Definition of translation

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Definition of translation

  1. 1. DEFINITION OF TRANSLATIONPROCESS OF TRANSLATING
  2. 2. DEFINITION AND PROCESS DEFINITION Translation is the replacement of textual material in one language (SL) by equivalent textual material in another language (TL). (Catford, 1965) Translation is rendering the meaning of a text into another language in the way that the author intended the text. (Newmark, 1988: 5)
  3. 3. DEFINITION AND PROCESS Translation is studying the lexicon, grammatical structure, communication situation, and cultural context of the source language text, analyzing it in order to determine its meaning, and then reconstructing this same meaning using lexicon and grammatical structure which are appropriate in the receptor language and its cultural context. (Larson, 1984: 3)
  4. 4. DEFINITION AND PROCESS PROCESS OF TRANSLATING ORIGINAL TEXT ANALYZING DRAFTING (source language) TRANSLATION TEXT REVISING FINALIZING (target language)
  5. 5. DEFINITION AND PROCESS MAIN PURPOSES OF ANALYZING Understanding Learning Learning what it is about the readership the stylistic scale (by reading) (age, education, gender) (degree of language)
  6. 6. DEFINITION AND PROCESS Stylistic Scale (Degree of Formality) Official Formal Neutral Informal Colloquialism Slang Taboo (Newmark, 1988)
  7. 7. DEFINITION AND PROCESS OfficialThe consumption of any nutriment is categorically prohibited in this establishment FormalYou are requested not to consume food in this establishment Neutral Eating is not allowed here
  8. 8. DEFINITION AND PROCESS Informal Please don’t eat here Colloquialism You can’t feed your face here Slang Lay off the nosh Taboo Lay off the fucking nosh
  9. 9. DEFINITION AND PROCESS STYLISTIC SCALE and TRANSLATION Degree of Formality source language target language (original text) (translation text) Official Official Formal Formal Neutral Neutral Informal Informal Colloquialism Colloquialism Slang Slang Taboo Taboo
  10. 10. DEFINITION AND PROCESS THE APPROACHES TO ANALYZING (how do we start translating) (Newmark, 1988: 21)You start translating sentence by sentence, for say the first paragraph or chapter, to get the feel and the tone of the text, and then you deliberately sit back, review the position, and read the rest of the SL text. (when you trust your intuition) You read the whole text two or three times, and find the intention, register, tone, mark the difficult words and passages and start translating only when you have taken your bearings. (when you trust your power of analysis)
  11. 11. DEFINITION AND PROCESS Time Management ANALYZING DRAFTING REVISING FINALIZING 10 PERCENT 40 PERCENTS 40 PERCENTS 10 PERCENT Understanding general reproduction accuracy naturalness & identifying
  12. 12. METAPHOR and SIMILE METAPHOR AND SIMILE
  13. 13. METAPHOR and SIMILE DEFINITIONA figure of speech used to replace normal or literal language in order help others understand or enjoy the message. --- The substitution of one idea or object with another ---
  14. 14. METAPHOR and SIMILE KINDS OF METAPHOR Dead Metaphor Living Metaphor
  15. 15. METAPHOR and SIMILE Dead Metaphor A metaphor which has lost its poetic meaning and not considered as figurative language any longer due to its frequent use examples: economic wheel – giant step - etc Living Metaphor Considered as figurative language and still contains poetic meaning ex: An angry sky - You are a rose among thorns - etc.
  16. 16. METAPHOR and SIMILE STRATEGIES TO TRANSLATE METAPHOR1. Translation of metaphor by reproducing the same image2. Translation of metaphor by replacing the image in SL with a standard image in TL3. Translation of metaphor or simile by sense4. Translation of metaphor by metaphor or simile plus sense5. Translation of metaphor by simile
  17. 17. METAPHOR and SIMILE 1. TRANSLATION OF METAPHOR BY REPRODUCING THE SAME IMAGE laut cinta langkah raksasa sea of love giant step roda perekonomian economic wheel sinar harapan ray of hope
  18. 18. METAPHOR and SIMILE economic growth pertumbuhan ekonomi stony silence angry sky kebisuan yang membatu langit yang marah Omar Mochtar is the lion of the desert Omar Mochtar adalah singa padang pasir King Richard, the lion heart Raja Richard, si hati singa
  19. 19. METAPHOR and SIMILE Tubuh manusia adalah laboratorium hidup Human body is a living laboratory Jakarta adalah jantung Indonesia. Jakarta is the heart of Indonesia Experience is the best teacher. Pengalaman adalah guru terbaik Jerusalem is the city of God. Yerusalem adalah kota Tuhan
  20. 20. METAPHOR and SIMILE 2. TRANSLATION OF METAPHOR BY REPLACING THE IMAGE IN SL WITH THE STANDARD IMAGE IN TL Your car has wings Lari mobilmu seperti setan Mobilmu kencang bagaikan terbang
  21. 21. METAPHOR and SIMILE 3. TRANSLATION OF METAPHOR OR SIMILE BY SENSE Jerussalem is the city of God Yerusalem adalah tempat Tuhan menurunkan sebagian wahyu dan nabiNya. Time has wings. Waktu berlalu begitu cepat
  22. 22. METAPHOR and SIMILE Bagai pungguk merindukan bulan. Dreaming the impossible thing. Dia ular berbisa. He’s very dangerous. The best advice is found on the pillow. Setelah tidur nyenyak semalaman, mungkin kita akan mendapatkan jawaban dari persoalan kita
  23. 23. METAPHOR and SIMILE The pen is mightier than the sword. Tulisan dan kata-kata memiliki pengaruh yang lebih besar dari pada senjata dan perang Stolen fruit is the sweetest. Sesuatu yang dilarang itu sangat menggoda An apple a day keeps the doctor away. Makanan yang sehat menjauhkan kita dari penyakit.
  24. 24. METAPHOR and SIMILE4. TRANSLATION OF METAPHOR by METAPHOR OR SIMILE PLUS SENSE Jerussalem is the city of God Yerusalem adalah kota Tuhan, karena di tempat inilah Tuhan menurunkan sebagian wahyu dan nabi-Nya. Yerusalem dianggap sebagai tempat yang sangat suci oleh umat Yahudi, Kristen, dan Islam.
  25. 25. METAPHOR and SIMILE Time has wings. Waktu bagai memiliki sayap, berlalu begitu cepat. Dia ular berbisa. He’s a snake. He’s very dangerous
  26. 26. METAPHOR and SIMILE 5. TRANSLATION OF METAPHOR BY SIMILE Time has wings Waktu bagaikan memiliki sayap
  27. 27. METAPHOR and SIMILE SIMILE Tempat ini seperti kuburan. This place is just like a graveyard Engkau laksana bintang. You are like a star Mohammad Ali, dance like a butterfly, sting like a bee.Mohammad Ali, menari bagai kupu-kupu, menyengat bagai lebah
  28. 28. METAPHOR and SIMILE THE DIFFERENCE BEETWEN METAPHOR AND SIMILE Metaphor is an equation while Simile is an approximation Metaphor A wire is a road for electrons Simile A good book is like a good meal Cloud is like cotton candy
  29. 29. SHIFTTRANSPOSITION AND MODULATION
  30. 30. SHIFT (TRANSPOSITION & MODULATION) SHIFT (TRANSPOSITION & MODULATION)“Transposition is a translation procedure involving a change in the grammar from SL to TL” (Newmark, 1988: 85) “Modulasi melibatkan pergeseran makna karena terjadi perubahan perpektif dan sudut pandang” (Machali, 2000: 69)
  31. 31. SHIFT (TRANSPOSITION & MODULATION) SHIFT 1 (transposition) A shift from singular into plural (plural into singular) bunga-bunga : flowers banyak rumah : many houses tiga mobil : three cars sepasang celana : a pair of trousers
  32. 32. SHIFT (TRANSPOSITION & MODULATION) SHIFT 2-A A structural change that involves word-position in phrase 1-2-3 3-2-1 rumah - bercat merah - yang besar big - red - house
  33. 33. SHIFT (TRANSPOSITION & MODULATION) long - dark - hair rambut - hitam pekat - yang panjang splendid ancient electric train kereta api listrik kuno yang sangat bagus (Machali, 2000)
  34. 34. SHIFT (TRANSPOSITION & MODULATION) phrase with adverb 1–2–3 3–1-2 highly - recommended - system sistem - yang sangat - direkomendasikan
  35. 35. SHIFT (TRANSPOSITION & MODULATION) Shift 2-BA structural change that involves word-position in sentence Isu tentang HAM sudah kami bahas semenjak lima tahun yang lalu. We have been discussing the issue of human rights since five years ago Buku ini harus kamu baca You must read the book
  36. 36. SHIFT (TRANSPOSITION & MODULATION) Shift 3 a change in part of speech noun + noun noun + noun adverb + verb verb + noun adj + noun verb + adj
  37. 37. SHIFT (TRANSPOSITION & MODULATION) mesin pembunuh killing machine bahan kimia chemical material partai politik political party ...is categorically prohibited. …dikategorikan terlarang.
  38. 38. SHIFT (TRANSPOSITION & MODULATION) in sentence …… for the pursuit of happiness. …untuk meraih/ mengejar kebahagiaan.
  39. 39. SHIFT (TRANSPOSITION & MODULATION) SHIFT 4 from explicit into implicit (implicit into explicit) Pria yang berdiri di sana itu adalah paman saya The man (who is) standing there is my uncle. implicit The man standing there is my uncle
  40. 40. SHIFT (TRANSPOSITION & MODULATION) SHIFT 5 from clause into particular type of phrase (phrase into clause) – (phrase with adjective verb) bayi yang menangis binatang yang berpikir crying baby thinking animal burung yang berkicau singing bird Jendral yang senantiasa tersenyum Smiling General
  41. 41. SHIFT (TRANSPOSITION & MODULATION) SHIFT 6 from word into phrase or clause (clause into word) cozy suasana nyaman, hangat, dan akrab incommunicado kondisi terputus komunikasi dengan dunia luar interchangeability kondisi bisa saling dipertukarkan
  42. 42. SHIFT (TRANSPOSITION & MODULATION) SHIFT 7 (modulation) specific meaning general meaning padi : rice gabah: rice beras : rice nasi : rice kakak : brother, sister adik: : brother, sister
  43. 43. SHIFT OR TRANSPOSITIONNAD MODULATION paklek : paman : uncle pakde : paman : uncle assassinate : membunuh murder : membunuh kill : membunuh anggur : grape anggur : wine mendengar : listen mendengar : hear
  44. 44. SHIFT (TRANSPOSITION & MODULATION) SHIFT 8 (modulation) coining a new term for a series of word train : berlatih training : pelatihan trainer : pelatih trainee : peserta pelatihan
  45. 45. KINDS OF TRANSLATION & KINDS OF TEXT
  46. 46. KINDS OF TRANSLATION AND TEXT KINDS OF TRANSLATION1. Literal translation2. Communicative/ dynamic/ idiomatic translation3. Free translation
  47. 47. KINDS OF TRANSLATION AND TEXT Literal Translation Aku ingin berdansa denganmu I want to dance with you
  48. 48. KINDS OF TRANSLATION AND TEXT Suaramu begitu indah Your voice is so beautiful
  49. 49. KINDS OF TRANSLATION AND TEXT Ada sejumlah anak laki-laki sedang menunggu di luar There are a number of boys waiting outside Dia tidak percaya kalau hantu itu ada He doesn’t believe that ghosts exist Suharto telah meninggal dunia dengan tenang Suharto has peacefully passed away Bersatu kita teguh, bercerai kita runtuh United we stand, divided we fall.
  50. 50. KINDS OF TRANSLATION AND TEXT Saya tidak tahu bagaimana dengan orang lain, tapi ketika saya masih muda dan berumur 20-an, saya takut pada pernikahan. I don’t know with other people, but when I was young and about 20’s, I was afraid of marriage. Kami bangsa Indonesia dengan ini menyatakan kemerderkaan Indonesia. We the people of Indonesia herewith to proclaim the independence of Indonesia
  51. 51. KINDS OF TRANSLATION AND TEXTPemindahan penduduk asli Amerika dari bagian timur Sungai Mussissipi pertama kali diusulkan Presiden Thomas Jefferson. The relocation of the American natives from eastern Mississipi River was firstly proposed by President Thomas Jefferson. Burung laut Artik pernah lama berada di urutan teratas sebagai burung dengan jarak migrasi terpanjang. Artic seagulls (sea-birds) have long been on the top rank as the bird with the longest distance of migration.
  52. 52. KINDS OF TRANSLATION AND TEXT Communicative/ Dynamic/ Idiomatic (Communicative : Newmark) (Dynamic : Nida) (Idiomatic : Larsen) Omong-omong By the way Tidak bisa! Nggak mungkinlah! No way! Yang benar saja Give me a break
  53. 53. KINDS OF TRANSLATION AND TEXT Sangat baik! Never better! Ini hal yang sangat gampang. It’s a piece of cage. Awas kaca! Glass. Don’t touch! Fragile! Ayo, ambil keputusan bung! Tetapkan pilihanmu! Make up your mind man!
  54. 54. KINDS OF TRANSLATION AND TEXT Aquos, unmistakably Japanese Aquos, produk Jepang yang sempurna Untuk saat ini namaku tak perlu kusebut I don’t think I have to mention my name right know. My name is not important right now. Pamannya adalah warga banteng His uncle is the member of PDIP
  55. 55. KINDS OF TRANSLATION AND TEXT COMPARING LITERAL TRANSLATION WITH COMMUNICATIVE-DYNAMIC-IDIOMATIC • When do we use literal translation? • When do we use communicative or dynamic translation?
  56. 56. KINDS OF TRANSLATION AND TEXT When literal translation is strongly suggested. You are what you read. Kamu adalah apa yang kamu baca. (literal) Apa yang kamu baca itu akan menunjukkan siapa dirimu sebenarnya. (communicative)
  57. 57. KINDS OF TRANSLATION AND TEXT When communicative & dynamic translation is strongly suggested and highly recommended It’s a piece of cage Ini sepotong kue Ini hal yang sangat gampang Awas kaca! Beware of glass! Glass. Don’t touch! Dia masih kosong She’s still empty She has no boyfriend
  58. 58. KINDS OF TRANSLATION AND TEXT Aquos, unmistakably Japanese Aquos, produk Jepang yang tak bisa salah. Aquos, produk Jepang yang sempurna Untuk saat ini namaku tak perlu kusebut For this time my name is not necessary to mention I don’t think I have to mention my name right know My name is not important right now. Pamanya adalah anggota banteng His uncle is the member of buffalo His uncle is the member of PDIP
  59. 59. KINDS OF TRANSLATION AND TEXT “It is not easy to consistently translate idiomatically. A translator may express some parts of his translation (words, phrases, clauses, sentences) in very natural forms (idiomatic, dynamic, communicative), and then in other parts fall back into a literal form” (Larsen, 1984: 17) (Italic letter is addition)
  60. 60. KINDS OF TRANSLATION AND TEXT A paragraph Sentence 1 Sentence 2 Sentence 3 Sentence 4 Sentence 5 (Sentence 1) (Sentence 2) translated by literal translation translated by communicative/ dyn/ idio (sentence 3) (Sentence 4) translated translated by literal by literal (Sentence 5) Translated by communicative/ dynamic/ idiomatic
  61. 61. KINDS OF TRANSLATION AND TEXT KINDS OF TEXT (BASED ON THE FUCNTION) EXPRESSIVE TEXT INFORMATIVE TEXT VOCATIVE TEXT
  62. 62. KINDS OF TRANSLATION AND TEXT EXPRESSIVE FUNCTION Emphasizing : author centered, personal use, self-oriented, creative, subjective, etc Used in : poetry, speech, novel, drama, popular writing, etc. Translation : mostly dynamic & communicative translation INFORMATIVE FUNCTION Emphasizing : the content the text, extra-linguistic information, etc Used in : news, reports, agreement, academic writing, science and technology, etc Translation : literal & dynamic/ communicative
  63. 63. VOCATIVE FUNCTIONEmphasizing : the readership, persuade readers to act as expected by the author/ writer, etcUsed in : advertising, propaganda, campaign, announcement, instruction, regulation, etc.Translation : mostly literal
  64. 64. COLLOCATION
  65. 65. COLLOCATION DEFINITIONSemantically arbitrary restrictions which do not follow logically from the propositional meaning of a word (Baker, 1992: 47) Habitual co-occurrence of individual lexical items (Newmark, 1988) Kolokasi merupakan kombinasi tetap beberapa kata dimana makna masing-masing kata pembentuknya pada dasarnya dipertahankan (Simatupang, 1999: 57)
  66. 66. COLLOCATION COMMON COLLOCATION • verb plus noun • noun plus adjective • noun plus noun • verb plus adverb
  67. 67. COLLOCATION Example: verb and noun The verb “pay” collocates with noun: “attention” in “to pay attention” “respect” in “to pay respect” “visit” in “to pay a visit”
  68. 68. COLLOCATION The verb “deliver” collocates with noun: • speech in “to deliver a speech” • news in “to deliver news” • blow in “to deliver a blow” • verdict in “to deliver a verdict” • baby in “to deliver a baby”
  69. 69. COLLOCATIONWhen two words collocate, the relationship can hold between all or several of their various forms, combined in any grammatically acceptable order. (Baker, 1992: 47) “achieve” and “aim” achieving aims aims having been achieved achievable aims the achievement of an aim
  70. 70. COLLOCATION COLLOCATION AND TRANSLATION Where there is an accepted collocation in the source language, the translator must find and use its equivalent in the target language if it exists.
  71. 71. COLLOCATION verb and noun TRANSLATION TRANSLATION SOURCE TEXT BASED ON BASED ON LITERAL MEANING COLLOCATION- melakukan perjalanan - do a trip - make a trip- membantu kelahiran - assist a baby-birth - deliver a baby- melakukan kunjungan - do a visit - pay a visit- menghasilkan uang - generate money - make (earn) money- menciptakan perdamaian - create peace - make peace- memandu orketra - guide an orchestra - conduct an orchestra- minum obat - drink medicine - take medicine- makan waktu - eat time - take time- melakukan usaha - do a effort - make an effort
  72. 72. COLLOCATION verb plus noun- mengalami kecelakaan - experience an accident - have an accident- mengejar bus - pursue a bus - catch a bus- memberikan putusan - give a verdict - deliver a verdict- mencurahkan perhatian - give attention - pay attention- menyampaikan pidato - present a speech - deliver a speech- etc - etc - etc
  73. 73. COLLOCATION NOUN PLUS NOUN • pencipta perdamaian peace-creator peace-maker • pecahnya perang the break of war the outbreak of war • meletusnya perang the eruption of war the outbreak of war • dampak rumahkaca greenhouse impact greenhouse-effect • penyakit mental mental disease mental illness • etc etc etc
  74. 74. COLLOCATION NOUN AND ADJECTIVE tinggi tall man high mountain
  75. 75. COLLOCATION lebat dense forest ---------- heavy/ hard rain tebal thick wood ---------- dense fog cepat quick response --- fast car --- rapid progress
  76. 76. COLLOCATION rusak broken chair damaged item jauh far sight long distance kuat strong motivation powerful engine
  77. 77. COLLOCATION VERB AND ADVERB sangat highly recommend - strongly suggest etc
  78. 78. CONNOTATIONAMBIGUITY - NEOLOGISM
  79. 79. Connotation – Ambiguity – Neologism - Jargon WHAT IS CONNOTATION“An aura of ideas and feelings suggested by lexical words”. (Newmark, 1988) Connotation is what you think of when you hear a word. It is the images, feelings, and thoughts that accompany words. (answer.yahoo.com)
  80. 80. Connotation – Ambiguity – Neologism - Jargon KINDS CONNOTATION Positive Connotation Neutral Connotation Negative Connotation
  81. 81. Connotation – Ambiguity – Neologism - Jargon Positive Negative connotation connotation Synonymy Neutral connotation
  82. 82. Connotation – Ambiguity – Neologism - Jargon Single meaning with different connotation POSITIVE NEUTRAL NEGATIVE Slim/ Slender Thin Skinny Afro-America Black Negro Wafat/ Gugur Meninggal Mampus Jenazah Mayat Bangkai
  83. 83. Connotation – Ambiguity – Neologism - Jargon CONNOTATION AND ASSOCIATION flower beauty rose beauty lily beauty rainbow beauty moon beauty horse strength buffalo strength lion bravery tiger bravery eagle bravery
  84. 84. Connotation – Ambiguity – Neologism - Jargon CONNOTATION AND ASSOCIATION snake unseen danger wolf slyness chicken coward worm weakness donkey stupidity panda cute sofa comfort candle enlightening castle wealthy fly happiness fly speed etc
  85. 85. Connotation – Ambiguity – Neologism - Jargon cultural connotation and association Indonesian tikus : corruptor banteng : political party beringin : political party ayam : pseudonymous prostitute etc
  86. 86. Connotation – Ambiguity – Neologism - Jargon Connotation and Translation original text translation text (source language) (target language) Positive Positive Neutral Neutral Negative Negative
  87. 87. Connotation – Ambiguity – Neologism - Jargon TRANSLATING WITH EQUIVALENT CONNOTATION ramping/ langsing : slim kurus : thin kurus kering : skinny kerempeng : skinny
  88. 88. Connotation – Ambiguity – Neologism - Jargon AMBIGUITY Anak dokter yang cantik itu. The chicken is ready to eat. Flying planes can be dangerous. Hunting lions can be dangerous.
  89. 89. Connotation – Ambiguity – Neologism - Jargon NEOLOGISM Neologism is newly coined lexical units or existing lexical units that acquire a new sense. (Newmark, 1988: 140)A neologism is a word, term, or phrase that has been recently created (or "coined"), often to apply to new concepts, to synthesize pre-existing concepts, or to make older terminology sound more contemporary. Neologisms are especially useful in identifying invention, new phenomena, or old ideas that have taken on a new cultural context. (wikipedia.org)
  90. 90. Connotation – Ambiguity – Neologism - Jargon Neologism e-mail eco-friendly supernova global-warming greenhouse-effect black hole Agrowisata jagawana etc
  91. 91. Connotation – Ambiguity – Neologism - Jargon NEOLOGISM AND TRANSLATION (how to translate neologism)Loan word (transference) e-mail email supernova supernova biogas biogasnaturalization biotechnology bioteknologi television televisiword by word global-warming pemanasan global greenhouse-effect dampak rumah kaca black hole lubang hitam

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