1. Things That Make Ya Go, Hmmm!Learning about Phrases
2. A phrase is a group of words that acts as a part of speech rather than as a complete sentence. You alreadyknow the function of a noun,adjective, or adverb—a phrase simplytakes on one of those functions. Aphrase does not have a subject or averb. The two main kinds of phrases areprepositional phrases and verbal phrases.
4. Things That Make Ya Go, Hmmm!Learning about Phrases
5. Another kind of phrase is the verbal—infinitive, gerunds, & participles. As you can tell from the name, they are related to verbs.They look verby—yes,that’s a word —but neveract as verbs. Instead theyact as nouns, adjectives, oradverbs. There are three types of verbalswe’ll study: participial phrases, infinitivephrases, and gerund phrases.
6. I’m outta here!
7. Things That Make Ya Go, Hmmm!Learning about Participial Phrases
8. These are simply phrases thatseem to have verbs but notsubjects. A participle is really half a verb.participle verbfallen had fallenscreaming was screaming screaming
9. See the difference? A participlecan’t take a subject, because it’s missing part of theverb. A participle looks like a verb, but it isn’tcomplete. A form of the verb to be + a participle = a verb.
10. With the verb to be, you onlyhave a participle. Thefunction of a participial phrase is to modify a noun—in otherwords, aparticipial phrase acts as an adjective.
11. !Hasta lavista, baby!
12. Things That Make Ya Go, Hmmm!Learning about Participial Phrases
13. Lying on her bed, Shanna ordered Chinese food.The socks lost in the dryer were her favorites.
14. Screaming with laughter, the students hid under their desks.Kolby, left behind at school, wept over his homework.
15. See how each participial phrase tells ussomething about a noun? Lying on herbed describes Shanna and lost in the dryer describes the socks. Notice that Shannais the subject of theverb ordered; socks isthe subject of were.So lying, screaming, left, and lost have no subject; instead
16. of acting as verbs, they aredescribing the subject of thesentence. Recognizing participial phrases is crucial in avoiding the dreaded misplaced modifier or dangling participle. Hey,that’s pretty simple.
17. Well,that’s it!
18. Things That Make Ya Go, Hmmm!Learning about Dangling Modifiers
19. A modifier is a word or group of words that describes another. Modifiers can be adjectives: Keng made a brilliant statement (adjective) (noun) Modifiers can be adverbs: Alex bowled wonderfully (verb) (adverb) Modifiers can be clauses or phrases: The girl who snuck out her window was my date. (noun) (Clause modifies noun = adjective clause)
20. I’m ghost!
21. Things That Make Ya Go, Hmmm!Learning about Misplaced Modifiers
22. Funny things happen when modifiersappear too far away from the words they modify.Example: Carolyn soaked the foot she sprained in ice water. – An odd injury—Carolyn sprained her ankle in ice water?
23. Example: Brandon hit a homerun to left field, which flew over the fence. •Left field flew over the fence? Doesn’t that sound a bit strange?
24. Keep modifiers close to the words modified. Keep the subject and verb together. Be clear about which noun a pronoun stands for.
25. !Dicho y hecho!
26. Things That Make Ya Go, Hmmm!Learning about Dangling Participial Phrases
27. Another type of misplaced modifier is thedangling participial phrase. Participles, as you recall, are verb forms endingwith -ing in thepresent tense and-d or -ed in the past tense. A few participles end in -t orhave irregular forms.Participle examples: dribbling, skating, scaled, burned or burnt
28. Combine a participle with other words tocreate a participial phrase. Remember, participial phrases act as adjectives because they modify a noun in asentence.Participle Phrase examples: filled with hope cleaning the bathroom jumping overboard
29. That’s it!
30. Things That Make Ya Go, Hmmm!Learning about Verbals (Infinitives)
31. When the preposition to is followed by a noun, it is a prepositional phrase: to the beach. When to isfollowed by averb—to run, to see, to feel —it is an infinitive. Why does this matter? The rules thatgovern infinitives are differentfrom rules that governprepositional phrases; sinceinfinitives are closely related to verbs, they can have a passive or activevoice as well as
33. Things That Make Ya Go, Hmmm!Learning about Other Types of Phrases
34. Emily wanted to leave.Ask yourself: “What did Emily want?”Answer: “To leave,” which is an infinitive phraseacting as anoun.
35. Kenny works hard to makemoney.Ask yourself: “Why does Kenny work?”Answer: “To make money,” an infinitive phraseacting as anadverb, modifyingwork.
36. Woo hoo!
37. Things That Make Ya Go, Hmmm!Learning about Other Types of Phrases
38. Emily wanted to leave.Ask yourself: “What did Emily want?”Answer: “To leave,” which is an infinitive phraseacting as anoun.
39. To read is to be transported toanother world.anotherAnswer: toworld is a prepositionalphrase acting as anadverb, telling wheretransported.
40. Let’s do more!
41. Things That Make Ya Go, Hmmm!Learning about Other Types of Phrases
42. Liz wanted to know why her so-called boyfriend thought he was a pimp.Answer: to know is an infinitive
43. To have been in love is to havesuffered.Answer: To have been is the subject of the sentence; to havesuffered is aninfinitive acting as an adverbial phrase.
44. To have been in love is to havesuffered.Answer: To have been is the subject of the sentence; to havesuffered is aninfinitive acting as an adverbial phrase.
45. Alrighty then!
46. Things That Make Ya Go, Hmmm!Learning about Gerund Phrases
47. A gerund is an –ing verb that acts as a noun. Since it acts as a noun, itcan be the subject of asentence or theobject of a verb orpreposition.
48. Daydreaming was herfavorite pastime.Winning the lottery is my onlyhope.She loved eating pastries and stayingup all night.
49. Dante hated studying.Partying and e-mailing his friends took upmost of hishomework time.He was thinking of hiringsomeone to upgrade hiscomputer, but unfortunately,spending money appalled him.