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PRESENTATION SKILLS
<ul><li>PART I  - INTRODUCTION </li></ul><ul><li>PART II  - PREPARING A PRESENTATION </li></ul><ul><li>PART III  - PREPARI...
PART I - INTRODUCTION <ul><li>WHAT IS A PRESENTATION ?  </li></ul><ul><li>AIM AND IMPORTANCE OF A PRESENTATION </li></ul><...
WHAT IS A PRESENTATION ? <ul><li>Foundational and fundamental business tool </li></ul><ul><li>Basis of relationship with c...
WHAT IS  A PRESENTATION? FOUNDATIONAL AND FUNDAMENTAL BUSINESS  TOOL BASIS OF RELATIONSHIP WITH CLIENTS <ul><li>REFLECTS <...
AIM OF PRESENTATION <ul><li>To transfer information </li></ul><ul><li>To communicate views </li></ul><ul><li>To influence ...
IMPORTANCE OF PRESENTATION FOR YOUNG MANAGERS <ul><li>Formal method to bring people together to </li></ul><ul><li>Fast & E...
WHAT CAN PRESENTATION DO FOR YOU  ? <ul><li>ALLOWS YOU TO INITIATE  DISCUSSIONS </li></ul><ul><li>ASK QUESTIONS </li></ul>...
EFFECTIVE PRESENTATION SKILLS <ul><li>Precise use of language </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge of subject matter </li></ul><ul>...
PART II : PREPARING A PRESENTATION <ul><li>PLANNING A PRESENTATION  </li></ul><ul><li>THIRTEEN STEPS TO ORGANISED PRESENTA...
PLANNING A PRESENTATION IDENTIFY YOUR AUDIENCE IMPERATIVES OF PLANNING FACTS STYLE PACE TONE TACTICS TIMING FORMULATE YOUR...
THE STRUCTURE THE OVERVIEW THE LEAD THE THESIS  STATEMENT THE INTERNAL STRUCTURE THE END STRUCTURE
THIRTEEN STEPS TO ORGANISED PRESENTATIONS <ul><li>STEP 1 THINK ABOUT THE AUDIENCE  </li></ul><ul><li>STEP2 DETERMINE THE P...
KINDS OF PRESENTATION <ul><li>SEQUENTIAL ARGUMENT </li></ul><ul><li>HIERARCHICAL DECOMPOSITION </li></ul><ul><li>QUESTION ...
THE BEGINNING   <ul><li>THE FIVE MAIN ELEMENTS ARE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Get their attention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Es...
THE ENDING   <ul><li>Summary of the main points </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions & recommendation </li></ul><ul><li>Finish wi...
VISUAL AIDS   <ul><li>Reinforcement of the verbal message: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>OHP   </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SLIDE SH...
PART III : PREPARING YOURSELF <ul><li>BELIEVING IN YOUR SELF   </li></ul><ul><li>ANALYZING APPEARANCE </li></ul><ul><li>EN...
STEP 1 - BELIEVING IN YOUR SELF <ul><ul><li>IDENTIFY YOUR STRENGTHS. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>THINK POSITIVE. </li></ul>...
STEP 2 – ANALYZING APPEARANCE <ul><ul><li>STUDY YOURSELF IN THE MIRROR. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MAKE AN IMPRESSION. </l...
STEP 3 – ENHANCING BODY IMAGE   <ul><ul><li>ANALYZE YOUR STANCE. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IMPROVE YOUR STANCE. </li></ul...
Head is high and straight Shoulders are pulled back and straight Back is straight Stomach is held in Arms are relaxed and ...
AVOIDING BAD HABITS Eye contact with audience lost when you look at podium Speaking into  podium  muffles  voice Slouching...
<ul><ul><li>BREATHING CORRECTLY. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CONTROLLING YOUR VOICE. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>USING THE R...
<ul><ul><li>NEED TO REDUCE TENSION. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EXERCISES. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>    </li></ul><ul><li>  <...
PART IV : DELIVERING A PRESENTATION <ul><li>CONTROLLING NERVES   </li></ul><ul><li>SPEAKING CONFIDENTLY </li></ul><ul><li>...
CONTROLLING NERVES <ul><ul><li>Identifying nerves. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Being prepared. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D...
FACIAL SQUEEZE Try to squeeze your face as though it is being  compressed between your chin and forehead. Start with a fro...
CONTROLLING NERVES <ul><ul><li>PRACTICAL TIPS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>List the factors that make you nervous. </li></ul...
 
<ul><ul><li>Begin confidently. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pace the presentation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use correct bo...
SPEAKING CONFIDENTLY <ul><li>PRACTICAL TIPS   </li></ul><ul><li>Scan notes in small sections. </li></ul><ul><li>Pause brie...
SPEAKING  AUTHORITATIVELY This confident stance suggests a thorough grasp of subject matter, well establish authority and ...
<ul><ul><li>SIGN POST THE END. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LEAVE AN IMPRESSION THAT LINGERS. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SPE...
PART V : HANDLING AN AUDIENCE <ul><li>JUDGING THE MOOD   </li></ul><ul><li>DEALING WITH QUESTIONS  </li></ul><ul><li>COPIN...
<ul><ul><li>Assess the mood. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Involve the audience. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Look for signals....
JUDGING THE MOOD   <ul><li>PRACTICAL TIPS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Listen to previous speakers if possible. </li></ul></ul><u...
Neutral facial  Expression indicates  unformed opinion Chin resting on hand shows concentration Crossed legs suggest conte...
Impassive impression Folded arms form a  barrier across body Crossed legs can suggests negativity NEGATIVE POSTURE This po...
Frown of concentration Torso leans forwards Clasped fingers indicate thoughtfulness  QUIZZICAL POSTURE Leaning forwards wi...
Position of chin on knuckles indicates eagerness to learn Arrangements of legs  indicates alertness INTERESTED POSTURE Thi...
Leaning forward demonstrates  agreement AGREEMENT POSTURE The relaxed position of the hands,  the parallel legs and the fr...
<ul><ul><li>Prepare well. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appear confident. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stay in control. </li></...
DEALING WITH QUESTIONS <ul><li>PRACTICAL TIPS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Practise answering impromptu questions. </li></ul></ul...
<ul><ul><li>THE SUMMARY QUESTION: “What you seem to be  saying is… am I right ?” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>THIS IS AN EFF...
TYPES OF QUESTIONS……. <ul><ul><li>THE CARTESIAN QUESTION : “How can you say X, yet insist on Y?” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><l...
<ul><ul><li>There are a number of standard replies you can use in response to difficult questions.  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
“ I DON’T KNOW THE ANSWER, BUT  I CAN FIND OUT FOR YOU.  IF YOU  LEAVE ME YOUR ADDRESS, I WILL  GET BACK TO YOU ”
“ I’M NOT SURE I KNOW THE  ANSWER TO THAT ONE .  PERHAPS WE COULD DISCUSS IT AFTER THE SESSION ”
“ I NEED TO THINK ABOUT  THAT ONE . COULD WE  COME BACK TO IT LATER ?  NEXT QUESTION, PLEASE. ”
“ THERE REALLY IS NO RIGHT OR WRONG ANSWER TO THAT  HOWEVER, MY PERSONAL  BELIEF  IS … ”
<ul><ul><li>RECOGNIZING DISRUPTERS. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DEALING WITH HECKLERS. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DEALING W...
<ul><li>PRACTICAL TIPS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Remember the hostility is at your opinion not you. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li...
KEEPING ON TRACK This illustration shows two possible courses of a presentation – a negative and a positive outcome .  Des...
DEALING WITH MEDIA <ul><li>If you have to speak at a public meeting  or represent your organization at a press conference,...
I HAVE ALREADY STATED MY POINT OF VIEW DURING MY  PRESENTATION. I DON’TTHINK I HAVE ANYTHING MORE TO ADD AT THIS JUNCTURE....
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Presentation Skills

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Transcript of "Presentation Skills"

  1. 1. PRESENTATION SKILLS
  2. 2. <ul><li>PART I - INTRODUCTION </li></ul><ul><li>PART II - PREPARING A PRESENTATION </li></ul><ul><li>PART III - PREPARING YOUR SELF </li></ul><ul><li>PART IV - DELIVERING A PRESENTATION </li></ul><ul><li>PART V - HANDLING AN AUDIENCE </li></ul>PREVIEW
  3. 3. PART I - INTRODUCTION <ul><li>WHAT IS A PRESENTATION ? </li></ul><ul><li>AIM AND IMPORTANCE OF A PRESENTATION </li></ul><ul><li>WHAT CAN A PRESENTATION DO FOR YOU ? </li></ul><ul><li>EFFECTIVE PRESENTATION SKILLS </li></ul>
  4. 4. WHAT IS A PRESENTATION ? <ul><li>Foundational and fundamental business tool </li></ul><ul><li>Basis of relationship with clients </li></ul><ul><li>Reflects :- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Image of the company </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Its value system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Its vision </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. WHAT IS A PRESENTATION? FOUNDATIONAL AND FUNDAMENTAL BUSINESS TOOL BASIS OF RELATIONSHIP WITH CLIENTS <ul><li>REFLECTS </li></ul><ul><li>COMPANY’S </li></ul><ul><li>IMAGE </li></ul><ul><li>VALUE SYSTEM </li></ul><ul><li>VISION </li></ul>
  6. 6. AIM OF PRESENTATION <ul><li>To transfer information </li></ul><ul><li>To communicate views </li></ul><ul><li>To influence another mind </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis is not on transmission but on reception and understanding by audience so that </li></ul>YOUR MESSAGE IS UNDERSTOOD , REMEMBERED AND ACTED UPON !
  7. 7. IMPORTANCE OF PRESENTATION FOR YOUNG MANAGERS <ul><li>Formal method to bring people together to </li></ul><ul><li>Fast & Effective Method of Getting Things Done </li></ul>PLAN MONITOR REVIEW A PROJECT
  8. 8. WHAT CAN PRESENTATION DO FOR YOU ? <ul><li>ALLOWS YOU TO INITIATE DISCUSSIONS </li></ul><ul><li>ASK QUESTIONS </li></ul><ul><li>RAISE ISSUES </li></ul><ul><li>INVITE VIEWS </li></ul>IT PUTS YOU ON DISPLAY IT GIVES YOU A CHANCE TO SPEAK YOUR MIND
  9. 9. EFFECTIVE PRESENTATION SKILLS <ul><li>Precise use of language </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge of subject matter </li></ul><ul><li>Logical & organised thought process </li></ul><ul><li>Clarity of speech </li></ul><ul><li>Conviction </li></ul><ul><li>Brevity </li></ul><ul><li>Attractive & effective audio – visual aids </li></ul><ul><li>Empathy towards the audience </li></ul>
  10. 10. PART II : PREPARING A PRESENTATION <ul><li>PLANNING A PRESENTATION </li></ul><ul><li>THIRTEEN STEPS TO ORGANISED PRESENTATIONS </li></ul><ul><li>TYPES OF PRESENTATIONS </li></ul>
  11. 11. PLANNING A PRESENTATION IDENTIFY YOUR AUDIENCE IMPERATIVES OF PLANNING FACTS STYLE PACE TONE TACTICS TIMING FORMULATE YOUR OBJECTIVE STATEMENT OF PURPOSE SIMPLE, CONCISE AND UNAMBIGUOUS FOCUS IS THE KEY
  12. 12. THE STRUCTURE THE OVERVIEW THE LEAD THE THESIS STATEMENT THE INTERNAL STRUCTURE THE END STRUCTURE
  13. 13. THIRTEEN STEPS TO ORGANISED PRESENTATIONS <ul><li>STEP 1 THINK ABOUT THE AUDIENCE </li></ul><ul><li>STEP2 DETERMINE THE PURPOSE </li></ul><ul><li>STEP 3 LIST THE DETAILS </li></ul><ul><li>STEP 4 GROUP THE DETAILS </li></ul><ul><li>STEP 5 ORDER THE DETAILS </li></ul><ul><li>STEP 6 NAME THE TOPICS </li></ul><ul><li>STEP 7 SEQUENCE THE TOPICS </li></ul><ul><li>STEP 8 WRITE THESIS STATEMENT </li></ul><ul><li>STEP 9 WRITE THE LEAD & END STRUCTURES </li></ul><ul><li>STEP 10 PLAN THE PARAGRAPHS, TOPIC SENTENCES (Transitions & Reminders) </li></ul><ul><li>STEP 11 WRITE THE PIECE </li></ul><ul><li>STEP 12 PLAN THE VISUALS </li></ul><ul><li>STEP 13 PRACTICE, TAPE, EDIT </li></ul>
  14. 14. KINDS OF PRESENTATION <ul><li>SEQUENTIAL ARGUMENT </li></ul><ul><li>HIERARCHICAL DECOMPOSITION </li></ul><ul><li>QUESTION ORIENTATED </li></ul><ul><li>PYRAMID </li></ul><ul><li>THE MEATY SANDWICH </li></ul>
  15. 15. THE BEGINNING <ul><li>THE FIVE MAIN ELEMENTS ARE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Get their attention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establish a theme </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Present a structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create a rapport </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enunciate administrative details </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. THE ENDING <ul><li>Summary of the main points </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions & recommendation </li></ul><ul><li>Finish with a flourish </li></ul>
  17. 17. VISUAL AIDS <ul><li>Reinforcement of the verbal message: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>OHP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SLIDE SHOW </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>VIDEO PRESENTATION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ROLE PLAY </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. PART III : PREPARING YOURSELF <ul><li>BELIEVING IN YOUR SELF </li></ul><ul><li>ANALYZING APPEARANCE </li></ul><ul><li>ENHANCING BODY IMAGE </li></ul><ul><li>IMPROVING YOUR VOICE </li></ul><ul><li>ELIMINATING TENSION </li></ul>
  19. 19. STEP 1 - BELIEVING IN YOUR SELF <ul><ul><li>IDENTIFY YOUR STRENGTHS. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>THINK POSITIVE. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>VISUALISE SUCCESS. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PRACTICAL TIPS . </li></ul><ul><li>Behave naturally . </li></ul><ul><li>Think of the audience as your natural ally. </li></ul><ul><li>Think of large audience as if it were small. </li></ul>
  20. 20. STEP 2 – ANALYZING APPEARANCE <ul><ul><li>STUDY YOURSELF IN THE MIRROR. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MAKE AN IMPRESSION. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DRESS APPROPRIATELY. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PRACTICAL TIPS </li></ul><ul><li>Do not wear anything that distracts the audience. </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure clothes are well fitting and laundered. </li></ul><ul><li>It is important to look well groomed. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep your hands out of the pockets. </li></ul>
  21. 21. STEP 3 – ENHANCING BODY IMAGE <ul><ul><li>ANALYZE YOUR STANCE. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IMPROVE YOUR STANCE. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PRACTICAL TIPS </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure your body language reflects what you are saying. </li></ul><ul><li>Learn to relax your facial muscles and smile. </li></ul><ul><li>Always wear comfortable shoes when presenting. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Head is high and straight Shoulders are pulled back and straight Back is straight Stomach is held in Arms are relaxed and hang by sides Bottom is held in Hands are relaxed fingers are loose Legs are straight Knee joints are loose, not locked Feet are evenly spaced
  23. 23. AVOIDING BAD HABITS Eye contact with audience lost when you look at podium Speaking into podium muffles voice Slouching looks unprofessional Standing with your back to an audience detracts from your speech Visual aid blocked by body Crossing your legs makes your stance less stable and shows lack of authority
  24. 24. <ul><ul><li>BREATHING CORRECTLY. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CONTROLLING YOUR VOICE. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>USING THE RIGHT PITCH . </li></ul></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>STEP 4 – IMPROVING YOUR VOICE <ul><li>PRACTICAL TIPS </li></ul><ul><li>Suck a mint or honey flavored sweet just before you begin to speak. </li></ul><ul><li>Consider doing yoga exercises to improve the depth of your breathing. </li></ul><ul><li>Practice changing intonation of a few sentences. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><ul><li>NEED TO REDUCE TENSION. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EXERCISES. </li></ul></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>STEP 5 – ELIMINATING TENSION PRACTICAL TIPS Simple Exercises to reduce tension: Hand squeeze Neck push Body & spine stretch
  26. 26. PART IV : DELIVERING A PRESENTATION <ul><li>CONTROLLING NERVES </li></ul><ul><li>SPEAKING CONFIDENTLY </li></ul><ul><li>CLOSING EFFECTIVELY </li></ul>
  27. 27. CONTROLLING NERVES <ul><ul><li>Identifying nerves. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Being prepared. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Defusing nerves. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reassuring yourself . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eliminating tension. </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. FACIAL SQUEEZE Try to squeeze your face as though it is being compressed between your chin and forehead. Start with a frown. Relax and repeat FACIAL SCRUNCH Tightly close your eyes, purse your lips, and scrunch up your face as if there is sideways compression. Hold for 30 second, then relax FACIAL STRETCH Open both your eyes and mouth as wide as possible, stretching the muscles in your face. Repeat two or three times as required Tense forehead muscles Purse lips tightly together Stretch jaw as wide as possible Open eye lids Eliminating Tension
  29. 29. CONTROLLING NERVES <ul><ul><li>PRACTICAL TIPS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>List the factors that make you nervous. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smile when it feels natural. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Get a good night’s sleep. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Follow the same routine. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use nervous energy to enhance your speech. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Take a deep breath, relax, smile. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>And start speaking slowly. </li></ul></ul>
  30. 31. <ul><ul><li>Begin confidently. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pace the presentation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use correct body language. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use correct eye contact. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adapt your gestures to the size of the audience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop your own style. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limit your speech time . </li></ul></ul>SPEAKING CONFIDENTLY
  31. 32. SPEAKING CONFIDENTLY <ul><li>PRACTICAL TIPS </li></ul><ul><li>Scan notes in small sections. </li></ul><ul><li>Pause briefly each time you make an important point. </li></ul><ul><li>Tell an anecdote. </li></ul><ul><li>Make initial eye contact with a friendly person. </li></ul><ul><li>Make eye contact at every available opportunity. </li></ul><ul><li>Repeat key numbers . </li></ul><ul><li>Do not be afraid to use gestures & long pauses. </li></ul>
  32. 33. SPEAKING AUTHORITATIVELY This confident stance suggests a thorough grasp of subject matter, well establish authority and credibility with the audience. LOOKING AND FEELING RELAXED Once audience rapport has been built, the speaker visibly relaxes and the audience focuses more readily on what is being said. USING THE RIGHTGESTURE The speaker makes good use of open-handed gesture to emphasize his integrity and draw the entire audience into his presentation Eye contact establishes positive rapport with audience Relaxed body language coveys confidence Open jacket presents an image of honesty Gaze includes entire audience Open hand gesture emphasize key points
  33. 34. <ul><ul><li>SIGN POST THE END. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LEAVE AN IMPRESSION THAT LINGERS. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SPEAK AUTHORITATIVELY. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FINISH STRONGLY. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>CLOSING EFFECTIVELY <ul><li>PRACTICAL TIPS </li></ul><ul><li>Do not leave visual aids on too long </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not rush as if you’re in hurry. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Close with a strong summary. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use alliteration to make an impact. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pause between summary & Q-ans session </li></ul></ul>
  34. 35. PART V : HANDLING AN AUDIENCE <ul><li>JUDGING THE MOOD </li></ul><ul><li>DEALING WITH QUESTIONS </li></ul><ul><li>COPING WITH HOSTILITY </li></ul>
  35. 36. <ul><ul><li>Assess the mood. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Involve the audience. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Look for signals. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spot negativity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Look out for signs of interest. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reading gestures. </li></ul></ul>JUDGING THE MOOD
  36. 37. JUDGING THE MOOD <ul><li>PRACTICAL TIPS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Listen to previous speakers if possible. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Let the audience know that you are aware of their feelings. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Involve members by asking them questions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Watch out for hand trying to stifle a yawn. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be aware of tapping feet – sign of impatience </li></ul></ul>
  37. 38. Neutral facial Expression indicates unformed opinion Chin resting on hand shows concentration Crossed legs suggest contemplation NEUTRAL POSTURE This familiar relaxed posture suggests an open mind. This person has yet to be swayed either way by the argument and is willing to hear more.
  38. 39. Impassive impression Folded arms form a barrier across body Crossed legs can suggests negativity NEGATIVE POSTURE This posture – leaning back with arms folded and legs crossed – suggests resistance towards the presenter.
  39. 40. Frown of concentration Torso leans forwards Clasped fingers indicate thoughtfulness QUIZZICAL POSTURE Leaning forwards with elbow on knee and chin resting on clasped hand, suggests that this person is considering a point that the speaker is making.
  40. 41. Position of chin on knuckles indicates eagerness to learn Arrangements of legs indicates alertness INTERESTED POSTURE This posture expresses interest. The body leans forward and the chin rests on the hand. The leg positions also reinforce the positive stance of the upper body.
  41. 42. Leaning forward demonstrates agreement AGREEMENT POSTURE The relaxed position of the hands, the parallel legs and the frank open expression of the face indicate that the listener agrees entirely with your presentation.
  42. 43. <ul><ul><li>Prepare well. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appear confident. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stay in control. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Handling questioners. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analyzing questions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gaining time. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dealing with hidden agenda. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Being honest with the audience. </li></ul></ul>DEALING WITH QUESTIONS
  43. 44. DEALING WITH QUESTIONS <ul><li>PRACTICAL TIPS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Practise answering impromptu questions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remain calm whatever the tone of the questioners. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage shy or nervous questioners. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Divert hostile questions back to the questioner or the audience. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Address answers to the whole audience. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Win over the audience with your knowledge. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Take care not to patronize your audience. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prepare one or two lengthy answers in advance. </li></ul></ul>
  44. 45. <ul><ul><li>THE SUMMARY QUESTION: “What you seem to be saying is… am I right ?” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>THIS IS AN EFFORT TO RECAP ON PROCEEDINGS. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>THE STRAIGHT QUESTION : “Can You Tell Me About the Services You Offer in Brazil?” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>THIS IS A DIRECT APPEAL FOR INFORMATION. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>THE ME AND MINE QUESTION : “When my mother tried, she found the opposite. How do you explain that?” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PERSONAL EXPERIENCE IS USED TO MAKE A POINT. </li></ul></ul>TYPES OF QUESTION TO EXPECT FROM AN AUDIENCE
  45. 46. TYPES OF QUESTIONS……. <ul><ul><li>THE CARTESIAN QUESTION : “How can you say X, yet insist on Y?” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HERE LOGIC IS BEING USED TO DEFEAT THE SPEAKER. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>THE RAW NERVE QUESTION : “When are vou going to get back to 1995 Levels?” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>THIS IS AN ILL- NATURED DIG. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>THE WELL-CONNECTED QUESTION : “ Have you talked to my good friend Bill Clinton about this problem?” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NAME DROPPING IS USED TO EMPHASIZE POWER. </li></ul></ul>
  46. 47. <ul><ul><li>There are a number of standard replies you can use in response to difficult questions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If you do not know an answer, try to offer a satisfactory reply to show you have not ignored the question. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If a questioner persists, throw the question open to the audience. </li></ul></ul>RESPONDING TO UNANSWERABLE QUESTIONS
  47. 48. “ I DON’T KNOW THE ANSWER, BUT I CAN FIND OUT FOR YOU. IF YOU LEAVE ME YOUR ADDRESS, I WILL GET BACK TO YOU ”
  48. 49. “ I’M NOT SURE I KNOW THE ANSWER TO THAT ONE . PERHAPS WE COULD DISCUSS IT AFTER THE SESSION ”
  49. 50. “ I NEED TO THINK ABOUT THAT ONE . COULD WE COME BACK TO IT LATER ? NEXT QUESTION, PLEASE. ”
  50. 51. “ THERE REALLY IS NO RIGHT OR WRONG ANSWER TO THAT HOWEVER, MY PERSONAL BELIEF IS … ”
  51. 52. <ul><ul><li>RECOGNIZING DISRUPTERS. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DEALING WITH HECKLERS. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DEALING WITH CONFLICT WITHIN THE AUDIENCE. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FACING AN UNRESPONSIVE GROUP. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DEALING WITH HOSTILITY. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LEARNING FROM YOUR EXPERIENCE. </li></ul></ul>COPING WITH HOSTILITY
  52. 53. <ul><li>PRACTICAL TIPS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Remember the hostility is at your opinion not you. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid prolonged eye contact. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Back your facts with evidence. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t lose your temper but assert your authority. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Try to find some common ground with the audience. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Give questioner other sources of information. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wait for a question even if none are forthcoming. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be honest with your audience. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stay relaxed but alert and enjoy your presentation. </li></ul></ul>COPING WITH HOSTILITY
  53. 54. KEEPING ON TRACK This illustration shows two possible courses of a presentation – a negative and a positive outcome . Despite a strong start, there may be hecklers and mishaps. This could cause a presentation to end in chaos. To stay on course, stay calm, deal with mishaps as they occur and move on with composure and aplomb. Hold the audience’s interest and you can make a success of any situation Respond well to questions from audience Conclude with clear summary Illuminate points with interesting example Sum up main points so far Pause to take a drink of water and renew eye contact since this can change the course of events Tell a joke at your own expense Presentation degenerates Into chaos Hecklers shout “ rubbish” Drop notes on floor Start off strongly KEEPING ON TRACK
  54. 55. DEALING WITH MEDIA <ul><li>If you have to speak at a public meeting or represent your organization at a press conference, it is important to :- </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Handle the media confidently. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Always answer queries calmly,politely and intelligently. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Be careful not to let journalists put words into your mouth. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  55. 56. I HAVE ALREADY STATED MY POINT OF VIEW DURING MY PRESENTATION. I DON’TTHINK I HAVE ANYTHING MORE TO ADD AT THIS JUNCTURE. YOU HAVE CERTAINLY MADE A VALID POINT . BUT I PREFER TO THINK THAT …………… NO , THAT IS NOT WHAT I AM SAYING AT ALL. I WANT TO REITERATE THAT WHAT I AM ACTUALLY SAYING ……… WHERE AS I APPRECIATE WHAT YOU ARE SAYING I FEEL THAT I MUST EMPHASISE THAT………..
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