Nortel v15 edge_training1

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Nortel v15 edge_training1

  1. 1. 1 Nortel Confidential Information EDGE RF Seminar 1 Wireless Network EngineeringWireless Network Engineering Nortel Networks
  2. 2. 2 Nortel Confidential Information EDGE RF Seminar Part – I Background & Basics
  3. 3. 3 Nortel Confidential Information EDGE Introduction EDGE stands for Enhanced Data rates for Gsm Evolution and is basically an extension of the GSM/GPRS Access network. The administration, maintenance and supervision of EDGE is based on the currently deployed BSS and it utilizes the GSM / GPRS protocols and architecture. The GPRS Coding Schemes (CS) are enhanced with new EDGE Modulation and Coding Schemes (MCS). MCS2 and MCS3 are two coding schemes based on GMSK whereas MCS 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9 are based on 8-PSK. This new modulation increases the peak radio throughput of a carrier by a factor 3 compared to GPRS.
  4. 4. 4 Nortel Confidential Information 8 20 14.4 12 GPRSGPRS CS-1 CS-3 CS-2 CS-4 Header + Protection User Payload User Payload Header + Protection 8.8 54.4 44.8 29.6 22.4 17.6 14.8 11.2 EDGEEDGE MCS-959.2 MCS-8 MCS-9 MCS-7 MCS-6 MCS-5 MCS-4 MCS-3 MCS-2 MCS-1 GMSK modulation GMSK modulation 8PSK modulation 8 20 14.4 12 GPRSGPRS CS-1 CS-3 CS-2 CS-4 Header + Protection User Payload 8 20 14.4 12 GPRSGPRS CS-1 CS-3 CS-2 CS-4 Header + Protection User Payload User Payload Header + Protection 8.8 54.4 44.8 29.6 22.4 17.6 14.8 11.2 EDGEEDGE MCS-959.2 MCS-8 MCS-9 MCS-7 MCS-6 MCS-5 MCS-4 MCS-3 MCS-2 MCS-1 User Payload Header + Protection 8.8 54.4 44.8 29.6 22.4 17.6 14.8 11.2 EDGEEDGE MCS-959.2 MCS-8 MCS-9 MCS-7 MCS-6 MCS-5 MCS-4 MCS-3 MCS-2 MCS-1 GMSK modulation GMSK modulation 8PSK modulation What is EDGE ? EDGE is an extension of GPRS. The 4 GPRS Coding Schemes are extended with 9 new EDGE Modulation and Coding Schemes GPRS 12 14.4 20 8CS-1 CS-3 CS-2 CS-4 Maximum Throughput per TS is increased from 20 kbps to 59.2 kbps.
  5. 5. 5 Nortel Confidential Information > EDGE = Enhanced Data Rates for GSM (or Global) Evolution > Enhancement results from introduction of new modulation (8-PSK) + channel coding schemes • ECSD (Enhanced Circuit Switched Data): circuit switched channels/ services • EGPRS (Enhanced GPRS): packet switched channels/ services > Wireless packet data access to Internet • Same as GPRS only faster and more robust > New modulation triples the nominal bit rates > Update of the GSM Standard towards 3rd generation networks/mobiles > Supports asymmetric traffic on the radio link > Strict separation between radio and network subsystem • Difference between EDGE and GPRS is only on air interface • EDGE and GPRS mobiles can be supported simultaneously in a network > Resides on ‘existing’ GSM BSS equipment • EDGE is the ‘in-band’ 3G solution for GSM operators EDGE Summary
  6. 6. 6 Nortel Confidential Information EDGE RF Seminar Part – II E-GPRS architecture
  7. 7. 7 Nortel Confidential Information EDGE / GPRS Architecture (Nortel)
  8. 8. 8 Nortel Confidential Information Packet Architecture Overview GPRS is an extension of the GSM network, built on top of the existing infrastructure and consisting of 33 major new components. PSTN Existing GSM NSS PCUSNBSC SGSN Serving Node GPRS Network Internet GGSN Gateway Node 1 2 3
  9. 9. 9 Nortel Confidential Information Manages packet radio resources. Processes the radio packets for the uplink and downlink transmission so as to minimize the load on the BSC. Performs buffer management for the arrival packets before they get processed in the PCUSN, also supports retransmissions between the MS and the BSS MSC A VLR BSC Gb SGSN Gn Gi GGSN Agprs PCUSNBTS A bis PDN Intranet CES The Packetizer: PCUSN GSM Counterpart: BSC
  10. 10. 10 Nortel Confidential Information Performs IP-based packet routing Provides mobility management (including location tracking of the MS inside the Service Area) and session management. Performs authentication procedures and security functions Performs network access control and compression The Packet Router: SGSN MSC A VLR BSC Gb SGSN Gn Gi GGSN Agprs PCUSNBTS A bis PDN Intranet CES GSM Counterpart: MSC
  11. 11. 11 Nortel Confidential Information Provides a point of interconnection between the (E)GPRS network and external data network. Forwards the data packets to and from the PLMN and PDN Collects charging information that is used for customer billing Protocol stack has GTP layer which creates a ‘tunnel’ for the secure transmission of packets Requests location information from the HLR for mobile terminated data packets The Data Network Gateway: GGSN GSM Counterpart: Gateway-MSC MSC A VLR BSC Gb SGSN Gn Gi GGSN Agprs PCUSNBTS A bis PDN Intranet CES
  12. 12. 12 Nortel Confidential Information TCUBSC BTS MSC Core Network HLR/AUC PSTN Access Network SCP A GPRS SGSN GGSN Intranet Internet PCUSN Backbone Gb EDGE Radio SW Upgrade v15 EDGE Implementation Requirements BSC 3000 Terminals No change on Core Network S8000/S12000 with eDRX/ePA e-cell
  13. 13. 13 Nortel Confidential Information EDGE RF Seminar Part – III E-GPRS Radio interface physical layer
  14. 14. 14 Nortel Confidential Information EDGE/GPRS Protocol Stack TMSI/TLLI L1 L2 IP UDP BSSGP LLC Relay RF RF MAC RLC RLC MAC LLC SNDCP IP Application TFI L1 L2 IP UDP BSSGP LLC SNDCP L1 L2 IP UDP GTP L1 L2 IP UDP GTP TID SAPI NSAPI TLLI L1 L2 IP L1 L2 IP Application Um Gbip Gn GiBSSMS SGSN GGSN End Host TMSI/TLLI Packet Layer Application Layer IP Relay EDGE is here
  15. 15. 15 Nortel Confidential Information E-GPRS Protocol Stack - BSS EDGE is here
  16. 16. 16 Nortel Confidential Information GSM RF Layer > The GSM RF layer manages the physical link between MS and BSS. • This layer corresponds physically to the CCU inside the BTS. > The layer is divided into 2 sub layers: • The Physical RF layer is similar to GSM and is responsible for modulation/demodulation. • The Physical Link Layer provides information transfer over a physical channel on the radio interface. • Forward Error Correction • Interleaving of 1 radio block over 4 bursts. • Synchronization procedures (Timing advance). • Radio channel measurements • Power control procedures.
  17. 17. 17 Nortel Confidential Information (E)GPRS Physical Layer Codeword (456 bits) Bit reordering 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 0 4 1 5 2 6 3 7 Training sequence 57 bits 57 bits Burst (114 information bits) Block rectangular interleaving Interleaving GSM Modulator Source Channel Encoder Interleaver Burst Formatter Propagation channel Filters Synchronization Viterbi Equalizer GSM Demodulator De-interleaver De-partition/reord Channel Decoder Output bits Burst De- Formatter Reord & Partition Burst Formatting • In (E)GPRS, the physical layer is similar to GSM with some exceptions: — Channel coding scheme / Modulation is different – CS-x / MCS-x vs. TCH/F, TCH/H, TCH/9.6, TCH/14.4 etc. – Modulation for some EDGE coding schemes is 8-PSK vs GMSK — Interleaving scheme is different – Block rectangular instead of block diagonal or 19-burst interleaving
  18. 18. 18 Nortel Confidential Information PH User Data BH Info Field BCS BH Info Field BCS BH Info Field BCS Primary Block … Following Blocks ... FH Information Field FCS Normal Burst Normal Burst Normal Burst Normal Burst Packet (NL PDU) Frame (LLC PDU) Blocks FH = Frame Header FCS = Frame Check Sequence Network layer SNDCP layer LLC layer RLC/MAC layer Physical layer BH = Block Header BCS = Block Check Sequence data compr ./ decompr . segmentation/assembly (not shown) encryption/decryption channel coding (FEC) interleaving burst formatting (E)GPRS Physical Layer: Block Transmission
  19. 19. 19 Nortel Confidential Information 8 20 14.4 12 GPRSGPRS CS-1 CS-3 CS-2 CS-4 Header + Protection User Payload Header + Protection User Payload 8.8 54.4 44.8 29.6 22.4 17.6 14.8 11.2 EDGEEDGE MCS-959.2 MCS-8 MCS-9 MCS-7 MCS-6 MCS-5 MCS-4 MCS-3 MCS-2 MCS-1 GMSK 8-PSK > GMSK Modulation • 1 bit per symbol • Robust but not spectrally efficient • 8-PSK Modulation – 3 bits per symbol – Less robust but spectrally efficient Maximum Throughput per TS is increased from 20 kbps to 59.2 kbps. EDGE Improves GPRS Thruput with 8-PSK and New Modulation & Coding (E)GPRS Physical Layer: EDGE coding schemes
  20. 20. 20 Nortel Confidential Information (E)GPRS Physical Layer: EDGE Coding Schemes Family Coding Scheme EGPRS RLC data unit size - octets Number of Basic data unit Number of Radio Block Number of RLC data Block Required jokers Data rate in kb/s C MCS-1 22 1 1 1 or 1/2* 0 8.8 B MCS-2 28 1 1 1 or 1/2* 0 11.2 A MCS-3 37 1 1 1 or 1/2* 1 14.8 C MCS-4 44 2 1 1 1 17.6 B MCS-5 56 2 1 1 1 22.4 A MCS-6 74 2 1 1 2 29.6 B MCS-7 2x56 = 112 4 1 2 3 44.8 A MCS-8 2x68 = 136 4 1 2 4 54.4 A MCS-9 2x74 = 148 4 1 2 4 59.2 * When MCS6, MCS5 and MCS4 is respectively re-segmented in MCS3, MCS2 and MCS1
  21. 21. 21 Nortel Confidential Information > Each coding scheme belong to a family which is based on the the same unit of payload size in order to allow retransmission of RLC block with more robust coding. Edge gives the possibility to retransmit a block in a different MCS belonging to the same family, according to the success or failure of previous transmission Family Name Modulation Coding Schemes User Payload (octets) A MCS-3, MCS-6, MCS-9 37, 2x37, 4x37 A with padding MCS-3, MCS-6, MCS-8 34+padding, 2x(34+padding), 4*34 B MCS2, MCS-5, MCS-7 28, 2x28, 4x28 C MCS-1 and MCS-4 22 and 2x22 37 octets 37 octets 37 octets37 octets MCS-3 MCS-6 Family A MCS-9 28 octets 28 octets 28 octets28 octets MCS-2 MCS-5 MCS-7 Family B 22 octets22 octets MCS-1 MCS-4 Family C Improving Retransmissions with Lower MCS (E)GPRS Physical Layer: EDGE MCS families
  22. 22. 22 Nortel Confidential Information P2P1 puncturing 1836bits USF RLC/MAC Hdr. Data=74octets=592bits BCS 36bits Rate1/3convolutionalcoding 96bits 612bits 1256bits96bits36bitsSB=4 1392bits 32bits TBFBI EHCS 3bits 1256bits (E)GPRS Coding Scheme Example: MCS-6 (EDGE)
  23. 23. 23 Nortel Confidential Information P2 P3P1 P2 puncturingpuncturing 1836 bits USF RLC/M AC Hdr. 36 bits Rate 1/3 convolutional coding 135 bits 612 bits 612 bits128 bits36 bitsSB = 4 1392 bits 45 bits Data = 592 bits BCS TB 612 bits 612 bits 612 bits 1836 bits Rate 1/3 convolutional coding EFBIData = 592 bits BCS TBEFBI 612 bits 612 bits 612 bits P3 P1 3 bits HCS puncturing IR is achieved by retransmission of different Puncturing scheme: P1, P2, P3 (E)GPRS Coding Scheme Example: MCS-8 (EDGE)
  24. 24. 24 Nortel Confidential Information 8.8 11.2 14.8 17.6 22.4 29.6 44.8 54.4 59.2 0.0 23.2 46.4 69.6 Raw Bit Rate per TS (kbps) MCS1 MCS2 MCS3 MCS4 MCS5 MCS6 MCS7 MCS8 MCS9 LLC raw bit rate RLC/MAC Header (including USF, …) Data overhead, coding & protection 8-PSK GMSK FamilyA:MCS-3,MCS-6,MCS-8,MCS-9 FamilyB:MCS-2,MCS-5,MCS-7 EDGE MCS Throughputs per TS Note that Nortel did not implement MCS-1 & MCS-4 (both from family C), since there is no real gain. MCS-2,MCS-3,MCS-5,MCS-6,MCS-7,MCS-8,MCS-9 from families A & B are implemented. For GPRS, only CS-1 & CS-2 are implemented.
  25. 25. 25 Nortel Confidential Information > GSM/GPRS uses GMSK modulation (Gaussian Modulated Shift Keying) and 4 Coding Schemes are defined in GPRS : CS1 to CS4. > EDGE introduces a new modulation : 8PSK (8 Phase Shift Keying). • 8PSK defines 8 states of the radio signal instead of 2 for GMSK. • 3 bits can be coded with 8PSK instead of 1 for GMSK. • 8PSK provides 3X the raw TS bit rate compared to GMSK. 8.8 11.2 14.8 17.6 22.4 29.6 44.8 54.4 59.2 0.0 23.2 46.4 69.6 Raw Bit Rate per TS (kbps) MCS1 MCS2 MCS3 MCS4 MCS5 MCS6 MCS7 MCS8 MCS9 Layer 1 RF Radio Time Slot Occupancy User Payload RLC/MAC Hdr (including USF …) Data overhead, coding & protection 8PSK GMSK 5 MCS are using 8PSK : MCS5 to MCS9 4 MCS are using GMSK : MCS1 to MCS4 Ideal throughput at 0% error EDGE MCS Throughputs per TS
  26. 26. 26 Nortel Confidential Information New modulation: 8-PSK EDGE GSM Modulation 8-PSK,3bit/sym GMSK,1bit/sym Symbolrate 270.833ksps 270.833ksps Payload/burst 346bits 114bits Grossrate/timeslot 69.2kbps 22.8kbps (0,0,1) (1,0,1) (d(3k),d(3k+1),d(3k+2))= (0,0,0) (0,1,0) (0,1,1) (1,1,1) (1,1,0) (1,0,0) • 8-PSK (Phase Shift Keying) has been selected as the new modulation used in EDGE DL: 8-PSK (3п/8 shift) UL: 8-PSK (3п/8 shift) • Non-constant envelope (unlike GMSK) ⇒ high requirements for linearity of the power amplifier • Peak to Average Ratio (PAR) = 3.2 dB • Peak to Minimum Ratio (PMR) = 17 dB • PAR and high symbol dynamic requires excellent linearity in the modulator (DRX) and PA to limit distorsions • Due to amplifier non-linearities, a 2-4 dB power decrease (back-off) is typically needed • 3 bits per symbol • Symbol rate and burst length identical to those of GMSK
  27. 27. 27 Nortel Confidential Information differential encoding -1, +1 Gaussian prefiltering for frequency pulses frequency modulator local oscillator rotation by k3pi/8 Linearized Gaussian Filter for Dirac pulses Gray mapping to 8PSK constellation 3 bits per symbol I & Q (0,0,1) (1,0,1) (d3i, d3i+1, d3i+2)= (0,0,0) (0,1,0) (0,1,1) (1,1,1) (1,1,0) (1,0,0) I Q Gray mapping: 3 bits per symbol and only one bit changes between adjacent symbols GMSK Modulator 8-PSK modulator > The following block diagrams presents the key differences between GMSK and 8-PSK modulations. > EDGE uses a 3п/8-shifted 8-PSK modulation Gray coding bit Ik symbol 111 (7) 0 011 (3) 1 010 (2) 2 000 (0) 3 001 (1) 4 101 (5) 5 100 (4) 6 110 (6) 7 Gray coding symbol BER minimization New modulation: 8-PSK
  28. 28. 28 Nortel Confidential Information • Same structure as for GSM • term 'bit' is replaced by 'symbol’ • Same training sequence correlation • 8-PSK symbol 0 and 4 replace GMSK bit 0 and 1 • PAR = 1.5 dB ; PMR = 4.3 dB • Mobile blind detection GMSK/8-PSK thanks to rotation within Training Sequence • Training sequence (TS) has lower envelope variations • It has seamless switchover between timeslots Training Sequence 26 symbol [same correlation as GMSK ] Payload 58 symbol 8-PSK 174 bits Payload 58 symbol 8-PSK 174 bits 3 Sy. 3 Sy. GP Burst topology 1 symbol equals 1 bit in GMSK vs 3 bits in 8PSK
  29. 29. 29 Nortel Confidential Information EDGE RF Seminar Part – IV E-GPRS Radio interface logical channels
  30. 30. 30 Nortel Confidential Information (E)GPRS Logical Channels • PDTCH (UL or DL) for data traffic • PACCH (UL or DL) for control signaling • PTCCH (UL and DL) for TA update GSM / (E) GPRSGSM / (E) GPRS Common GSM / (E) GPRS BCCH & CCCH (SI, RACH, Paging) PDCH > Existing GSM CCCH and BCCH (with additional system info messages) are used for EGPRS as well • PDCH will carry PDTCH, PACCH and PTCCH (uplink / downlink)
  31. 31. 31 Nortel Confidential Information (E)GPRS Logical Channels > Current (E)GPRS solution • GSM Broadcast Control CHannel will be used • GSM Common Control CHannels will be used • Packet Traffic CHannels will be used. • PDTCH: Packet Data Traffic Channel • PACCH: Packet Associated Control Channel • PTCCH: Packet Timing Advance Control Channel BSS DLDL PCH AGCH PDTCH PACCH PTCCH ULUL PDTCH PACCH PTCCH RACH BCCHBCCH
  32. 32. 32 Nortel Confidential Information (E)GPRS logical channels > All necessary parameters for (E)GPRS access will be broadcast on the BCCH using SI 13.(sys info 13 ) • SI 13 is broadcast by the network on the BCCH • The message provides the MS with GPRS cell specific access related information. > SI 13 message contains information for the (E)GPRS MS: • Routing area code (RAC) • network control parameters (NC0,NC1,NC2) • GPRS power control parameters • Etc.
  33. 33. 33 Nortel Confidential Information (E)GPRS Logical Channels > The PDTCH is used to carry traffic in the UL or DL • Up to 8 PDTCH may be allocated to 1 subscriber on the same TDMA and up to 8 MS can share the same PDCH. (7 on the UL due to one of the USF flags being reserved). • The MAC layer is responsible for the management and contention resolution of the PDCH by static* or dynamic allocation. > The PACCH is associated with the assigned PDTCH and is used to carry control messages. • The PACCH and PDTCH positions (PDCH number) are provided to the MS in the immediate assignment or resource assignment stage. > The PTCCH is used for Timing Advance procedure.
  34. 34. 34 Nortel Confidential Information (E)GPRS Logical Channels > In (E)GPRS, the data traffic channels are not paired (UL/DL) • PDTCH/UL and PDTCH/DL are assigned independently depending on the direction of data being transferred • Not all MS are required to be capable of full duplex operation anyway • The PACCH/DL and PACCH/UL are used during a packet transfer to carry ‘ack’ messages in the other direction and also for assignment/ re-assignment • PACCH is dynamically multiplexed on the same TS/PDCH as PDTCH but has no fixed position and may be used whenever necessary • The PTCCH is the only bi-directional logical channel • Each MS uses access bursts on the PTCCH/UL during packet transfer and the BTS calculates the TA and updates the MS • Multiple MS on the same TS are updated by the same PTCCH/DL control block with different TAI (timing advance identifier) for each mobile
  35. 35. 35 Nortel Confidential Information (E)GPRS Logical Channels > PDCH Multiframe structure • PDTCH, PACCH & PTCCH (for GPRS Phase1) • 52 burst Multiframe • Radio blocks transmitted over 4 bursts belonging to 4 consecutive TDMA frames. (PDTCH, PACCH) • Idle frames used for PTCCH • GSM control channel TS will follow the GSM 51-frame multiframe structure • GSM traffic channels TS will follow the GSM 26-frame multiframe structure • (E)GPRS channels TS will follow the GPRS 52-frame multiframe structure Idle Frames Radio Blocks Radio Blocks UL Idle Frames Radio Blocks Radio Blocks DLTDMA FN 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1112 13 14 1516 1718 1920 2122 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 3536 3738 39 40 4142 43 44 4546 4748 49 50 51 Block B0 B1 B2 X B3 B4 B5 X B6 B7 B8 X B9 B10 B11 X TDMA FN 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 Block B0 B1 B2 X B3 B4 B5 X B6 B7 B8 X B9 B10 B11 X This example shows repetition of bursts over time on the same time slot
  36. 36. 36 Nortel Confidential Information Packet Data Unit: PDU
  37. 37. 37 Nortel Confidential Information EDGE RF Seminar Part – V E-GPRS Procedures & concepts
  38. 38. 38 Nortel Confidential Information (E)GPRS Procedures > Network acquisition • The MS monitors the SYS INFO messages on the BCCH of a cell • The MS then determines whether there is GPRS available on this cell. • The MS can then use the CCCH to attach to the GPRS network and get ready to transmit or receive > Call setup • A (E)GPRS call is initiated in a similar way as compared to GSM except that instead of SDCCH and TCH/SACCH assignment, the MS is assigned PACCH / PDTCH UL or DL • The TSs are assigned based on MS capability and availability of resources
  39. 39. 39 Nortel Confidential Information (E)GPRS protocol stack Frame Relay GTP Application IP / X.25 SNDCP LLC RLC MAC GSM RF SNDCP LLC BSSGP L1bis RLC MAC GSM RF BSSGP L1bis LLC Relay L2 L1 IP L2 L1 IP GTP IP / X.25 Um Gn Gi MS BSS SGSN GGSN UDP / TCP UDP / TCP Gb Relay Frame TFI TLLI SAPI NSAPI Packet Layer Application Layer ApplicationApplication TID Physical Layer RLC/MAC layer
  40. 40. 40 Nortel Confidential Information RLC/MAC & LLC Layer > RLC/MAC is the logical link between the MS and BSS. • Interface between MS and PCU > RLC layer functions • segmentation and re-assembly of LLC frames into RLC data blocks. • Backward error correction (ack mode) and radio block retransmission of unsuccessfully delivered RLC/MAC blocks. > MAC layer functions • Multiplexing of uplink and downlink traffic • Allocation modes: static and dynamic • channel access control (allocation of TBF) > LLC is the logical link between the MS and the SGSN. • Helps in re-initiating a connection after an unwanted TBF release
  41. 41. 41 Nortel Confidential Information (E)GPRS Key Concepts > MM States • Mobility management states (idle, standby, ready) > RR States • Radio resource states (packet idle, packet transfer) > TBF/TFI (b/w MS and the BSS) • Temporary block flow / temporary flow identifier. A TBF corresponds to a set of radio TS (belonging to the same TDMA) allocated to a user > PDP context (b/w MS and GGSN) • Packet data protocol context indicating a high layer service connection between the MS and an access point
  42. 42. 42 Nortel Confidential Information Mobility Management and PDP Context Ready Idle Standby GPRS Attach GPRS Detach STANDBY Timer Expiry READY Timer Expiry or Force to STANDBY PDU Transmission Ready Idle Standby GPRS Attach GPRS Detach or Cancel Location STANDBY Timer Expiry or Cancel Location READY Timer Expiry or Force to STANDBY or Abnormal RLC Condition MS Mobility Management State Model SGSN Activate PDP Context BSS SGSN GGSN The GGSN is then able to route PDP packets for the MS to its SGSN The GGSN is then able to route PDP packets for the MS to its SGSN PDP Context Activation Procedure Activate PDP Context Security Functions Create PDP Context Request Create PDP Context Response Inactive Active Inactive Active Activate PDP context Deactivate PDP Context Inactive Active Deactivate PDP Context SGSNMS GGSN PDP Context State Model Activate PDP context Activate PDP context BSS SGSN HLR GPRS Attach Procedure GPRS Attach Accept Update Location Insert Sub Data Insert Sub Data Ack Update Location Ack Packet Data Channel Request Packet Uplink Assignment GPRS Attach Request
  43. 43. 43 Nortel Confidential Information (E)GPRS Mobility Management IDLE STANDBY READY Cell Updates No Paging RA Updates Paging READY timer expiry GPRS Attach PDU transmission GPRS Detach STANDBY timer expiry The GMM takes place between the MS and the SGSN. The mobility management activities related to a GPRS subscriber are characterized by one of three different GMM states: IDLE, READY and STANDBY.
  44. 44. 44 Nortel Confidential Information (E)GPRS Mobility Management In GPRS IDLE state, the subscriber is not attached to the GMM. Thus, the MS and SGSN MM contexts hold no valid location or routing information for the subscriber. Data transmissions to and from the MS as well as the paging of the subscriber are not possible. In GPRS STANDBY state, the subscriber is attached to the GMM. PS-paging and CS-paging via the SGSN may be received, but data transmission and reception are not possible. At this point, if the subscriber wants to request an e-mail message or a web page, a PDP context must be activated before. In the READY state, the MS location is known on a cell level. The MS performs GMM procedures to provide the network with the actual selected cell, i.e. when reselecting a new GPRS cell the MS shall carry out a Cell update procedure. The MS may send and receive PDP PDU and paging is not performed. The MS may also initiate PDP context activation or deactivation.
  45. 45. 45 Nortel Confidential Information (E)GPRS Session Management IN A C T IV E A c tiv a te P D P c o n te x t A C T IV E D e a c tiv a te P D P c o n te x t o r G M M s ta te c h a n g e to ID L E A GPRS subscription contains one or more PDP addresses. Each PDP address is described by an individual PDP context in the MS, SGSN and GGSN. Every PDP context exists independently in one of two states: INACTIVE or ACTIVE. The PDP state indicates whether the PDP address is activated for data transfer or not. All PDP contexts of a subscriber are associated with the same MM context.
  46. 46. 46 Nortel Confidential Information (E)GPRS Session Management The INACTIVE state characterizes the data service for a certain PDP address of the subscriber as not activated. This means that the PDP context contains no routing or mapping information to process PDP PDU related to that PDP address. So, no data can be transferred. The MS moves from INACTIVE to ACTIVE state by initiating the PDP context activation. In ACTIVE State, the PDP context for the PDP address in use is activated in MS, SGSN and GGSN. The PDP context contains mapping and routing information for transferring PDP PDU for that particular PDP address between MS and GGSN. The PDP state ACTIVE is permitted only when the GMM state of the subscriber is STANDBY or READY. An ACTIVE PDP context for an MS is moved to INACTIVE state when the deactivation procedure is initiated. All active PDP contexts for an MS are moved to INACTIVE when the GMM state changes to IDLE.
  47. 47. 47 Nortel Confidential Information Packet Assignment > MS initiates a packet transfer by sending a Packet channel request on the (P)RACH. • 1 phase (GPRS only) or 2 phase access (GPRS / E-GPRS) > Short access or 1 phase access* • The MS includes all the information needed for channel establishment on the (P)RACH. > Two phase access • This can be initiated by MS or network. • MS receives a single block on (P)AGCH and responds with the Packet resource request message on PACCH. This contains information on the requested resources for UL transfer, I.e. MS capability, file size etc.
  48. 48. 48 Nortel Confidential Information Packet Assignment example > MS - PCU packet transfer procedures MSMS PCUPCU Packet channel request Packet channel request Packet immediate assignment One block allocation Packet resource request (TLLI)MS capability (2 +1), MS capability (2 +1), RLC octet count, RLC mode Packet uplink assignment ARFCN, TBF start time, TFI, TAI, CS
  49. 49. 49 Nortel Confidential Information RR Activation/UL TBF Establishment • Random Access on RACH (TA calculated by BSS) • Immediate Assignment on AGCH • Packet Resource Request by MS on PACCH • Packet UL Assignment by BSS on PACCH • UL PDTCH MM Ready / RR Packet Transfer MM Ready / RR Packet Transfer MM Standby / RR Packet Idle MM Standby / RR Packet Idle TBF Release MM Ready / RR Packet Transfer MM Ready / RR Packet Transfer MM Ready / RR Packet Transfer MM Ready / RR Packet Transfer • Packet UL Assignment on PACCH • Packet Control Ack from MS on PACCH • UL PDTCH TBF Release DL TBF Already assignedMS known in a cellMS known in a RA MM Ready / RR Packet Idle MM Ready / RR Packet Idle MM Ready / RR Packet Transfer MM Ready / RR Packet Transfer • Random Access on RACH (TA calculated by BSS) • Immediate Assignment on AGCH • Packet Resource Request by MS on PACCH • Packet UL Assignment by BSS on PACCH • UL PDTCH
  50. 50. 50 Nortel Confidential Information RR Activation/UL TBF Establishment Packet Downlink ACK/NACK Downlink Data Packet Uplink Assignment(S/P=1) Packet Control Acknowledgement Downlink Data Downlink Data Uplink Data Establishment of an Uplink TBF/ Acces Establishment of an Uplink TBF During Downlink Transfer RACH (CCCH) Channel Required Channel Required IMM. Assign. (AGCH) IMM. Assign. Command IMM. Assign. Command Packet Uplink Assignment FIRST PDTCH Packet Resource Request MS PCUBTS BSC MS PCU
  51. 51. 51 Nortel Confidential Information RR Activation/DL TBF Establishment • Paging on PCH • Random Access on RACH (TA calculated by BSS) • Immediate Assignment on AGCH • Packet DL Assignment on PACCH • Packet Control Ack from MS on PACCH • DL PDTCH MM Ready / RR Packet Transfer MM Ready / RR Packet Transfer MM Standby / RR Packet Idle MM Standby / RR Packet Idle MM Ready / RR Packet Idle MM Ready / RR Packet Idle MM Ready / RR Packet Transfer MM Ready / RR Packet Transfer • Immediate Assignment on AGCH • Packet DL Assignment on PACCH • Packet Control Ack from MS on PACCH (Access bursts on PACCH for TA calculation) • Packet Timing Advance on PTCCH • DL PDTCH MM Ready / RR Packet Transfer MM Ready / RR Packet Transfer MM Ready / RR Packet Transfer MM Ready / RR Packet Transfer • Packet DL Assignment on PACCH • Packet Control Ack from MS on PACCH • DL PDTCH UL TBF Already assignedMS known in a cellMS known in a RA TBF Release TBF Release
  52. 52. 52 Nortel Confidential Information RR Activation/DL TBF Establishment Establishment of a DownLink TBF Establishment of a Downlink TBF during Uplink transfer MS PCUBTS BSC Uplink Bitmap i Uplink Bitmap i+1 MS PCU BSSGP-DL- Unit-Data IMM. Assign. Command IMM. Assignment Packet Downlink Assignment Packet Control Acknowledgement (Over 4 bursts ) Packet Timing Advance First PDTCH PDTCH Packet Uplink Assignment (Bitmap i+1) PDTCH PDTCH Packet Control Acknowledgement PDTCH Packet Downlink Assignment PDTCH Packet Control Acknowledgement PDTCH PDTCH PDTCH PDTCH
  53. 53. 53 Nortel Confidential Information EDGE RF Seminar Part – VI E-GPRS usage
  54. 54. 54 Nortel Confidential Information > Same radio TS can be used simultaneously for GPRS and EDGE > Bandwidth is dynamically shared between : • Voice traffic • GPRS/EDGE traffic > Allows a smooth migration from GPRS MS towards EDGE MS. Increases capacity at no cost Enables EDGE also in low capacity sites BCCH Voice Voice Voice Voice GPRS EDGE GSM TDMA Radio (BCCH in this instance) Voice GPRS EDGE Voice GPRS EDGE GPRS EDGE Voice Voice Voice Voice GPRS EDGE GSM TDMA Radio (non-BCCH in this instance) Voice GPRS EDGE Voice GPRS EDGE GPRS EDGE Voice EDGE TS multiplexing
  55. 55. 55 Nortel Confidential Information EDGE Benefits over GPRS How the Operator can implement it BCCH Voice Voice Voice Voice Voice EDGE EDGE EDGE: 60Kbps data (118Kbps peak), 5 voice channels BCCH Voice Voice GPRS GPRS GPRS GPRSVoice GPRS: 40Kbps data (48 kbps peak), 3 voice channels BCCH Voice Voice GPRS GPRS GPRS GPRSVoice GPRS GPRS GPRS GPRSGPRS GPRS GPRS GPRS GPRS 2 radios: 120Kbps data (144Kbps peak), 3 voice channels BCCH Voice Voice Voice EDGE EDGEEDGE EDGE EDGE 1 radio: 120Kbps data (237Kbps peak), 3 voice channels EDGE as a Capacity Solution EDGE as a Data Quality Solution Or Or a mix of both Increased data and voice capacity Increased data and voice capacity Equal capacity with half the equipment! EDGE Improves Radio Efficiency- Reduces Equipment RequirementsEDGE Improves Radio Efficiency- Reduces Equipment Requirements On a given DRX, number of voice and data users increases. Improves spectral efficiency :
  56. 56. 56 Nortel Confidential Information Data applications Find out where you are 1. Email via mobile Phone or PDA (MMS) 2. Email + Attachment via Laptop 3. Internet/Intranet Access browsing 4. Internet Intranet Access File Transfer 5. Net Meeting 6. Travel Information services 7. Navigation Services 8. Text Based Information (push/pull) 9. Reference services (yellow pages, directory…) 10. Interactive games 11. Banking applications 12. Electronic Ticketing 13. Interactive shopping 14. Image/Video Streaming (MPEG4) 15. Audio Based Services (MP3) > High data rate availability encourages the customers to use these services
  57. 57. 57 Nortel Confidential Information EDGE RF Seminar Part – VII Abbreviations
  58. 58. 58 Nortel Confidential Information EDGE ABBREVIATIONS A ETSI generic name for BSS-NSS i/f Abis ETSI generic name for BTS-BSC i/f Agprs NORTEL specific name for BSC-PCU i/f ARQ Automatic repeat request APN Access point name BCCH Broadcast control channel BH Busy hour BLER Block error rate BSC Base station controller BSN Block sequence number BSN’ Absolute block sequence number BSS Base station subsystem BTS Base transceiver station
  59. 59. 59 Nortel Confidential Information BSSGP BSS GPRS protocol BVC BSSGP virtual connection CCCH Common control channel CS Coding scheme CS-paging Circuit Switched-paging CV Countdown value DL Downlink FAI Final acknowledgement indicator FBI Final block indicator FN Frame number Gb ETSI generic name for PCU-SGSN i/f GGSN Gateway GPRS support node Gi ETSI generic name for GGSN-PDN i/f EDGE ABBREVIATIONS
  60. 60. 60 Nortel Confidential Information GMM GPRS mobility management Gn ETSI generic name for SGSN-GGSN i/f GPRS General packet radio service GSL GPRS signaling link GTP GPRS tunneling protocol HO Handover IE Information element I/F Interface IP Internet protocol IAS Immediate assignment IAREJ Immediate assignment reject IOT Inter-operability tests LA Location area EDGE ABBREVIATIONS
  61. 61. 61 Nortel Confidential Information LAC Location area code LAI Location area identity LAPD Link access protocol on D channel LLC Logical link control MAC Medium access control MCS Modulation and Coding Scheme MO Mobile originated MS Mobile station MT Mobile terminated NMS Network management system N-PDU Network layer-packet data unit NS Network service NSAPI Network service access point identifier EDGE ABBREVIATIONS
  62. 62. 62 Nortel Confidential Information NSS Network and switching subsystem NTS Number of TS assigned to the UL TBF O&M Operation and maintenance OAM Operation administration maintenance OML OAM link PACCH Packet associated control channel PAREJ Packet access reject PBCCH Packet broadcast control channel PCA Packet control acknowledgement PCCCH Packet common control channel PCM Pulse coded modulation PCU Packet control unit PDAN Packet DL Ack/Nack EDGE ABBREVIATIONS
  63. 63. 63 Nortel Confidential Information PDAS Packet DL assignment PDCH Packet data channel PDCB Packet dummy control block PDN Packet data network PDP Packet data protocol PDTCH Packet data traffic channel PDU Packet Data Unit PLMN Public land mobile network PPCTA Packet power control timing advance PPR Packet polling request PRR Packet resource request PTCCH Packet TA control channel PTR Packet TS Reconfigure EDGE ABBREVIATIONS
  64. 64. 64 Nortel Confidential Information PSI Packet system information PS-paging Packet Switched-paging PUAN Packet UL Ack/Nack PUAS Packet UL Assignment QoS Quality of service RA Routing area RAC Routing area code RAI Routing area identifier RACH Random access channel RBB Receive block bitmap RLC Radio link control RRBP Related reserved block period RRM Radio Resource Management EDGE ABBREVIATIONS
  65. 65. 65 Nortel Confidential Information RSL Radio signaling link SAPI Service access point identifier SFH Slow frequency hopping SI Stall indicator SI n SysInfo n SGSN Serving GPRS support node SM Session management SNDCP Sub-network dependent convergence protocol SSN Starting sequence number TA Timing advance TAI Timing advance index TBC Number of RLC data blocks to be transmitted in the TBF TBF Temporary block flow EDGE ABBREVIATIONS
  66. 66. 66 Nortel Confidential Information TCP Transmission control protocol TDMA Time division multiple access TFI Temporary flow identity TID Tunnel identity TLLI Temporary logical link identifier TRX BTS transceiver entity TS Timeslot UL Uplink USF UL state flag EDGE ABBREVIATIONS
  67. 67. 67 Nortel Confidential Information Access Time Slot : TS assigned by the PCU to the BTS and containing access blocks. Those blocks may be allocated by the BTS for Packet Resources Request transmission (“CCCH at BTS” feature). Block period: is the sequence of 4 TS on 4 successive TDMA used to convey 1 radio block. (20ms) CV: indicates in which state the countdown procedure is. EDGE Radio data block: represents a block of the TRAU frame that is sent or received every 20ms and that uses MCS1 to MCS9. An EDGE data block using MCS7, MCS8 or MCS9 is composed of 2 RLC data blocks. All other MCS are composed of only 1 RLC data block, except MCS2 and 3 if the block has been re-segmented (1/2 RLC block in that case). Joker DS0 : On Abis, 64 kbps timeslot used as joker for an Edge TDMA. The total number of DS0 used for an Edge TDMA consists in 2 main DS0 plus joker(s) DS0. Multi-slot Class: indicates the UL and DL capabilities of the MS. EDGE DEFINITIONS
  68. 68. 68 Nortel Confidential Information PDP context: information set stored at MS, SGSN and GGSN, enabling data exchange with a PDP network. ON period: one ON period corresponds to the transfer of information (web page, e- mail…) at the GPRS application layer (above IP/X25). OFF period: one OFF period corresponds to the time between two ON periods. Packet idle mode: in this mode, one MS is not allocated any radio resource on a PDCH. Then, it listens to the BCCH and the CCCH. Packet transfer mode: in this mode, one MS is prepared to transfer LLC PDU and then is allocated radio resource on one or more PDCH to carry out this transfer. PBCCH: used to broadcast the PSI. The presence of PBCCH logical channel in the cell is indicated in the SI 13 on BCCH (providing GPRS specific information). If PBCCH is not present in the serving cell (V15.0 case), the MS shall receive the SI n messages broadcast on BCCH. Most of these SI are for GSM, only SI 13 and minor extensions in SI 3, SI 4, SI 7 and SI 8 are needed for GPRS. Then, all the common control channels are the GSM CCCH logical channels and the only GPRS logical channels used on PDCH are PDTCH for data traffic and the associated control channels PACCH and PTCCH. EDGE DEFINITIONS
  69. 69. 69 Nortel Confidential Information PDCH: is a physical channel dedicated to packet data traffic. Pipe: set of resources allocated to one TBF at one time characterized by: All parameters allocated to the TBF (USF, TFI…). A set of UL and/or DL TS. When a TBF is opened, a pipe is opened. In order to optimize the throughput, a TBF can be associated to a set of subsequent pipes. One pipe in a TBF is closed, and replaced by another one, when: The PCU allocator modifies the UL and/or DL TS allocation. A switch from half-duplex to full-duplex transfer is done. QoS parameters change. The TBF is released. Reaction time: the GSM specifications (see [5.08]) gives 3 blocks delay (60 ms) to the MS, in order to listen allocated TS, after reception of the allocation order. EDGE DEFINITIONS
  70. 70. 70 Nortel Confidential Information RLC Data Block: Block uniquely identified by its Block Sequence Number (BSN), as defined in 04.60 RLC-MODE: indicates the acknowledged (0) or non-acknowledged (1) RLC mode of operation. SI: indicates whether the MS RLC transmit window is stalled (1) or not (0). TBF: the radio resource allocations are called TBF in GPRS. One TBF is allocated to a GPRS MS during radio transfer duration. It corresponds to a set of radio blocks on packet switched TS (PDCH) belonging to the same TDMA. •From the PCU allocator point of view, a TBF has been established as soon as one block is allocated to on the Um i/f. •From a user point of view, it can be considered that a TBF has been established when user data is transferred on the Um i/f. TFI: identifies the TBF. Timeslot DS0 : On Abis, 64 kbps timeslot Timeslot Agprs : On Agprs, 16 kbps timeslot EDGE DEFINITIONS
  71. 71. 71 Nortel Confidential Information

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