereforeIoisreduced,butalsotheusefulsignal,i.e.Ecisreduced,sothattheremaybeno ameliorationofthesituation) ReducecelloverlapofservingandinterferingcellifthereasonforlowEc/Ioisextracellload,bychanging 1.antennatilt, 2.antennaazimuth 3.antennaheight 4.CPICHtransmitpower. Firsttrytochangetheinterferer(reduceIo).Ifthisisnotpossible,changeserver(increaseEc). Addingasite:IfthereasonforlowEc/Ioisbothextra-cellandintracellload,thenaddingasitewilldecreasetheloadintheservingcellandin surroundingcellsandwillthereforedecreasebothintracellinterferenceandextracellinterference(doesnotworkinfixedloadscenario!Therefore, addingasiteshouldalwaysreducethefixedloadrequirementsforacceptance.) IfthereasonislowEcandIoisclosetoNo,thentheCPICHlevelcoverageistheproblem(seepreviousslide)
  • 226. 226 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 6.2 Design optimization based on drive measurements Typical problems and potential countermeasures (3)  Pilot Pollution Pilot pollution occurs if more received cells are fulfilling the criteria to enter the active set than the number allowed by the active set size. The criterion is the received CPICH quality given by the parameter Ec/Io. The cell received with the highest Ec/Io is assumed to be serving cell, i.e. it is in the active set. Cells with a Ec/Io value, which is not more than YdB (typically 5dB) lower than the best Ec/Io, are assumed to be in the active set as well under the condition that the maximum active set size (typically 3) is not exceeded. All other cells fulfilling the Ec/Io criterion are polluters. Problem indication:  More than X CPICHs detected by Scanner with Ec/Io within the interval [Ec/IoBest – Y, Ec/IoBest] (Typically: X=3; Y=5 dB) Countermeasures:  Identify the cells received within [Ec/IoBest – Y, Ec/IoBest]  Decide which cells should not be received within [Ec/IoBest – Y, Ec/IoBest] and change their design  Increase Ec/IoBest by changing design of best server Following ranking is valid for design changes: 1. Adapt antenna tilt (i.e. reduce interference) 2. Adapt antenna azimuth (i.e. redirect interferers towards less critical regions) 3. Adapt antenna height (i.e. reduce interference) 4. Adapt pilot power
  • 227. 227 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 6.2 Design optimization based on drive measurements Typical problems and potential countermeasures (4)  Handover definition Missing handover definitions (i.e. missing neighbors) can lead to sever quality problems and call drops, since the missing neighbor is not only not serving the mobile but in addition producing high interference. Problem Indication:  The best cell shown in the 3G scanner measurement does not enter the active set of the mobile.  Scrambling_CodeBestEc/Io(Scanner)  Scrambling_CodeBestEc/Io(UE) Countermeasures:  Declare missing neighbor definition at OMC if the cell with Ec/IoBest reported by the scanner is wanted to be in the active set  Change the cell design of the cell reported by the scanner with Ec/IoBest , if this cell is not wanted to be the best server resp. to be in the active set
  • 228. All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 228 7. UMTS/GSM co-location and Antenna Systems UMTS Radio Network Planning Fundamentals Duration: 1h00
  • 229. 229 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 7. UMTS/GSM co-location and Antenna Systems Session presentation  Interference mechanisms due to co-location  Spurious emissions  Receiver blocking  Intermodulation products  Summary on required decoupling required for the 3 interference mechanisms  UMTS-UMTS co-location  Antenna solutions  Dual band sites GSM 1800 - UMTS FDD  Dual band sites GSM 900 - UMTS FDD  Triple band sites GSM 900 - GSM 1800 - UMTS FDD  Feeder sharing impacts  TMA in co-location configurations  TMA in feeder sharing solutions  Objective:  to be able to describe briefly the interference mechanisms due to GSM/UMTS co-location (co-siting) and the solutions for antenna systems (antenna, feeder, diplexer) Program:
  • 230. 230 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 The Interference Mechanisms Overview  Transmitter noise/spurious emissions (in band interference)  The transmitter noise floor and the spurious transmissions could fall into the receive band of the co-sited system  Receiver blocking (out of band interference)  The transmit signal of one system could block the receiver of the other system  Intermodulation products  Intermodulation products could interfere the receivers of one or both systems
  • 231. 231 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 Transmitter Noise / Spurious Emissions  Most critical: GSM 1800/UMTS  Noise floor and spurious transmissions from the GSM 1800 BTS falling into the Node B receive band  “Historical” reason: GSM1800 Filter specification (ETSI) f/MHz1880 1920 additional filter required GSM 1800 DL UMTS/FDD UL In band interferenceOut of band interference for the UMTS system (non ideal UMTS receiver!)
  • 232. 232 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 New 3GPP TS 05.05 (V8.5.1)  Stronger Requirements for GSM base stations co-located with 3G  Spurious Emissions of GSM Base Station in old spec:  < -45 dBm/100KHz means <-29 dBm/3.84MHz  Spurious Emissions of GSM Base Station in new spec:  Same service area, no co-location  <-62 dBm/100kHz means <-46dBm/3.84MHz  Same service area, co-location  <-96 dBm/100kHz means <-80dBm/3.84MHz  Values are valid in 3G receive band  900-1920 TDD, 1920-1980 FDD UL, 2010-2025 TDD Increase of decoupling requirement in case of GSM UMTS co-location of 51 dB!
  • 233. 233 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 Alcatel Values  Alcatel GSM 1800 BTS has a spurious emission :  -80 dBm/3.84MHz (3GPP co-location requirement)  Alcatel MBS 9100 has a limiting interference level requirement of:  -114 dBm/3.84MHz (calculation in slide 8)  The disturbance of UMTS NodeB by Alcatel GSM 1800 spurious emissions can easily be avoided by  providing additional 34 dB decoupling  see following slides
  • 234. 234 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 Spurious Emissions GSM1800  UMTS (1) Spurious emissions Old ETSI : < -29 dBm Alcatel and new 3GPP < -80 dBm TX/ RX Evolium TM BTS 1800 ANC Attenuation in UMTS TRX : : Limiting interference level: < - 114 dBm Antenna connectors Antenna system Calculation on next slide MBS 9100
  • 235. 235 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 Spurious Emissions GSM1800  UMTS (2) Equipment type ETSI specifications (GSM 05.05) Alcatel EVOLIUM™ GSM 1800 BTS up to v.8.4.1 v.8.5.1Spurious emissions (at BTS/ Node B antenna connector) -29dBm -80dBm -80 dBm Limiting interference level Noise at UMTS receiver without GSM 1800 impact: Thermal noise (-108 dBm) plus receiver noise figure (4 dB), i.e. –104 dBm (Pnoise [dBm] = -174 dBm + System Noise Figure [dB] + 10 log (BW [Hz]) Degradation of sensitivity by 0.4 dB acceptable (level 10 dB below noise floor) -104 dBm – 10 dBm = -114 dBm up to v.8.4.1 v.8.5.1Required decoupling -29 dBm – decoupling = -114 dBm Decoupling = 85 dB -80 dBm– decoupling = -114 dBm Decoupling = 34 dB -80 dBm–decoupling = -114 dBm Decoupling = 34 dB
  • 236. 236 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 Spurious Emissions GSM1800  UMTS (3)  For BTSs only compliant to the “old” ETSI GSM 05.05 v.8.4.1 the standard air antenna de-coupling is not sufficient in GSM 1800 and UMTS systems are co-located.  In case of a GSM 1800 BTS fulfilling only the “old” ETSI GSM 05.05 v.8.4.1 requirements the air de-coupling has to be 81 dB  In order to know the exact required de-coupling value, the blocking performance of the according equipment has to be known.  De-coupling measurements have to be performed in order to determine the required minimum distance between antenna panels.
  • 237. 237 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 Spurious Emissions GSM900  UMTS  No problem for any GSM 900 base station, conform to old ETSI specification  For the minimum decoupling between the antenna ports of two co-located Node B‟s, the following has to be valid:  -80 dBm – decoupling = -114 dBm  Decoupling = 34 dB  Therefore, if we have a standard decoupling between the antennas of 30dB and a feeder cable loss of 2dB on each side, the decoupling requirement is fulfilled.
  • 238. 238 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 Receiver blocking  Critical: Node B transmitter blocking co-located GSM 900, GSM 1800 or UMTS/FDD receiver  Reason: Filter in RX system (blocked system) GSM BTS UMTS Node B Feeder loss Feeder loss Decoupling UMTS antennaGSM antenna RX blocking TX power
  • 239. 239 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 Receiver blocking  Link Budget for Blocking Evaluation  Example: UMTS blocks receiver of GSM1800 Link budget Value UMTS Node B TX output power 43.0 dBm Assumed antenna decoupling - 30 dB Assumed feeder and connector loss 0 dB GSM 1800 received power (@ 2000 MHz) 13.0 dBm Specification 3GPP Alcatel GSM 1800 blocking limit 0 dBm 23 dBm Blocking limit fulfilled No Yes
  • 240. 242 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 Receiver blocking  Critical: Node B being blocked by co-located GSM 900, GSM 1800 or UMTS/FDD Problem doesn‟t occur for Alcatel Node B thanks to ANXU filter specification GSM BTS UMTS Node B Feeder loss Feeder loss Decoupling UMTS antennaGSM antenna TX power RX Blocking
  • 241. 244 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 Receiver blocking Link budget Value GSM 1800 TX output power (high power) 46.7 dBm Assumed antenna decoupling - 30 dB Assumed feeder and connector loss 0 dB UMTS received power (@ 1800 MHz) 16.7 dBm Specification 3GPP Alcatel UMTSblocking limit -15 dBm 23 dBm Blocking limit fulfilled No Yes  Link Budget for Blocking Evaluation  Example: GSM 1800 blocks receiver of UMTS
  • 242. 245 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 Receiver blocking  Conclusion  It can be stated that receiver blocking is no problem for co- located Alcatel equipment assuming an antenna decoupling of 30 dB (and even less). Co-location with equipment from other suppliers needs to be checked case-by-case.
  • 243. 246 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 Intermodulation Products  Cause: distortion in non-linear devices  Frequency spectrum of non-linear device‟s output signal has more components than the input signal:  either harmonics of the input frequencies  or a combination of the input components (mixing). fIM = m  f1 + n  f2 with m, n = 0, 1, 2, 3, ... |m|+|n| is called “order of the intermodulation product”  The intermodulation interference is critical for co-located GSM 1800 and UMTS systems.  The 3rd order intermodulation product is the most critical one  GSM 1800 TX within UMTS RX band (e.g. 2 x 1879.8 MHz – 1 x 1820 MHz = 1939.6 MHz)
  • 244. 247 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 Intermodulation Products  Intermodulation in the GSM 1800 transmitters.  The figure shows schematically the creation of the IM3 intermodulation product in the GSM 1800 transmitters, interfering a co-sited UMTS Node B: Diplexer or air decoupling TX/ RX GSM BTS UMTS Node B TX/ RX Towards the antenna / diplexer system TX RX TX RX Antenna coupling network Antenna coupling network IM3 f1 f2
  • 245. 248 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 Intermodulation Products  Intermodulation in the UMTS receiver  Transmit signals from co-sited system are fed into the receivers producing intermodulation Diplexer or air decoupling TX/ RX GSM BTS UMTS Node B TX/ RX Towards the antenna / diplexer system TX RX TX RX Antenna coupling network Antenna coupling network IM f1 f2
  • 246. 249 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 Intermodulation Products  Intermodulation at the diplexers  Combination of TX signals from different transmitters generate intermodulation products Diplexer or air decoupling TX/ RX GSM 1800 BTS UMTS Node B TX/ RX Towards the antenna TX RX interfering transmit signals intermodulation product TX RX Diplexer Antenna coupling network Antenna coupling network  This scenario is very critical and must be avoided with accurate frequency planning.
  • 247. 250 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 Intermodulation Products: conclusion  Interference in UMTS receive band:  3rd order product only critical if fIM = -1f1 + 2f2 falls within UMTS receive band  For UMTS frequencies>1955 MHz, no IM3 products can occur.  In general if fIM = -1f1 + 2f2 <1920 MHz no disturbance in UMTS system sue to IM products.  Interference in GSM bands:  Avoid intermodulation products by careful frequency planning in the GSM bands  Diplexer or filter reduces some of the effects  More decoupling between the systems
  • 248. 251 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 Summary on the required Decoupling GSM 900 (RX) GSM 1800 (RX) UMTS (RX) Specification according to: GSM 05.05 Alcatel GSM 05.05 Alcatel 3G TS 25.104 Alcatel GSM 05.05 46 dB Blocking 30 dB v.8.5.1: 34dB GSM spurious v.8.5.1: 34dB GSM spurious GSM 900 (TX)  Alcatel 46 dB Blocking 30 dB 61 dB Blocking 30 dB GSM 05.05 39 dB Blocking 30 dB v.8.4.1: 85 dB v8.5.1: 34dB GSM spurious v.8.4.1: 85 dB v8.5.1: 34dB GSM spurious GSM 1800 (TX)  Alcatel 39 dB Blocking 30 dB 62 dB Blocking 34 dB GSM spurious 3G TS25.104 35 dB Blocking 30 dB 43 dB Blocking 30 dB 58 dB Blocking 34 dB Spurious UMTS (TX)  Alcatel 35 dB Blocking 30 dB 43 dB Blocking 30 dB 58 dB Blocking 34 dB Spurious It is assumed, that the decoupling provided by the antenna/diplexer system is at least 30 dB. In fact, using Alcatel EVOLIUM™ equipment requires for certain combinations even less isolation than those 30dB Intermodulation is suppressed by frequency planning GSM 900-GSM 1800 decoupling values are added for completeness, although not treated throughout this document
  • 249. 252 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 UMTS - UMTS co-location (FDD)  Capacity Loss due to adjacent operators‟ co-existence  Danger of “Dead Zones” in case of operator co-existence Serving cell (Operator A) Interfering cell (Operator B) Dead zone area f1 f2 Co-location of UMTS operators avoids occurrence of dead zones
  • 250. 253 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 Co-location: Conclusion  Co-siting of GSM and UMTS possible  Co-siting of two adjacent UMTS operators desirable to avoid dead zones  Alcatel EVOLIUMTM base stations are prepared for co-siting  Alcatel can provide solutions for co-siting of Alcatel GSM and/or UMTS base stations with equipment of any other supplier
  • 251. 254 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 Antenna Solutions  Dual-band sites GSM 1800 - UMTS FDD  Dual-band sites GSM 900 - UMTS FDD  Triple-band sites GSM 900 - GSM 1800 - UMTS FDD Multi-operator sites UMTS-UMTS
  • 252. 255 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 Dual-band Sites GSM 1800 - UMTS FDD  Air Decoupling with Single-band Antennas GSM 1800 BTS UMTS Node B Feeder Feeder air decoupling GSM 1800 antenna UMTS antenna  Vertical or cross polarized  Vertical or horizontal separation  Independent antenna characteristics (pattern, downtilt, gain)
  • 253. 256 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 Dual-band Sites GSM 1800 - UMTS FDD Separation for air-decoupling  For Alcatel EVOLIUMTM GSM1800 BTS  Horizontal Separation:  dh=0.6m  Vertical Separation:  dv=0.5m  Provides already a decoupling of >47dB GSM 1800 dh UMTS dv GSM 1800 UMTS Note: Values for RFS/CELWAVE antennas APX206515-2T (UMTS) and APX186515-2T (GSM 1800)
  • 254. 257 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 Decoupling measurements  To determine the required minimum distance between the antenna panels, decoupling measurements have to be performed. Spectrum analyzer Decoupling between -45° plane of GSM 1800 antenna and +45° plane of UMTS antenna over the frequency for distance “d”. GSM 1800 UMTS +45° d +45°-45° -45°
  • 255. 258 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 Dual-band Sites GSM 1800 - UMTS FDD  Broadband antenna with diplexer or filter  Less flexible - same antenna characteristic for both bands GSM 1800 BTS UMTS Node B Feeder Broadband antenna Diplexer Example: Celwave APX18/206515-T6
  • 256. 259 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 Dual-band Sites GSM 1800 - UMTS FDD  Dual-band antenna with diplexers  Independent on gain and electrical downtilt  feeder sharing GSM 1800 BTS UMTS Node B Feeder Dualband antenna Diplexer Diplexer Example:CelwaveAPX15D6/15W6
  • 257. 260 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 Dual-band Sites GSM 1800 - UMTS FDD  Dual-band antenna with filters  Independent on gain and electrical downtilt  Four feeders per panel  Filter to reduce decoupling requirements GSM 1800 BTS Alcatel Evolium MBS UMTS Feeder Dualband antenna Feeder Evolium Alcatel GSM 1800 BTS TS25.104 UMTS Node B Feeder Dualband antenna Filter Feeder GSM05.05 v.8.4.1. Filter
  • 258. 261 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 Dual Band Sites GSM 1800 / UMTS FDD Solutions with RFS Celwave components DCS UMTS 75 dB BTS BTS DCS UMTS DCS UMTS 75 dB 75 dB BTS BTS DCS UMTS DCS + UMTS 75 dB BTS BTS DCS UMTS Broadband Antenna Band 1 : GSM1800 Band 2 : UMTS Full DC block •75dB of decoupling •Series expected 04/2002 Diplexer FD DW 6505-1S
  • 259. 262 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 Antenna Solutions  Dual-band sites GSM 1800 - UMTS FDD  Dual-band sites GSM 900 - UMTS FDD  Triple-band sites GSM 900 - GSM 1800 - UMTS FDD Multi-operator sites UMTS-UMTS
  • 260. 263 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 Dual-band Sites GSM 900 - UMTS FDD GSM 900 BTS UMTS Node B Feeder Feeder air decoupling GSM 900 antenna UMTS antenna GSM 900 BTS UMTS Node B Feeder GSM900/UMTS Dualband antenna Feeder  Solutions without Feeder Sharing Single band antenna configuration Dual band antenna configuration
  • 261. 264 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 Dual-band Sites GSM 900 - UMTS FDD  Feeder Sharing solution GSM 900 BTS UMTS Node B Feeder Dualband antenna Diplexer Diplexer  Also possible with single band antennas  Diplexers have to provide 30dB of decoupling
  • 262. 265 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 Dual Band Sites GSM 900 / UMTS FDD Solutions with RFS components GSMUMTS 55 dB 55 dB BTS BTS GSMUMTS Band 1: AMPS/GSM Band 2: DCS/UMTS FD GW 5504 -1S ->full DC pass FD GW 5504-2S is: ->DC Block in lower bands ->DC Pass in higher bands Product is available 01/2002 Diplexer
  • 263. 266 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 Antenna Solutions  Dual-band sites GSM 1800 - UMTS FDD  Dual-band sites GSM 900 - UMTS FDD  Triple-band sites GSM 900 - GSM 1800 - UMTS FDD Multi-operator sites UMTS-UMTS
  • 264. 267 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 Triple-band sites for GSM 900/1800 and UMTS  With three independent single-band antennas  With dual-band and single-band antennas  GSM 900 single-band, GSM 1800 / UMTS dual-band  GSM 1800 single-band (preferred), GSM 900 / UMTS dual-band  UMTS single-band, GSM 900 / GSM 1800 dual-band  With triple-band antennas
  • 265. 268 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 Triple-band antennas for GSM 900/1800 and UMTS GSM 1800 BTS UMTS Node B Triple-band antenna GSM 900 BTS Feeder Connection Matrix Feeder Filter FeederFeeder Diplexer Diplexer GSM 1800 GSM 1800UMTS UMTS Diplexer application Filter application Connection matrix Filters not required for Alcatel EVOLIUM equipment! Filter
  • 266. 269 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 Antenna Solutions  Dual-band sites GSM 1800 - UMTS FDD  Dual-band sites GSM 900 - UMTS FDD  Triple-band sites GSM 900 - GSM 1800 - UMTS FDD Multi-operator sites UMTS-UMTS
  • 267. 270 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 Multi-operator sites: UMTS FDD-UMTS FDD  Solutions without feeder sharing. Two completely separate systems with air decoupling  Different sector orientation possible  Different tilt can be set up  Operator independence  Simple solution  Careful RNP: antenna patterns must not interfere.  High visual impact  2 feeders needed for each operator UM TS UM TS N ode B Feeder Feeder air decoupling UMTS antenna UMTS antenna N ode B Opera tor1 Opera tor2
  • 268. 271 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 Multi-operator sites: UMTS FDD-UMTS FDD  Solutions without feeder sharing. Two operators sharing one antenna panel  Different electrical tilt can be set up.  Low visual impact.  Each operator can use TMA if desired.  Sector orientation cannot be chosen independently.  2 feeders needed for each operator. Feeder Dual UMTS antenna (or Dual Broadband antenna) Feeder UMTS Node B Operator 2 UMTS Node B Operator 1
  • 269. 272 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 Multi-operator sites: UMTS FDD-UMTS FDD  Two operator sharing one antenna (feeder Sharing)  Low visual impact  2 feeders needed  Same electrical tilt, same sector orientation  TMA not possible  High losses due to splitter: 3.3 dB  The two former solutions are more recommendable!! UMTS Node B Operator 1 UMTS Node B Operator 2 Feeder UMTS antenna Hybrid (Splitter/Combiner) ~3.3dB loss!
  • 270. 273 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 Antenna Feeder Sharing for Dual-band Sites Feeder Dual-band antenna -45°+45° Diplexer Diplexer Diplexer Diplexer Feeder Dual-band antenna With integrated diplexers Without diplexers Dual-bandDual-band Diplexers at BTS/Node B location Additional filter depending on equipment type and vendor required in the GSM 1800 branch.
  • 271. 274 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 Antenna Feeder Sharing for Triple-band Sites Twofeederspersector Easymigration GSM 900 Triple-band antenna GSM 1800 UMTS Diplexer Diplexer Triplexer Diplexer Diplexer Triplexer GSM 900 GSM 1800 UMTS Feeder system Antenna system BTS systems GSM 900 Triple-band antenna GSM 1800 UMTS Diplexer Diplexer GSM 900 GSM 1800 UMTS Feeder system Antenna system BTS systems 30 dB isolation 50 dB isolation Fourfeederspersector Lowerlosses
  • 272. 275 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 Feeder sharing losses  The next table collects the additional losses. Component Loss Diplexer GSM 900-GSM 1800 0.3 dB Diplexer GSM 900-GSM 1800 / UMTS 0.3 dB Diplexer GSM 900-UMTS 0.3 dB Diplexer GSM 1800-UMTS 0.5 dB GSM 1800 filter (not necessary for Alcatel equipment!) (0.4 dB)
  • 273. 276 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 Feeder Sharing losses  Additional losses due to diplexers: Example Influence of feeder sharing (losses in dB) Components GSM 900 GSM 1800 UMTS 2 Diplexers GSM 900-GSM 1800 0.6 0.6 0.6 2 Diplexers GSM 1800-UMTS 1.0 1.0 Additional losses (jumpers, connectors) 0.5 0.5 0.5 Total loss 1.1 2.1 1) 2.1 1) 1) Remark: GSM 1800/ UMTS signals have 50 % more signal attenuation compared with GSM 900 signals over the same feeder cable. Worst Case Values!!
  • 274. 277 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 Antenna feeder sharing: conclusion  Feeder sharing is recommended or even mandatory when:  The building or tower does not allow to add more feeder cables.  If the distance between the BTS/Node B and the antenna is rather long.  Additional diplexers are cheaper compared to the material plus installation costs of the feeder cable. The losses due to the diplexers are, compared to the feeder losses, not so important any more.  Feeder sharing should not be used as general implementation when not really necessary.  Especially for the higher frequency bands, the additional losses due to the diplexers should be avoided.
  • 275. 278 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 TMA in co-location configurations  TMA improves the effective receiver chain noise figure (compensation of feeder losses)  Increase of cell range in case of uplink limitation  Additional loss of 0.5 dB in downlink BTS / Node B Feeder Antenna Tx / Rx Duplexer Duplexer Tx Rx TMA
  • 276. 279 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 TMA in co-location configurations  In case there are TMAs installed in the GSM 900 or GSM 1800 part of the co- siting configuration, we have to check the following points:  Blocking limit of the BTS:  The signal delivered by the TMA to the base station receiver will be higher which may be resulting in blocking. If the blocking limit is too low, we have to increase the decoupling.  Blocking limit of the TMA:  The TMA must not be blocked by the incoming signal. If the blocking limit is too low, we have to increase the decoupling.  For the Alcatel UMTS TMA and EVOLIUMTM MBS UMTS, these points have already been checked and do not constitute a problem. In case other supplier‟s equipment is used, an according check has to be performed.
  • 277. 280 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 Examples for TMA usage Solutions with RFS components DCS UMTS TMA 75 dB DC pass 75 dB DC pass BTS BTS DCS UMTS + PDU DCS GSMUMTS TMA TMA 55 dB DC block 55 dB DC block 75 dB DC pass BTS BTS BTS DCS GSMUMTS + + PDU PDU DC block in Band1 (GSM900) DC pass in Band 2 (UMTS) Diplexer FD GW 5504-2S (avail: 01/2002) Diplexer FD DW 6505-2S (avail: 04/2002) DC block in Band 1 (GSM1800) DC pass in Band 2 (UMTS) TMA ATM W 1912-1
  • 278. 281 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 TMA in feeder sharing solutions  The Feeder sharing solutions require diplexers, avoiding DC passing into antenna  DC on feeder is required to feed the TMA with power  It has to be noted that for each TMA a separate feeder cable has to be used. Otherwise Evolium does not support  DC feed  Alarm handling
  • 279. 282 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 Antenna Systems: Conclusion  Wide variety of antenna system solutions for all co-location combinations  No “killer solution”, pre-conditions and operator requirements have to be checked case by case
  • 280. All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 283 Appendix Open loop/Closed loop Frequency coordination at country borders COST231- Hata formula Cell parameters (Network Design Parameters - cell wise) UMTS Radio Network Planning Fundamentals
  • 281. 284 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 If UE receives a STRONG DL signal, then UE will speak low. Node B Node B 1 2 1 2 If UE receives a weak DL signal, then UE will speak LOUD. Problem: fading is not correlated on UL and DL due to separation of UL and DL band. Open loop Power Control is inaccurate. Open loop power control Appendix Open loop power control
  • 282. 285 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 Node B Inner loop ... ”Power down” ”Power ...” SIR estimation SIR estimation RNC SIR target Outer loop Example in DL Appendix Closed loop power control  DL:  Inner loop: the Node-B controls the power of the UE by performing a SIR estimation:  Outer loop: the RNC adjusts (SIR)target to fulfill the required service quality (e.g. BER<10-2) (SIR)measured > (SIR)target  “Power down” command (Step=1 dB) ----------------<------------- “Power up”----------------------------------  UL:  Inner loop: same as DL, but SIR estimation performed by the UE  Outer loop: same as UL, but (SIR)target adjusted by the UE  The SIR estimation is performed each 0,66 ms (1500 Hz command rate) Closed loop Power Control is very fast
  • 283. 286 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04  Method based on “ERC Recommendation (01) 01” to be found at European Radiocommunications Office (http://www.ero.dk )  ERO is a associated with the CEPT (European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administrations)  1) National frequency and code planning for the UMTS/IMT-2000 is carried out by the operators and approved by the Administrations or carried out by these Administrations in co-operation with the operators.  2) Frequency and code planning in border areas will be based on coordination between Administrations in co-operation with their operators Appendix Frequency coordination at country borders(1)
  • 284. 287 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04  Administrations concerned shall agree on preferred code groups / code group blocks if center frequencies are aligned  No coordination between is necessary if: Band [MHz] Pre-conditions (one must be fulfilled ) Predicted mean FS level of each carrier must be below Where? 2110-2170 1) Preferential codes usage 2) Center frequencies not aligned 3) No IMT2000 CDMA radio interface used 45 dBµV/m/5MHz 3 m above ground at border line and beyond1 1900-1980 2010-2025 1) Preferential codes usage 2) Center frequencies not aligned 36 dBµV/m/5MHz 3 m above ground at border line and beyond1 Any 1) no preferential codes used 21 dBµV/m/5MHz 3 m above ground at border line and beyond1 1 to be negotiated by both partiesFDD DL FDD UL TDD Appendix Frequency coordination at country borders(2)
  • 285. 288 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04  Administrations on both sites of the border must agree on preferential, neutral and non-preferential frequencies  e.g. the administrations agree on the following split (assuming 3 available frequencies):  this split is leading to the following allowed FS level thresholds Frequency type Country A Country B Preferential F1 F3 Neutral F2 F2 Non-preferential F3 F1 Used frequency type Allowed max. FSlevel at border and beyond1 Preferential 65 dBµV/m/5MHz Neutral 45 dBµV/m/5MHz Non-preferential 45 dBµV/m/5MHz Appendix Frequency coordination at country borders(3)
  • 286. 289 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04  If a non preferential frequency is used, the operator accepts possible capacity loss in his system due to interference coming from the high allowed FS level on his side of the border emitted by the operator of the other country Country A (Neutral) Country B (Neutral) 45 dBV/m/5MHz 45 dBV/m/5MHz Equal field strength limits at border Country A (Preferential) Country B (Non-preferential) 65 dBV/m/5MHz 45 dBV/m/5MHz Interference to Rx accepted (potential capacity loss) Appendix Frequency coordination at country borders(4)
  • 287. 290 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04  at least the following characteristics should be forwarded to the Administration affected (more details in ERO T/R 25-08 E)  frequency in MHz  name of transmitter station  country of location of transmitter station  geographical co-ordinates  effective antenna height  antenna polarisation  antenna azimuth directivity in antenna systems  effective radiated power  expected coverage zone  date of entry into service.  code group number used  antenna tilt Appendix Frequency coordination at country borders(5)
  • 288. 291 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 Appendix Cost 231-Hata formula  Reminder: Cost-Hata formula  Mapping between COST-Hata and Standard Propagation Model  R TT HataCOST hC m d m h BB m h A MHz f AAL                                      3loglogloglog 21321 Alcatel UMTS Standard Model Parameter COST-Hata K1 A1+A2log(f/MHz)3B1 –0.87 K2 B1 K3 A33B2 K4 - K5 B2 K6 C(hR) KClutter - Compared to COST231-Hata propagation model, the Alcatel UMTS Standard Propagation Model:  has an additional diffraction loss represented by K4 has been added  can be calibrated by adding a clutter dependent calibration offset
  • 289. 292 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 Appendix Cell parameters Network architecture dimensioning parameters(1) Parameter Definition Default value Cell Name Cell name Site0_0(0) Local cell Id Identifier of the cell in the system Numerical value between 0 and 268435455 Transmitter name Sector Name to which the cell belongs Site0_0 Carrier Carrier on which the cell is transmitting 0-2 Scrambling code Dl primary scrambling code 0-511 Cell class Identifier of the geographical environment of the cell. The network tuner/planner can define his own classes. 4 Evolium predefined classes: Dense Urban, Urban, Suburban and Rural Cell type Type of the cell, there is only one type of cell. Single
  • 290. 293 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 Parameter Description Default LAC Location Area Code: LAC is a fixed length code that identifies a location area within a PLMN. One LA consists of a number of cells belonging to RNCs that are connected to the same CN node (UMSC or 3G-MSC/ VLR). Values between 0-65535 0 SAC Service area Code: SAC is a fixed length code identifying a service area within a location area, service area consists of one or more cells. (LA Domain RNC No. + NodeB No. + Sector No.). Values between 0-65535 0 RAC Routing Area Code: One RA consists of a number of cells belonging to RNCs that are connected to the same CN serving node, i.e. one UMSC or one 3G_SGSN. Values between 0-255 0 MCC This parameter defines the Mobil Country Code. It is used for defining the PLMN identity and therefore the Location Area Identity (LAI) and the Routing Area Identity (RAI). 999 MNC This parameter defines the Mobil Network Code. It is used for defining the PLMN identity and therefore the Location Area Identity (LAI) and the Routing Area Identity (RAI). 999 Appendix Cell parameters Network architecture dimensioning parameters(2)
  • 291. 294 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 Parameter Description Default Value Max. Total Power (dBm) Transmitter maximum power per carrier (cell). Depends on Node B configuration. 43 dBm Pilot Power (dBm) Pilot channel Power: Part of the cell maximum transmit power that is dedicated to the CPCIH. This value is fixed by the user and remains constant. 33 dBm (10% of total available carrier power) SCH Power (dBm) Average Synchronization Channel Power. Default: 5 dB less than the CPICH, thus P-SCH and S-SCH have 28 dBm. This value is fixed by the user and remains constant. 0.63 W+ 0.63W= 1.26W 31 dBm, taking into account that the SCH are transmitted only 10% of the time 31 dBm – 10 dB = 21 dBm, 21 dBm Appendix Cell parameters Transmit power parameters (1)
  • 292. 295 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04  Other common channels power Parameter Description Default BCH Power This parameter defines the transmit power of the Broadcast Channel relatively to the P-CPICH power (offset). -2 dB MaxFACHpow er This parameter defines the maximum FACH power carried on the SCCPCH relatively to the P-CPICH power (offset). When more than one FACH are carried on the same S-CCPCH, each FACH has the same power. -2dB PCHpower This parameter defines the transmit power of the Paging Channel relatively to the P-CPICH power (offset). -2dB PICHpower This parameter defines the transmit power of the Paging Indicator Channel relatively to the P-CPICH power (offset). In fact, this value depends of the number of Paging Indicators (PI) that are carried on the PICH. -5 dB AICH power This parameter defines the transmit power of the AICH relatively to the P- CPICH power (offset). It depends of the number of Acquisition Indicators. -9 dB These channels are not transmitted 100% of the time, however it is assumed that around 34 dBm are continuously transmitted on the these channels, designed in A9155 as “other common channels” Appendix Cell parameters Transmit power parameters (2)
  • 293. 296 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 Parameter Description Default AS threshold (dB) The active set threshold is the maximum pilot quality difference between the best server and a certain transmitter so that this transmitter becomes part of the active set of a certain UE. 3 dB HO Margin HO margin. RNO interface 3 dB HO Mode HO mode. RNO interface. - Qoffset_sn It is used for cell reselection procedure in order to favor one cell. 0 dB Appendix Cell parameters Handover parameters
  • 294. 297 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 Parameter Description Default Value Cell Individual offset This information shows Cell individual offset. For each cell that is monitored, the offset is added to the measurement quantity (for ex CPICH Ec/Io) before the UE evaluates if an event has occurred 0 dB QoffsetsN This information shows Qoffset, n that is used for cell reselection procedure in order to favor one cell. 0 dB Qhysts1 Hysteresis value of the serving cell during cell selection/reselection. It is used with CPICH RSCP 4 dB Qhysts2 Hysteresis value of the serving cell during cell selection/reselection. It is used with CPICH Ec/Io 4 dB Qqualmin Minimum required quality level (CPICH Ec/ Io) in the cell during cell selection/reselection. -15 dB Qrxlevmin Minimum required RXlevel (CPICH RSCP) in the cell during cell selection/reselection. -115 dBm Appendix Cell parameters Cell selection/reselection parameters
  • 295. All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 298 Solution of the exercises UMTS Radio Network Planning Fundamentals
  • 296. 299 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 Solution of the exercises § 1.2 UMTS RNP notations and principles(1) Be careful in this exercise with:  dBm#dBW : e.g. Thermal Noise = -204dBW = -174dBm  do not add power values in dBm: e.g. 2dBm + 2dBm = 5dBm (= 10log (100.2 +100.2)) 1. What is the processing gain for speech 12.2kbits/s ? 10 log (3.84Mcps/12.2kbps)=25dB 2. The users in the serving cell are located at different distance from the NodeB: is it desirable and possible to have the same received power C for each user? desirable: yes to avoid near-far effect possible: yes by using power control 3. What is the value of the “Thermal Noise at receiver” N? N=Thermal Noise+NFNodeB = -108.1dBm + 4dB = -104.1dBm
  • 297. 300 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 Solution of the exercises § 1.2 UMTS RNP notations and principles(2) 4. Complete the following table:  Iintra=n x C  Ieytra=i x Iintra=0.55 x Iintra (homogeneous network with i=0.55)  I = Iintra +Iextra= 1.55 x n x C  Noise Rise=(I+N)/N (see question 3 for N value)  Ec/No=C/(I+N-C) Note: the following approximation can be used: Ec/No ~ C/(I+N) (because C<<N for a speech call)  Eb/No=Ec/No +PG (see question 1 for PG value) n [users] I [dBm] I +N [dBm] Noise Rise [dB] Ec/No [dB] Eb/No [dB] Comment 1 -118.1 -103.9 0.2 -15.9 9.1 Eb/No >>(Eb/No)req UE TX power is much too high 10 -108.1 -102.6 1.5 -17.3 7.7 Eb/No >(Eb/No)req UE TX power is too high 25 -104.1 -101.1 3.0 -18.9 6.1 Eb/No ~(Eb/No)req UE TX power is adapted to the traffic load 100 -98.1 -97.1 7.0 -22.9 2.1 Eb/No <<(Eb/No)req UE TX power is much too low or traffic load much too high
  • 298. 301 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 Solution of the exercises §3.2 UMTS propagation model (1)  Exercise:  Let‟s consider the simplified* formula of the Alcatel Standard Propagation Model: Lpath[dB] = C1 + C2 x log(dUE-NodeB[km])  Can you complete the table? Be careful that the distances are expressed in meter in the full Alcatel standard propagation model formula and in kilometer in the simplified formula: C1 + C2 log (d [km]) = {C1 – C2 log1000} + {C2 log (d [m])} C2 = K2 + K5 log HNodeB =44.9 + (-6.55) log 30 = 35.22 (HNodeB=30m) {C1 – C2 log1000} =K1+K3 log HNodeB +K4 f(diffraction) + K6 f(HUE)+Kclutterf(clutter) =23.6 + 5.83 log 30 + 0 + 0 + f(clutter) (no diffraction) =32.21 + f(clutter) C1 = 32.21 + f(clutter) + C2 log1000 = 137.8 + f(clutter) with f(clutter) = -3dB for dense urban and -8dB for suburban (homogeneous clutter class around UE) (see table on the next page)
  • 299. 302 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 Solution of the exercises §3.2 UMTS propagation model (2) Clutter class dUE- NodeB [km] C1 [dB] C2.log(dUE-NodeB ) [dB] (C2=35.22) Lpath [dB] Dense Urban f(clutter)=3dB 0.5 134.8 -10.6 124.2 1 0 134.8 2 10.6 145.4 Suburban f(clutter)=8dB 0.5 129.8 -10.6 119.2 1 0 129.8 2 10.6 140.4 *Assumptions: -HNodeBeff=30m -no diffraction -homogeneous clutter class around the UE Note: C1 and Lpath values can easily be deduced: • for urban clutter class: C1= 131.8 dB (f(clutter)=6dB) •for rural clutter class: C1=117.8dB (f(clutter)=20dB)
  • 300. 303 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 Solution of the exercises §3.6 Cell Range Calculation (1) EXAMPLE 1— UL link budget for:  UE power class 4  Speech12.2kbits/s  Vehicular A 3km/h  UE in soft(or softer) handover state with 2 radio links Deep Indoor  Cell coverage probability=95%, =8  UL load factor=50% Value in Comment f.a.=fixed assumption (see previously) A. On the transmitter side A1 UE TX power 21 dBm see §2.3 A2 Antenna gainUE + Internal lossesUE 0 dB f.a. A3 EIRPUE 21 dBm A1+A2 B. On the receiver side B1 (Eb/No)req 5.8 dB see §2.2 B2 Processing Gain 25 dB see §1.3 B3 NFNodeB 4 dB f.a. B4 Thermal noise -108.1 dBm f.a. B5 Reference_SensitivityNodeB -123.3 dBm B1-B2+B3+B4 (continuing on next slide)
  • 301. 304 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 Solution of the exercises §3.6 Cell Range Calculation (2) EXAMPLE 1— continuing Value in Comment f.a.=fixed assumption (see previously) C. Margins C1 Shadowing margin 4.8 dB see §3.3 C2 Fast fading margin 1.7 dB see §3.3 C3 Noise Rise 3 dB see §3.5 C4 10 log {1+ (Ec/No)req} 0.1 dB see §3.5 C5 Interference margin 2.9 dB C3-C4 D. Losses D1 Feeders and connectors 3 dB f.a. D2 Body loss 3 dB see §2.2 D3 Penetration loss (indoor margin) 20 dB see §2.2 E. Gains E1 Antenna gainNodeB 18 dBi f.a. MAPL 126.9 dB =?
  • 302. 305 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 Solution of the exercises §3.6 Cell Range Calculation (3) EXAMPLE 2— UL link budget for:  UE power class 3  Service: PS64  Vehicular A 50km/h  UE in soft(or softer) handover state with 2 radio links Incar  Cell coverage probability=95%, =8  UL load factor=50% Value in Comment f.a.=fixed assumption (see previously) A. On the transmitter side A1 UE TX power 24 dBm see §2.3 A2 Antenna gainUE + Internal lossesUE 0 dB f.a. A3 EIRPUE 24 dBm A1+A2 B. On the receiver side B1 (Eb/No)req 3.2 dB see §2.2 B2 Processing Gain 17.8 dB see §1.3 B3 NFNodeB 4 dB f.a. B4 Thermal noise -108.1 dBm f.a. B5 Reference_SensitivityNodeB -118.7 dBm B1-B2+B3+B4 (continuing on next slide)
  • 303. 306 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 Solution of the exercises §3.6 Cell Range Calculation (4) EXAMPLE 2— continuing Value in Comment f.a.=fixed assumption (see previously) C. Margins C1 Shadowing margin 4.8 dB see §3.3 C2 Fast fading margin -0.3 dB see §3.3 C3 Noise Rise 3 dB see §3.5 C4 10 log {1+ (Ec/No)req} 0.1 dB see §3.5 C5 Interference margin 2.9 dB C3+C4 D. Losses D1 Feeders and connectors 3 dB f.a. D2 Body loss 3 dB see §2.2 D3 Penetration loss (indoor margin) 8 dB see §2.2 E. Gains E1 Antenna gainNodeB 18 dBi f.a. MAPL 139.3 dB
  • 304. 307 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 Solution of the exercises §3.6 Cell Range Calculation (5)  Can you complete the following table by using the simplified formula of the Alcatel Standard propagation model (see exercise in §3.2)? MAPL[dB] = C1 + C2 x log(Cell Range [km]) (see exercise in §3.2)  Cell Range [km]= 10 (MAPL-C1)/C2 (see solution of exercise §3.1 for C1 and C2 values) Limiting Service Clutter class Cell Range [km] Speech 12.2k Deep Indoor MAPL=126.9dB (calculated on previous slide) Dense urban 0.60 Urban 0.73 Suburban 0.83 Rural 1.81 PS64 Incar MAPL=139.3dB (calculated on previous slide) Dense urban 1.34 Urban 1.63 Suburban 1.86 Rural 4.08
  • 305. 308 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 Solution of the exercises §4.2 CPICH RSCP coverage prediction 1. What happens if you have a bad CPICH RSCP coverage in an area? no service coverage 2. Does the CPICH RSCP coverage depend on traffic load? no, this is the only coverage prediction which is independent on the traffic load (CPICH Ec/Io and UL/DL service coverage predictions depends on traffic load) 3. Which are the input parameters for the CPICH RSCP coverage prediction? look at the CPICH RSCP equation: CPICH RSCP[dBm] = CPICH TX power[dBm] +GainNodeB antenna [dB] – LossNodeB feeder cables [dB] – Lpath [dB] You can see that the input parameters are: CPICH TX power + Antenna Gain and radiation pattern + Feeder lossNodeB + propagation model parameters (see §3.2) + Calculation radius 4. Shall the calculation radius be greater or smaller than the intersite distance? greater. If not, CPICH RSCP will not be calculated on all pixels of the map. Calculation radius shall be as big as necessary to correctly model interference and as small as possible to allow fast predictions. 5. Make some suggestions to improve the prediction results -modify antenna azymuth or downtilt (to increase GainNodeB Antenna on the pixels with bad coverage) - increase CPICH TX power
  • 306. 309 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 Abbreviations and Acronyms (1) 3GPP 3rd Generation Partnership Project 3GPP2 3rd Generation Partnership Project 2 (cdma2000) AAL ATM Adaptation Layer AICH Acquisition Indication Channel ALCAP Access Link Control Application Part AMR Adaptive Multi Rate ANRU Antenna Network Receiver UMTS ANSI American National Standard Institute (USA) ARIB Association of Radio Industries and Business (Japan) AS Active set ATM Asynchronous Transfer Mode BB Base Band BCCH Broadcast Control Channel BCH Broadcast Channel BHCA Busy Hour Call Attempts BMC Broadcast / Multicast Control BSC Base Station Controller BSS Base Station (sub)System BTS Base Transceiver Station CAMEL Customized Application for Mobile Enhanced Logic CC Call Control CCCH Common Control Channel CCH Common Channels CCTrCH Coded Composite Transport Channel CDMA Code Division Multiple Access CE Channel Element CN Core Network CPCH Common Packet Channel CPICH Common Pilot Channel CRNC Controlling RNC CS Circuit Switched CTCH Common Traffic Channel CWTS China Wireless Telecommunication Standard DCCH Dedicated Control Channel DCH Dedicated Channel DHO Diversity Handover DL Downlink DPCCH Dedicated Physical Control Channel DPCH Dedicated Physical Channel (in DL) DPDCH Dedicated Physical Data Channel DRNC Drift RNC DS Direct Sequence DSCH Downlink Shared Channel DTCH Dedicated Traffic Channel DU Dense Urban
  • 307. 310 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 Abbreviations and Acronyms (2) EDGE Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution EIRP Effective Isotropic Radiated Power ETSI European Telecommunication Standard Institute FACH Forward Access Channel FBI Feedback Information FDD Frequency Division Duplex FDMA Frequency Division Multiple Access FTP File Transfer Protocol GERAN GSM/EDGE Radio Access Network GGSN Gateway GPRS Support Node GMSC Gateway MSC GPRS General Packet Radio Service GSM Global System for Mobile Communications GTP GPRS Tunnelling Protocol HLR Home Location Register HO Handover IETF Internet Engineering Task Force IMEI International Mobile Equipment Identity IMSI International Mobile Subscriber Identity IMT International Mobile Telecommunication IP Internet Protocol ISCP Interference Signal Code Power ISDN Integrated Services Digital Network ITU International Telecommunication Union KPI Key Performance Indicator L1,L2,L3 Layer 1, Layer 2, Layer 3 LA Location Area LAC Location Area Code LAI Location Area Identifier LCS Location Services MAC Medium Access Control MAPL Maximum Allowed Path Loss MBS Multi-standard Base Station MC Multiple Carrier MCC Mobile Country Code ME Mobile Equipment MExE Mobile Execution Environment MM Mobility Management MNC Mobile Network Code MRC Maximum Ratio Combining MSC Mobile-services Switching Center MUD Multi User Detection NAS Non Access Stratum NBAP Node-B Application Part NF Noise Figure
  • 308. 311 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 Abbreviations and Acronyms (3) OCNS Orthogonal Code Noise Simulator OMC-UR Operation and Maintenance Center – UMTS Radio OVSF Orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor P-CCPCHPrimary Common Control Physical Channel PCH Paging Channel PCCH Paging Control Channel PCH Paging Channel PDA Personal Digital Assistant PG Processing Gain PICH Paging Indicator Channel PLMN Public Land Mobile Network PRACH Physical Random Access Channel PS Packet Switched P-SCH Primary Synchronization Channel QOS Quality Of Service QPSK Quadrature Phase Shift Keying R Rural R1, R2, R3 1) 3GPP releases ; 2) Alcatel UTRAN releases RA Routing Area RAB Radio Access Bearer RAC Routing Area Code RACH Random Access Channel RAN Radio Access Network RANAP RAN Application Part RB Radio Bearer RL Radio Link RLC Radio Link Control RNC Radio Network Controller RNP Radio Network Planning RNS Radio Network Sub-System RNSAP RNS Application Part RNTI Radio Network Temporary Identity RRC Radio Resource Control RRM Radio Resource Management RSCP Received Signal Code Power RSSI Received Signal Strength Indicator
  • 309. 312 All rights reserved © Alcatel - 3FL 11194 ABAA WBZZA Ed.01P04 Abbreviations and Acronyms (4) SAC Service Area Code S-CCPCHSecondary Common Control Physical Channel SCH Synchronization Channel SF Spreading Factor SGSN Serving GPRS Support Node SHO Soft Handover SIR Signal to Interference Ratio SMS Short Message Service SPM Standard Propagation Model S-SCH Secondary Synchronization Channel STTD Space Time Transmit Diversity SU Sub Urban SUMU Station Unit Mobile Universal T1 Committee T1 telecommunication of the ANSI (USA) TD-CDMATime Division-CDMA (for UMTS TDD mode) TDD Time Division Duplex TDMA Time Division Multiple Access TEU Transmit Equipment UMTS TF Transport Format TFC Transport Format Combination TFCI Transport Format Combination Indicator TFCS Transport Format Combination Set TFS Transport Format Set TIA Telecommunication Industry Association (USA) TMA Tower Mounted Amplifier TMSI Temporary Mobile Station Identity TSTD Time Switch Transmit Diversity TTA Telecommunication Technology Association (Korea) U Urban UARFCN UTRAN Absolute Frequency Channel Number UE User Equipment UICC UMTS Integrated Circuit Card UL Uplink UMTS Universal Mobile Telecommunication System USIM UMTS Subscriber Identity Card URA UTRAN Registration Area UTM Universal Transverse Mercator System UTRAN UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network UWCC Universal Wireless Communications Committee VLR Visitor Location Register W-CDMA Wideband CDMA (for UMTS FDD mode) WGS World Geodetic System 1984

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