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Participial phrases web page version 2005-2006
 

Participial phrases web page version 2005-2006

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    Participial phrases web page version 2005-2006 Participial phrases web page version 2005-2006 Presentation Transcript

    • Things That Make Ya Go, Hmmm!Learning about Phrases
    • A phrase is a group of words that acts as a part of speech rather than as a complete sentence. You alreadyknow the function of a noun,adjective, or adverb—a phrase simplytakes on one of those functions. Aphrase does not have a subject or averb. The two main kinds of phrases areprepositional phrases and verbal phrases.
    • !Adios!
    • Things That Make Ya Go, Hmmm!Learning about Phrases
    • Another kind of phrase is the verbal—infinitive, gerunds, & participles. As you can tell from the name, they are related to verbs.They look verby—yes,that’s a word —but neveract as verbs. Instead theyact as nouns, adjectives, oradverbs. There are three types of verbalswe’ll study: participial phrases, infinitivephrases, and gerund phrases.
    • I’m outta here!
    • Things That Make Ya Go, Hmmm!Learning about Participial Phrases
    • These are simply phrases thatseem to have verbs but notsubjects. A participle is really half a verb.participle verbfallen had fallenscreaming was screaming screaming
    • See the difference? A participlecan’t take a subject, because it’s missing part of theverb. A participle looks like a verb, but it isn’tcomplete. A form of the verb to be + a participle = a verb.
    • With the verb to be, you onlyhave a participle. Thefunction of a participial phrase is to modify a noun—in otherwords, aparticipial phrase acts as an adjective.
    • !Hasta lavista, baby!
    • Things That Make Ya Go, Hmmm!Learning about Participial Phrases
    • Lying on her bed, Shanna ordered Chinese food.The socks lost in the dryer were her favorites.
    • Screaming with laughter, the students hid under their desks.Kolby, left behind at school, wept over his homework.
    • See how each participial phrase tells ussomething about a noun? Lying on herbed describes Shanna and lost in the dryer describes the socks. Notice that Shannais the subject of theverb ordered; socks isthe subject of were.So lying, screaming, left, and lost have no subject; instead
    • of acting as verbs, they aredescribing the subject of thesentence. Recognizing participial phrases is crucial in avoiding the dreaded misplaced modifier or dangling participle. Hey,that’s pretty simple.
    • Well,that’s it!
    • Things That Make Ya Go, Hmmm!Learning about Dangling Modifiers
    •  A modifier is a word or group of words that describes another. Modifiers can be adjectives: Keng made a brilliant statement (adjective) (noun) Modifiers can be adverbs: Alex bowled wonderfully (verb) (adverb) Modifiers can be clauses or phrases: The girl who snuck out her window was my date. (noun) (Clause modifies noun = adjective clause)
    • I’m ghost!
    • Things That Make Ya Go, Hmmm!Learning about Misplaced Modifiers
    • Funny things happen when modifiersappear too far away from the words they modify.Example: Carolyn soaked the foot she sprained in ice water. – An odd injury—Carolyn sprained her ankle in ice water?
    • Example: Brandon hit a homerun to left field, which flew over the fence. •Left field flew over the fence? Doesn’t that sound a bit strange?
    •  Keep modifiers close to the words modified. Keep the subject and verb together. Be clear about which noun a pronoun stands for.
    • !Dicho y hecho!
    • Things That Make Ya Go, Hmmm!Learning about Dangling Participial Phrases
    • Another type of misplaced modifier is thedangling participial phrase. Participles, as you recall, are verb forms endingwith -ing in thepresent tense and-d or -ed in the past tense. A few participles end in -t orhave irregular forms.Participle examples: dribbling, skating, scaled, burned or burnt
    • Combine a participle with other words tocreate a participial phrase. Remember, participial phrases act as adjectives because they modify a noun in asentence.Participle Phrase examples: filled with hope cleaning the bathroom jumping overboard
    • That’s it!
    • Things That Make Ya Go, Hmmm!Learning about Verbals (Infinitives)
    • When the preposition to is followed by a noun, it is a prepositional phrase: to the beach. When to isfollowed by averb—to run, to see, to feel —it is an infinitive. Why does this matter? The rules thatgovern infinitives are differentfrom rules that governprepositional phrases; sinceinfinitives are closely related to verbs, they can have a passive or activevoice as well as
    • !Hastamañana!
    • Things That Make Ya Go, Hmmm!Learning about Other Types of Phrases
    • Emily wanted to leave.Ask yourself: “What did Emily want?”Answer: “To leave,” which is an infinitive phraseacting as anoun.
    • Kenny works hard to makemoney.Ask yourself: “Why does Kenny work?”Answer: “To make money,” an infinitive phraseacting as anadverb, modifyingwork.
    • Woo hoo!
    • Things That Make Ya Go, Hmmm!Learning about Other Types of Phrases
    • Emily wanted to leave.Ask yourself: “What did Emily want?”Answer: “To leave,” which is an infinitive phraseacting as anoun.
    • To read is to be transported toanother world.anotherAnswer: toworld is a prepositionalphrase acting as anadverb, telling wheretransported.
    • Let’s do more!
    • Things That Make Ya Go, Hmmm!Learning about Other Types of Phrases
    • Liz wanted to know why her so-called boyfriend thought he was a pimp.Answer: to know is an infinitive
    • To have been in love is to havesuffered.Answer: To have been is the subject of the sentence; to havesuffered is aninfinitive acting as an adverbial phrase.
    • To have been in love is to havesuffered.Answer: To have been is the subject of the sentence; to havesuffered is aninfinitive acting as an adverbial phrase.
    • Alrighty then!
    • Things That Make Ya Go, Hmmm!Learning about Gerund Phrases
    • A gerund is an –ing verb that acts as a noun. Since it acts as a noun, itcan be the subject of asentence or theobject of a verb orpreposition.
    • Daydreaming was herfavorite pastime.Winning the lottery is my onlyhope.She loved eating pastries and stayingup all night.
    • Dante hated studying.Partying and e-mailing his friends took upmost of hishomework time.He was thinking of hiringsomeone to upgrade hiscomputer, but unfortunately,spending money appalled him.
    • !Basta!