Participial phrases web page version 2005-2006
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  • 1. Things That Make Ya Go, Hmmm!Learning about Phrases
  • 2. A phrase is a group of words that acts as a part of speech rather than as a complete sentence. You alreadyknow the function of a noun,adjective, or adverb—a phrase simplytakes on one of those functions. Aphrase does not have a subject or averb. The two main kinds of phrases areprepositional phrases and verbal phrases.
  • 3. !Adios!
  • 4. Things That Make Ya Go, Hmmm!Learning about Phrases
  • 5. Another kind of phrase is the verbal—infinitive, gerunds, & participles. As you can tell from the name, they are related to verbs.They look verby—yes,that’s a word —but neveract as verbs. Instead theyact as nouns, adjectives, oradverbs. There are three types of verbalswe’ll study: participial phrases, infinitivephrases, and gerund phrases.
  • 6. I’m outta here!
  • 7. Things That Make Ya Go, Hmmm!Learning about Participial Phrases
  • 8. These are simply phrases thatseem to have verbs but notsubjects. A participle is really half a verb.participle verbfallen had fallenscreaming was screaming screaming
  • 9. See the difference? A participlecan’t take a subject, because it’s missing part of theverb. A participle looks like a verb, but it isn’tcomplete. A form of the verb to be + a participle = a verb.
  • 10. With the verb to be, you onlyhave a participle. Thefunction of a participial phrase is to modify a noun—in otherwords, aparticipial phrase acts as an adjective.
  • 11. !Hasta lavista, baby!
  • 12. Things That Make Ya Go, Hmmm!Learning about Participial Phrases
  • 13. Lying on her bed, Shanna ordered Chinese food.The socks lost in the dryer were her favorites.
  • 14. Screaming with laughter, the students hid under their desks.Kolby, left behind at school, wept over his homework.
  • 15. See how each participial phrase tells ussomething about a noun? Lying on herbed describes Shanna and lost in the dryer describes the socks. Notice that Shannais the subject of theverb ordered; socks isthe subject of were.So lying, screaming, left, and lost have no subject; instead
  • 16. of acting as verbs, they aredescribing the subject of thesentence. Recognizing participial phrases is crucial in avoiding the dreaded misplaced modifier or dangling participle. Hey,that’s pretty simple.
  • 17. Well,that’s it!
  • 18. Things That Make Ya Go, Hmmm!Learning about Dangling Modifiers
  • 19.  A modifier is a word or group of words that describes another. Modifiers can be adjectives: Keng made a brilliant statement (adjective) (noun) Modifiers can be adverbs: Alex bowled wonderfully (verb) (adverb) Modifiers can be clauses or phrases: The girl who snuck out her window was my date. (noun) (Clause modifies noun = adjective clause)
  • 20. I’m ghost!
  • 21. Things That Make Ya Go, Hmmm!Learning about Misplaced Modifiers
  • 22. Funny things happen when modifiersappear too far away from the words they modify.Example: Carolyn soaked the foot she sprained in ice water. – An odd injury—Carolyn sprained her ankle in ice water?
  • 23. Example: Brandon hit a homerun to left field, which flew over the fence. •Left field flew over the fence? Doesn’t that sound a bit strange?
  • 24.  Keep modifiers close to the words modified. Keep the subject and verb together. Be clear about which noun a pronoun stands for.
  • 25. !Dicho y hecho!
  • 26. Things That Make Ya Go, Hmmm!Learning about Dangling Participial Phrases
  • 27. Another type of misplaced modifier is thedangling participial phrase. Participles, as you recall, are verb forms endingwith -ing in thepresent tense and-d or -ed in the past tense. A few participles end in -t orhave irregular forms.Participle examples: dribbling, skating, scaled, burned or burnt
  • 28. Combine a participle with other words tocreate a participial phrase. Remember, participial phrases act as adjectives because they modify a noun in asentence.Participle Phrase examples: filled with hope cleaning the bathroom jumping overboard
  • 29. That’s it!
  • 30. Things That Make Ya Go, Hmmm!Learning about Verbals (Infinitives)
  • 31. When the preposition to is followed by a noun, it is a prepositional phrase: to the beach. When to isfollowed by averb—to run, to see, to feel —it is an infinitive. Why does this matter? The rules thatgovern infinitives are differentfrom rules that governprepositional phrases; sinceinfinitives are closely related to verbs, they can have a passive or activevoice as well as
  • 32. !Hastamañana!
  • 33. Things That Make Ya Go, Hmmm!Learning about Other Types of Phrases
  • 34. Emily wanted to leave.Ask yourself: “What did Emily want?”Answer: “To leave,” which is an infinitive phraseacting as anoun.
  • 35. Kenny works hard to makemoney.Ask yourself: “Why does Kenny work?”Answer: “To make money,” an infinitive phraseacting as anadverb, modifyingwork.
  • 36. Woo hoo!
  • 37. Things That Make Ya Go, Hmmm!Learning about Other Types of Phrases
  • 38. Emily wanted to leave.Ask yourself: “What did Emily want?”Answer: “To leave,” which is an infinitive phraseacting as anoun.
  • 39. To read is to be transported toanother world.anotherAnswer: toworld is a prepositionalphrase acting as anadverb, telling wheretransported.
  • 40. Let’s do more!
  • 41. Things That Make Ya Go, Hmmm!Learning about Other Types of Phrases
  • 42. Liz wanted to know why her so-called boyfriend thought he was a pimp.Answer: to know is an infinitive
  • 43. To have been in love is to havesuffered.Answer: To have been is the subject of the sentence; to havesuffered is aninfinitive acting as an adverbial phrase.
  • 44. To have been in love is to havesuffered.Answer: To have been is the subject of the sentence; to havesuffered is aninfinitive acting as an adverbial phrase.
  • 45. Alrighty then!
  • 46. Things That Make Ya Go, Hmmm!Learning about Gerund Phrases
  • 47. A gerund is an –ing verb that acts as a noun. Since it acts as a noun, itcan be the subject of asentence or theobject of a verb orpreposition.
  • 48. Daydreaming was herfavorite pastime.Winning the lottery is my onlyhope.She loved eating pastries and stayingup all night.
  • 49. Dante hated studying.Partying and e-mailing his friends took upmost of hishomework time.He was thinking of hiringsomeone to upgrade hiscomputer, but unfortunately,spending money appalled him.
  • 50. !Basta!