Participial phrases web page version 2005-2006
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Participial phrases web page version 2005-2006

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Participial phrases web page version 2005-2006 Participial phrases web page version 2005-2006 Presentation Transcript

  • Things That Make Ya Go, Hmmm!Learning about Phrases
  • A phrase is a group of words that acts as a part of speech rather than as a complete sentence. You alreadyknow the function of a noun,adjective, or adverb—a phrase simplytakes on one of those functions. Aphrase does not have a subject or averb. The two main kinds of phrases areprepositional phrases and verbal phrases.
  • !Adios!
  • Things That Make Ya Go, Hmmm!Learning about Phrases
  • Another kind of phrase is the verbal—infinitive, gerunds, & participles. As you can tell from the name, they are related to verbs.They look verby—yes,that’s a word —but neveract as verbs. Instead theyact as nouns, adjectives, oradverbs. There are three types of verbalswe’ll study: participial phrases, infinitivephrases, and gerund phrases.
  • I’m outta here!
  • Things That Make Ya Go, Hmmm!Learning about Participial Phrases
  • These are simply phrases thatseem to have verbs but notsubjects. A participle is really half a verb.participle verbfallen had fallenscreaming was screaming screaming
  • See the difference? A participlecan’t take a subject, because it’s missing part of theverb. A participle looks like a verb, but it isn’tcomplete. A form of the verb to be + a participle = a verb.
  • With the verb to be, you onlyhave a participle. Thefunction of a participial phrase is to modify a noun—in otherwords, aparticipial phrase acts as an adjective.
  • !Hasta lavista, baby!
  • Things That Make Ya Go, Hmmm!Learning about Participial Phrases
  • Lying on her bed, Shanna ordered Chinese food.The socks lost in the dryer were her favorites.
  • Screaming with laughter, the students hid under their desks.Kolby, left behind at school, wept over his homework.
  • See how each participial phrase tells ussomething about a noun? Lying on herbed describes Shanna and lost in the dryer describes the socks. Notice that Shannais the subject of theverb ordered; socks isthe subject of were.So lying, screaming, left, and lost have no subject; instead
  • of acting as verbs, they aredescribing the subject of thesentence. Recognizing participial phrases is crucial in avoiding the dreaded misplaced modifier or dangling participle. Hey,that’s pretty simple.
  • Well,that’s it!
  • Things That Make Ya Go, Hmmm!Learning about Dangling Modifiers
  •  A modifier is a word or group of words that describes another. Modifiers can be adjectives: Keng made a brilliant statement (adjective) (noun) Modifiers can be adverbs: Alex bowled wonderfully (verb) (adverb) Modifiers can be clauses or phrases: The girl who snuck out her window was my date. (noun) (Clause modifies noun = adjective clause)
  • I’m ghost!
  • Things That Make Ya Go, Hmmm!Learning about Misplaced Modifiers
  • Funny things happen when modifiersappear too far away from the words they modify.Example: Carolyn soaked the foot she sprained in ice water. – An odd injury—Carolyn sprained her ankle in ice water?
  • Example: Brandon hit a homerun to left field, which flew over the fence. •Left field flew over the fence? Doesn’t that sound a bit strange?
  •  Keep modifiers close to the words modified. Keep the subject and verb together. Be clear about which noun a pronoun stands for.
  • !Dicho y hecho!
  • Things That Make Ya Go, Hmmm!Learning about Dangling Participial Phrases
  • Another type of misplaced modifier is thedangling participial phrase. Participles, as you recall, are verb forms endingwith -ing in thepresent tense and-d or -ed in the past tense. A few participles end in -t orhave irregular forms.Participle examples: dribbling, skating, scaled, burned or burnt
  • Combine a participle with other words tocreate a participial phrase. Remember, participial phrases act as adjectives because they modify a noun in asentence.Participle Phrase examples: filled with hope cleaning the bathroom jumping overboard
  • That’s it!
  • Things That Make Ya Go, Hmmm!Learning about Verbals (Infinitives)
  • When the preposition to is followed by a noun, it is a prepositional phrase: to the beach. When to isfollowed by averb—to run, to see, to feel —it is an infinitive. Why does this matter? The rules thatgovern infinitives are differentfrom rules that governprepositional phrases; sinceinfinitives are closely related to verbs, they can have a passive or activevoice as well as
  • !Hastamañana!
  • Things That Make Ya Go, Hmmm!Learning about Other Types of Phrases
  • Emily wanted to leave.Ask yourself: “What did Emily want?”Answer: “To leave,” which is an infinitive phraseacting as anoun.
  • Kenny works hard to makemoney.Ask yourself: “Why does Kenny work?”Answer: “To make money,” an infinitive phraseacting as anadverb, modifyingwork.
  • Woo hoo!
  • Things That Make Ya Go, Hmmm!Learning about Other Types of Phrases
  • Emily wanted to leave.Ask yourself: “What did Emily want?”Answer: “To leave,” which is an infinitive phraseacting as anoun.
  • To read is to be transported toanother world.anotherAnswer: toworld is a prepositionalphrase acting as anadverb, telling wheretransported.
  • Let’s do more!
  • Things That Make Ya Go, Hmmm!Learning about Other Types of Phrases
  • Liz wanted to know why her so-called boyfriend thought he was a pimp.Answer: to know is an infinitive
  • To have been in love is to havesuffered.Answer: To have been is the subject of the sentence; to havesuffered is aninfinitive acting as an adverbial phrase.
  • To have been in love is to havesuffered.Answer: To have been is the subject of the sentence; to havesuffered is aninfinitive acting as an adverbial phrase.
  • Alrighty then!
  • Things That Make Ya Go, Hmmm!Learning about Gerund Phrases
  • A gerund is an –ing verb that acts as a noun. Since it acts as a noun, itcan be the subject of asentence or theobject of a verb orpreposition.
  • Daydreaming was herfavorite pastime.Winning the lottery is my onlyhope.She loved eating pastries and stayingup all night.
  • Dante hated studying.Partying and e-mailing his friends took upmost of hishomework time.He was thinking of hiringsomeone to upgrade hiscomputer, but unfortunately,spending money appalled him.
  • !Basta!