• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content
04 wo np01 e1_1 umts coverage estimation-72
 

04 wo np01 e1_1 umts coverage estimation-72

on

  • 316 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
316
Views on SlideShare
316
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
32
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Adobe PDF

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    04 wo np01 e1_1 umts coverage estimation-72 04 wo np01 e1_1 umts coverage estimation-72 Presentation Transcript

    • UMTS Coverage Estimation ZTE University
    • Content  Link Budget  Coverage Scale Estimation  UTRAN Coverage Solutions
    • Dimension estimation  UMTS radio network dimension estimation is a process of calculating amount and configuration of equipment based on the goal of coverage, capacity and quality. coverage Balance quality capacity Perfect solution: the balance among coverage, capacity and quality.
    • Radio Network Planning Flow Enquiry Analyses Requirement Analyses Capability Estimation Build Model Propagation Model Test Site Allocation Site Survey Survey Site Selection Simulation System Simulation and Authentication Output Planning Report Propagation Model calibration
    • Estimation based on coverage and capacity  Determine the number of Node B according to coverage    Determine the number of Node B according to users’ capacity    Uplink coverage, downlink coverage→Coverage radius of cells Account required Node B number Uplink capacity, downlink capacity→the number of users supported per cell Account required Node B number Take the bigger value between the two.
    • Link Budget and Models Penetration loss Antenna gain Feeder loss Shadow margin Propagation loss NodeB sensitivity UE power Human body loss PA   Simply, link budget is to perform accounting on all losses and gains on a communication link. Definition: Estimate the system coverage capability by reviewing and analyzing all kinds of influence factors in the propagation path of forward and reverse signals, and obtain the maximum propagation loss allowed on the link under certain call qualities.
    • Transmitting Power   The NodeB transmitting power is a system parameter, different for individual services. It shall be determined in accordance with service type and service coverage. The maximum transmitting power of NodeB is 43 dBm. The power of the dedicated channel (DCH) accounts for 63% of the total power.
    • Transmitting Power  TS25.101 stipulates the UEs in four power levels Power Class Tolerance 1 +33 dBm +1/-3 dB 2 +27 dBm +1/-3 dB 3 +24 dBm +1/-3 dB 4  Nominal Maximum Output Power +21 dBm ± 2 dB During link budget, it is generally taken to 21 dBm for voice service and 24 dBm for data service (supported by a small number of UEs). At present it is taken to 21 dBm uniformly.
    • Receiver Sensitivity  Sensitivity = kTB + NF + Eb/No – PG      kT is the level of hot noise (dBm/Hz) B is the bandwidth of the UMTS carrier frequency (Hz) NF is the noise figure (dB) Eb/No is the required bit S/N ratio PG is the processing gain (dB)
    • Receiver Sensitivity Noise Rise (interference Margin) Rx sensitivity Noise Figure + De-spread De-modulation Thermal Noise Eb/No Eb/No-PG
    • Thermal Noise  Environment hot noise power spectrum density  N=KTB/B=KT  K= 1.380650*10E-23 Boltzmann’s constant  T: absolute temperature(=Celsius temperature+273.15)  B: Receiver bandwidth, the bandwidth for UMTS system is 3.84MHz ,Usually is -174dBm/Hz
    • Noise Figure  The noise figure of the receiver is the noise introduced by receiver during processing. It equals to the ratio of input signal/noise to the output signal/noise:     F=(Si/Ni)/(So/No) NF=10logF Node B: 3~5dB UE: 5~7dB
    • Quality Factors  Eb/No bit energy/noise spectrum density. The value of Eb/No relates to:       Power spectrum the service type moving speed encode/decode algorithm antenna diversity type power control multi-path environment Required Eb/No Subscriber 3 Subscriber 2 Noise Subscriber 1 Eb/No = S R × W N = S N X W R = S N X PG
    • Quality Factors   Eb/No is related to the service type, moving speed, coding/decoding algorithm, antenna diversify, power control, and multi-path environment Eb/No Values Under Different Channel Environments in 3GPP Channel Rate (kbit/s) Required Error Block Rate Recommend ed Value by 3GPP Channel Rate (kbit/s) Required Error Block Rate Recommende d Value by 3GPP Channel Rate (kbit/s) Required Error Block Rate Recommend ed Value by 3GPP 12.2 <10-1 n.a 12.2 <10-1 n.a 12.2 <10-1 n.a <10-2 5.1 dB <10-2 11.9 dB <10-2 9.0 dB <10-1 1.5 dB <10-1 6.2 dB <10-1 4.3 dB <10-2 1.7 dB <10-2 9.2 dB <10-2 6.4 dB <10-1 0.8 dB <10-1 5.4 dB <10-1 3.7 dB <10-2 0.9 dB <10-2 8.4 dB <10-2 5.6 dB <10-1 0.9 dB <10-1 5.8 dB <10-1 4.1 dB <10-2 1.0 dB <10-2 8.8 dB <10-2 6.1 dB 64 144 384 Static propagation condition 64 144 384 Multi-path channel 1 64 144 384 Multi-path channel 2
    • Processing Gain  Processing gain = Chip rate/Bit rate (PG = W/R)  Different services have different processing gains. As a result, their service coverage is different. PG = 25dB PG = 18dB PG = 10dB Voice 12.2 kbps Data 64 kbps Data 384 kbps NodeB
    • Antenna Gain  NodeB antenna gain    During link budget, suppose the directional antenna gain of the NodeB to 17 dBi and the omni-directional receiving antenna gain to 11 dBi. In practice, different antennas can be selected in accordance with different region types and coverage requirements. UE antenna gain  The UE antenna gain is 0 dBi.
    • Soft Handover Gain   Soft handover gain indicates the gain to overcome slow fading. When the mobile equipment is located in the soft handover region, multiple wireless links of soft handover receive signals at the same time, which decreases the requirement for the shadow fading margin. Macro diversity gain Soft handover region
    • Body loss  When the handset is positioned at user’s waist or shoulder, the received signal will be 4~7dB or 1~2 dB lower than the value when it is positioned several wavelengths away from the body. Usually the value is 3dB.
    • Penetration loss   The penetration loss of buildings refers to the attenuation of radio waves when they pass through the outer structure of buildings. It equals the difference between field-strength medians in and out of a building. It is related to the material and thickness of buildings.
    • Feeder Loss    For a feeder of 30-40 meters long, suppose the total feeder loss to 4 dB (including the connector loss) during link budget. For a feeder of 40-50 meters long, suppose the total feeder loss to 5 dB (including the connector loss) during link budget. The feeder loss may decrease the NodeB receiving level and shorten the coverage radius. Tower amplifiers can be used to compensate the feeder loss on the uplink.
    • Radio Propagation Characteristics Signal (dBm) Mean signal intensity = + Slow fading Distance + Fast fading
    • Shadow Fading Margin     The shadow fading complies with lognormal distribution. Its value is related to the sector edge communication probability and shadow fading standard deviation, while the latter is related to the electromagnetic wave propagation environment. In the radio space propagation, the path loss of any a given distance changes rapidly and the path loss value can be regarded as a random variable in conformity with lognormal distribution. In the case of network design in accordance with the average path loss, the loss value of points at the cell edge shall be larger than the path loss median for 50% of time period, and smaller than the median for the left 50% of time period. That is, the edge coverage probability of the cell is 50% only. To improve coverage probability of the cell, it is necessary to reserve the fading margin during link budget.
    • Shadow Fading Margin     Suppose the random variable of propagation loss to  , the average value to m, and the standard deviation to  . Set a loss threshold  1 . When  <  1 , the signals can meet the demodulation requirement of expected service qualities. The edge coverage probability equal to or larger than 75% can be represented as: 1  ( m )2 2 2 1 d  0.75 e 2    For the outdoor environment, the standard deviation of the random  variable of propagation loss is always taken to 8 dB.  The corresponding shadow fading margin is: Pcov erage  Pr (   1)  | m   1 | 0.675  0.675  8  5.4dB
    • Shadow Fading Margin Accumulated normal probability distribution Median Deviation with median signal m Normal distribution probability density function Standard deviation =8  1  m  0.675  0.675  8  5.4dB Threshold Propagation loss
    • Shadow Fading Margin Shadow fading margin (dB) Edge coverage probability
    • Power control margin  fast attenuation margin  Use to overcome the power control variation range of fast fading (Rayleigh fading). The fast power control margin in walking speed is 2.0~5.0dB, in high moving speed is about 0 dB.
    • Interference Margin  Interference reserve, Noise Rise Limit   UMTS is a self-interfered system whose coverage is closely related to the capacity. It is represented as interference margin in the link budget. Typical value: 1~3dB, according to load between 20~50% (uplink).
    • Interference Margin  Coverage, Capacity and Stability 12 Capacity increases System unstable Noise Rise 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% Loading
    • Uplink Budget Process Parameter. Symbol Tx Power (dBm) A Tx Antenna Gain (dBi) B Tx Body Loss (dB) C Tx Feeder Loss (dB) D Tx EIRP (dBm) E Thermal Noise Density (dBm/Hz) F Thermal Noise (dBm) G Receiver Noise Figure (dB) H Receiver Noise (dBm) I Interference Margin (dB) J BitRate (kbps) K Process Gain (dB) L Required Eb/No (dB) M Receiver Sensitivity (dBm) N Rx Antenna Gain (dBi) O Rx Feeder Loss (dB) P Rx Body Loss (dB) Q Power control headroom (dB) R Soft Handover Gain (dB) S Shadow Fading Margin (dB) T Penetration Loss(dB) U Max Allowable Path Loss (dB) V Procedure E=A+B-C-D G=F+10*LOG(3840000) I=G+H L=10*LOG(3840/K) N=I+J-L+M V=E-N+O-P-Q-R+S-T-U
    • Uplink/Downlink Balance    The downlink cell radius is related to the number of subscribers in the cell, the location and services of the subscriber. The downlink is usually limited by the capacity. When the load of the cell increases, the condition of limited downlink may occur. The balance between the uplink and downlink needs the help of planning software for iterative calculation.
    • R99 Uplink Link Budget Example Tx Power [dBm] Antenna Gain [dBi] TX Body Loss [dB] Feeder Loss [dB] EIRP [dBm] Thermal Noise Density [dMm/HZ] Thermal Noise [dBm] Receiver Noise Figure [dB] Receiver Noise [dBm] Bit Rate [kbit/s] Process Gain [dB] RX Required Eb/No [dB] Receiver Sensitivity [dBm] Interference Margin [dB] Antenna Gain [dBi] Feeder Loss [dB] Body Loss [dB] Power control headroom [dB] Soft Handover Gain [dB] Margin Shadow Fading Margin [dB] Penetration Loss [dB] Max Allowable Outdoor Path Loss [dB] Outdoor Coverage Cell Raius [km] Max Allowable Indoor Path Loss [dB] Indoor Coverage Cell Raius [km] CS12.2K 21.00 0.00 3.00 0.00 18.00 -174.00 -108.16 2.20 -105.96 12.2 24.98 4.20 -126.74 3.01 18.00 2.80 0.00 2.00 3.00 8.70 20.00 149.23 1.74 129.23 0.47 CS64K 21.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 21.00 -174.00 -108.16 2.20 -105.96 64 17.78 2.70 -121.04 3.01 18.00 2.80 0.00 2.00 3.00 8.70 20.00 146.53 1.45 126.53 0.39 PS64K 21.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 21.00 -174.00 -108.16 2.20 -105.96 64 17.78 1.60 -122.14 3.01 18.00 2.80 0.00 2.00 3.00 8.70 20.00 147.63 1.56 127.63 0.42
    • R99 Down Link Budget Example CS12.2K Tx Power [dBm] 33.00 Antenna Gain [dBi] 18.00 TX Body Loss [dB] 0.00 Feeder Loss [dB] 2.80 EIRP [dBm] 48.20 Thermal Noise Density [dMm/HZ] -174.00 Thermal Noise [dBm] -108.16 Receiver Noise Figure [dB] 7.00 Receiver Noise [dBm] -101.16 Bit Rate [kbit/s] 12.2 Process Gain [dB] 24.98 RX Required Eb/No [dB] 7.50 Receiver Sensitivity [dBm] -118.64 Interference Margin [dB] 6.00 Antenna Gain [dBi] 0.00 Feeder Loss [dB] 0.00 Body Loss [dB] 3.00 Power control headroom [dB] 2.00 Soft Handover Gain [dB] 3.00 Margin Shadow Fading Margin [dB] 8.70 Penetration Loss [dB] 20.00 Max Allowable Outdoor Path Loss [dB] 150.14 Outdoor Coverage Cell Raius [km] 1.84 Max Allowable Indoor Path Loss [dB] 130.14 Indoor Coverage Cell Raius [m] 0.50 CS64K 33.00 18.00 0.00 2.80 48.20 -174.00 -108.16 7.00 -101.16 64 17.78 5.20 -113.74 6.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 2.00 3.00 8.70 20.00 148.24 1.63 128.24 0.44 PS64K 33.00 18.00 0.00 2.80 48.20 -174.00 -108.16 7.00 -101.16 64 17.78 4.80 -114.14 6.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 2.00 3.00 8.70 20.00 148.64 1.67 128.64 0.45 PS128K 35.00 18.00 0.00 2.80 50.20 -174.00 -108.16 7.00 -101.16 128 14.77 4.50 -111.43 6.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 2.00 3.00 8.70 20.00 147.93 1.59 127.93 0.43 PS384K 38.00 18.00 0.00 2.80 53.20 -174.00 -108.16 7.00 -101.16 384 10.00 4.30 -106.86 6.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 2.00 3.00 8.70 20.00 146.36 1.44 126.36 0.39 PCPICH 33.00 18.00 0.00 2.80 48.20 -90.00 6.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 8.70 20.00 123.50 0.32
    • HSDPA Link budget  Cell edge coverage bit rate decide the cell radius  Demodulation threshold is Es/No  Without soft handover and fast power control, so the Power control headroom and soft handover gain is zero  Body loss is Zero.
    • HSDPA Downlink budget Example PS128K Tx Power [dBm] 35.00 Antenna Gain [dBi] 18.00 TX Body Loss [dB] 0.00 Feeder Loss [dB] 2.80 EIRP [dBm] 50.20 Thermal Noise Density [dMm/HZ] -174.00 Thermal Noise [dBm] -108.16 Receiver Noise Figure [dB] 7.00 Receiver Noise [dBm] -101.16 Bit Rate [kbit/s] 128 Process Gain [dB] 14.77 RX Required Eb/No (Es/No) [dB] 4.50 Receiver Sensitivity [dBm] -111.43 Interference Margin [dB] 6.00 Antenna Gain [dBi] 0.00 Feeder Loss [dB] 0.00 Body Loss [dB] 0.00 Power control headroom [dB] 2.00 Soft Handover Gain [dB] 3.00 Margin Shadow Fading Margin [dB] 8.70 Penetration Loss [dB] 20.00 Max Allowable Outdoor Path Loss [dB] 147.93 Outdoor Coverage Cell Raius [m] 1.59 Max Allowable Indoor Path Loss [dB] 127.93 Indoor Coverage Cell Raius [m] 0.43 PS384K 38.00 18.00 0.00 2.80 53.20 -174.00 -108.16 7.00 -101.16 384 10.00 4.30 -106.86 6.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 2.00 3.00 8.70 20.00 146.36 1.44 126.36 0.39 HSDPA 37.00 18.00 0.00 2.80 52.19 -174.00 -108.16 7.00 -101.16 600 12.04 6.19 -107.1 6.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 8.70 20.00 144.5 1.27 124.5 0.34
    • HSUPA Uplink budget Example CS12.2K Tx Power [dBm] 21.00 Antenna Gain [dBi] 0.00 TX Body Loss [dB] 3.00 Feeder Loss [dB] 0.00 EIRP [dBm] 18.00 Thermal Noise Density [dMm/HZ] -174.00 Thermal Noise [dBm] -108.16 Receiver Noise Figure [dB] 2.20 Receiver Noise [dBm] -105.96 Bit Rate [kbit/s] 12.2 Process Gain [dB] 24.98 RX Required Eb/No [dB] 4.20 Receiver Sensitivity [dBm] -126.74 Interference Margin [dB] 3.01 Antenna Gain [dBi] 18.00 Feeder Loss [dB] 2.80 Body Loss [dB] 0.00 Power control headroom [dB] 2.00 Soft Handover Gain [dB] 3.00 Margin Shadow Fading Margin [dB] 8.70 Penetration Loss [dB] 20.00 Max Allowable Outdoor Path Loss [dB] 149.23 Outdoor Coverage Cell Raius [m] 1.74 Max Allowable Indoor Path Loss [dB] 129.23 Indoor Coverage Cell Raius [m] 0.47 CS64K 21.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 21.00 -174.00 -108.16 2.20 -105.96 64 17.78 2.70 -121.04 3.01 18.00 2.80 0.00 2.00 3.00 8.70 20.00 146.53 1.45 126.53 0.39 PS64K 21.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 21.00 -174.00 -108.16 2.20 -105.96 64 17.78 1.60 -122.14 3.01 18.00 2.80 0.00 2.00 3.00 8.70 20.00 147.63 1.56 127.63 0.42 HSUPA 24.00 2.00 0.00 0.00 25.59 -174.00 -108.16 2.20 -105.96 600 -7.00 -113.96 3.01 18.00 2.80 0.00 2.00 3.00 8.70 20.00 143.04 1.16 123.04 0.31
    • Content  Link Budget  Coverage Scale Estimation  UTRAN Coverage Solutions
    • Calculation of NodeB Coverage Radius  Link budget is a key component in coverage planning Link budget Coverage target Max. allowed path loss Coverage radius Propagation model  Link budget can help understand the impacts made by parameters on network
    • Cell Coverage Radius Calculation   Although the model of macro cell can be in different forms, most of them are a “slope-intercept” model Common formula  Path loss = k1 + k2log(d)+ k3Hms + k4log(Hms) +k5log(Heff) + k6log(Heff)log(d) + k7 + clutterloss k1 152.4 k2 44.6 k5 -13.82 k6 -6.55 Heff 30
    • Calculation of NodeB Coverage Area Six-sector directional NodeB (65°) D Omni-directional NodeB Three-sector directional NodeB (65°) R R D D R 3 S 3R 2 2 D  3R 9 S 3R 2  1.95R 2 8 3 S 3R 2 2 3 R 2 D  3R D
    • Content  Link Budget  Coverage Scale Estimation  UTRAN Coverage Solutions    Mid-high traffic areas coverage solution Low traffic areas coverage solution Indoor environment coverage solution
    • Mid-high Traffic Areas Coverage Solutions Mid-high Traffic Areas Dense Urban Indoor macro Node B Coverage Solutions Common Urban Macro Node B +RRU Sceneries BBU +RRU Big Markets Outdoor macro Node B Street BBU+RRU Large Scale Factories Street micro Node B
    • High Performance Indoor Macro Node B Coverage Support 9CS RRU Support Local 12CS Integrative RF Module Receiving Sensitivity (single antenna): -126.5dBm S333, 20W@Carrier Support UMTS 4 carriers, 6 sectors 3C Output power: 20W/40W/60W 2C S444, 20W@Carrier 1C S222222, 20W@Carrier High Capacity Baseband 3C 2C configuration  Flexible Configuration: Baseband: 128CE~1344CE 1C Flexible Networking  Different Phases  Support ATM/TDM  HSDPA supported networking Maximum S444 and S222222  2C 1C 1344CE supported with full Flexible Capacity 4C  HSUPA supported Support IP and TDM hybrid  Smooth evolution to HSPA+ transmission  Support all IP networking
    • Flexible Deployments of RRUs MSC Server ZXWR serial RRU SGSN MGW RNC GGSN Macro Node B RNC BBU Large scale BBU RRU RRU RRU ZXWR BBUB  In mid-high traffic areas the RRUs can be flexibly deployed Macro Node B RRU Macro Node B Construction RRU Flexible deployment of RRUs when there is not enough site room:  Macro Node B+ RRU  BBU+ RRU  BBU pool+RRU It is an innovation to flexibly deploy RRUs Out door construction reduces High efficiency PA makes cost and rent smaller Node B and lower power consumption
    • High Performance Outdoor Macro Node B Coverage Flexible Configuration: 1750mm Maximum S444 or S222222 Dividable Rack High Reliability 300AH battery, average work time 9 hours Depth only 0.6m Footprint only 0.72m2 1200mm    Apply B8812 when there is short of equipment room. B8812 is designed with modular structure. It is compact and features with anti thief/break. High capacity B8812 is built in transmission, power, air conditioner, etc.
    • The difficulties of Dense Urban Coverage  The deployment of macro Node B meets the requirement of capacity  Many high buildings make wireless signals barrier seriously.  Difficult to find sites, especially rooftop platform  Traffic explosion needs  high system capacity High cost of associated equipments and renting SOLUTION The street Node B solution does not need rooftop platform and associated equipments
    • BBU + RRU Structure in Street Solution  The BBU plus RRU solution can be deployed in the urban areas Street Node B where there are not rooftop platform and site room.  RRU and lightning proof box are installed in the pole. Beautify antenna and lightning rod on top of the pole.  BBU connects with RRU by fibers.  Outdoor integrated cabinet can accept BBU, power supply, batteries and transmission equipment. Outdoor integrated cabinet ZXWR BBUB Fiber on pole The BBU plus RRU structure in street Node B solution can greatly reduce the network construction cost and speedup network deployment. ZXWR R8840
    • Requirements of BBU + RRU Structure for Street Coverage BBU with high capacity satisfies the flexible expansion To support HSPA function and even HSPA+ by software upgrade RRU with high PA efficiency and small volume RRU can be smoothly upgraded to support 4CS Baseband Capacity 512 ~768 CE Carries 12CS Size 132×482×330mm(H ×W×D) Outdoor type RRU ZXWR BBUB Weight Power Consumption 15kg 300W Output power 20/40W Size ZXWR R8840 1C1S ~ 4C1S 360×320×165mm(H ×W×D) Weight Indoor type BBU Carries 16.5kg Power consumption 170W ZTE can provide serial street Node B which can meet different environment requirements. BBU and RRU should be smaller volume, flexible installation.
    • Outdoor Micro Node B in Street Solution  The outdoor micro Node B solution can be deployed in the urban areas where can not install fibers.  The micro Node Bs and lightning proof box are hidden in pole-piers. Beautify antenna and lightning rod on top of the pole.  Iub interface supports IP transmission.  The power supply is 220V/110V AC, UPS and batteries are hidden nearby. Install along streets Covering areas
    • Content  Link Budget  Coverage Scale Estimation  UTRAN Coverage Solutions    Mid-high traffic areas coverage solution Low traffic areas coverage solution Indoor environment coverage solution
    • Low Traffic Areas Coverage Solutions Low traffic Areas suburb Macro Node B+RRU Coverage solutions rural BBU+RRU roads Micro Node B tunnel 4 antennas receiving highway OTSR
    • Radiated Coverage of Macro Node B + RRU Macro Node B with room site and transmission Microwave transmission introduced Site 3 SDH/PDH Site 2 Site 1 Construction detail  Macro Node B with BBU function will be deployed if there is room site and transmission RRU can be deployed when there is not enough room. RRU connects with macro Node B by fibers. RRU RRU Microwave can be chosen as one kind of transmission between sites.
    • Distributed Coverage of Macro Node B + RRU  BBU is put in the center of small town. RRU can be put in the residential areas or small markets. BBU and RRU are connected by fiber on pole.   BBU can be embedded in the integrated cabinet. Several RRUs stack together to form BBU pool. The distance between BBU and RRU is up to 40Km. The topology of BBU and RRU networks can use link or circle style. Market 1 RRU Market 2 RRU Center BBU Market 3 RRU Market 4 RRU
    • Outdoor Micro Node B Coverage Solution  Highway  Tunnel +  Rural  Suburb ZXWR B8803+REPEATER  Coverage Solution   The choice of outdoor micro Node B and repeater can meet the requirement of tunnels coverage. In low traffic areas the micro Node Bs are good choice to make fast deployment.
    • Coverage Enhancement Technology The advantages of 4-atenna receiving Coverage with 2-atenna receiving RF CH 1 Coverage with 4-atenna receiving More 20% of uplink coverage RH CH 2 Baseband transaction RF CH 3 RF CH 4 The adoption of 4-antenna receiving technology can widen more 14-22% covering radius of one site. In low traffic areas the 23-33% of total sites can be reduced by adoption of 4-atenna receiving technology.
    • OTSR Technology for Low Traffic Areas Coverage STSR DDL DDL DDL DDL DDL Splitter DDL LPA LPA LPA LPA DDL OTSR LPA It can get the 3 sectors coverage with purpose in term of the same investment of omni antenna. The gain of omni antenna is lower 7dB than sector antenna. The STSR covering radium is broader than OMNI. OTSR technology is a good choice for the places where have low voice traffic and need broad coverage. OMNI
    • Dense Urban Flexible Outdoor Coverage Solution   Indoor Macro B8912 Outdoor Macro B8812 BBU+RRU Smooth Expansion  + High Capacity Wide Coverage  High Stability Medium Capacity  Save Equipment room  Flexible Deployment  High Reliability + Outdoor Micro B8803 + Outdoor Micro B8803 BBU+RRU Wide Coverage  Flexible Deployment  Rural  High Reliability Outdoor Macro B8812 BBU+RRU Urban/Suburb 
    • Content  Link Budget  Coverage Scale Estimation  UTRAN Coverage Solutions    Mid-high traffic areas coverage solution Low traffic areas coverage solution Indoor environment coverage solution
    • Traditional Indoor Coverage Solution for Office Environment Penetration Coverage  Outdoor Macro Node B  Outdoor Micro Node B Repeater Coverage  Passive Distribution System  Active Distribution System  Fiber Distribution System RF Repeater  Signal Source plus Distributed System  Fiber Repeater
    • Penetration Coverage by Outdoor Macro Node B  A simple indoor coverage solution.  To tolerate 10-20dB path loss because of the separate wall.  Not having good covering effects because of the loss.  This solution is suitable for the residential areas where the buildings are lower than 7 floors. The penetration coverage by outdoor macro Node B can’t meet the requirements of the most indoor coverage occasions
    • Signal Source plus Distributed System Coverage Solution  The signal source is from macro or micro Node B, or RRU and repeaters.  The passive or active coaxial cable, fiber or leak cable can be chosen for distributed system. UMTS signal GSM signal GSM site Combiner Antenna UMTS site Passive IDS Power loss won’t be avoided by means of the signal source plus distributed system coverage solution.
    • RF Repeater Coverage Solution RF repeater covering directly  RF repeater can be used for some confined areas coverage.  RF repeater Some problems follows with RF repeater coverage including  Uplink noise increasing to affect the system performances.  Impossible to expand the capacity. RF repeater RF repeater plus indoor distributed system RF repeater coverage solution is only suitable to the confined areas or the indoor edge areas.
    • Fiber Repeater Coverage Solution   Fiber repeater is adopted for some special requirements. Several problems appears with the fiber repeater coverage including    The high cost of optical elements Uplink noise increasing to affect the system performances. Impossible to expand the capacity. Fiber repeater Fiber HUB Fiber repeater coverage solution is an expensive choice.
    • Summary of the Traditional Coverage Solutions  The penetration coverage of outdoor macro Node B cannot meet the requirements of most indoor coverage occasions  Most of traditional coverage solutions adopt signal source plus indoor distributed system.  The traditional indoor coverage solutions meet the covering but not capacity requirements.  The GSM indoor distributed system has to be upgraded to support UMTS frequency band.  RF repeaters cannot be expanded in capacity , and fiber repeaters are very expensive.
    • The New Requirements for UMTS Indoor Coverage System requirements Low cost equipments  High capacity  Small size  Multi-carriers  Low CAPEX and OPEX  Easy to upgrade  No noise Easy to install  Transmission by fiber or twisted-pair  Flexible monitor and O&M  Several power voltage input choices  Few initial parameters setting
    • BBU + RRU Solution to Meet Traffic Shifting Requirements Go to work Residential area RRU CBD area RRU Off duty OMC  To share baseband resources  To reduce the repetitive BBU construction BBU pool
    • Micro RRU Indoor Distributed Solution Small or medium scale buildings with GSM indoor distributed system Reuse the existing IDS with fast deployment and convenient upgrading BBU + Micro RRU + IDS  Micro RRU has advantages on high power and low cost effective. It can be also used as the resource of indoor distributing system.  With high efficiency power amplifier, Micro RRU has the benefits on low thermal and power consumption, small size, light, portable, GSM Source and easy installation.  Future expansion can be easily achieved by only expanding BBU BBU Micro RRU Power splitter Combiner Coupler
    • Perfect Indoor Coverage Solutions New Building Coverage Sharing Macro Node B’s Capacity Indoor Blind Spot Supplement Macro Node B Macro Node B Antenna P8925 Outdoor Signal P Bridge P Bridge 3G BBU Antenna P8925 Antenna P8925 Pico RRU can be deployed directly without distributed system for its small output power. It can greatly improve the capacity and quality of indoor coverage.
    • Perfect Indoor Coverage Solutions Antenna P8925 Expansion capability: cell splitting, LOW TCO  Wide Coverage: Pico RRU can be deployed at the bottom of coverage area, low RF loss, realize high quality indoor coverage.  P Bridge High Capacity: flexible configure the capacity to meet requirements, cell splitting with software upgrade to smoothly expand capacity. Lower TCO.  Flexible Networking: adjustable power, single layer, single point optimization according to traffic distribution. 40 mm 250 mm 200 mm 3G BBU
    • Power Supply for Pico RRU and Indoor Antennas  Power supply  The power supply of Pico RRU is provided by the P Bridge equipment. They are connected by twisted-pairs.  The power supply of micro RRU and BBU can be -48V DC or 110V/220V AC. Traditional indoor antennas Indoor beautify antennas
    • The New Requirements to Indoor Equipments  BBU  To with high capacity satisfies the flexible expansion support HSPA function and even HSPA+ by software upgrading  RRU with high PA efficiency, small volume and natural cooling  Easy to install. Power supply can be AC or DC. Carrier 1C1S Output power 250mW 350X260X95mm (H×W×D) Size 200×250×40mm (H×W×D) Weight 8.5 kg Weight 1.5kg Power consumption 90W Power consumption 12W Carrier ZXWR R8905 Output power 5W Size Micro RRU 1C1S Pico RRU ZXWR P8925 ZTE can provide serial indoor RRUs with less than 9L size. All the RRUs are passive natural cooling and easy to install.
    • Various Indoor Coverage Solutions  Flexible V3+ indoor coverage solution satisfies different scenarios with different requirements for coverage and capacity. Solution for buildings and residential areas coverage Indoor Capacity Pico Access Solution Home Access Solution High + P Bridge BBUB + DSL Modem + P8925 H8901 Pico RRU + IDS BBU+RRU Macro Node B +IDS Middle + BBUB B8912 + P8925 + IDS overlay solution IDS Micro RRU + IDS Micro Node B + IDS Low BBUB B8803 + + R8905 + IDS Indoor Coverage IDS Small Middle Traditional overlay solution Large