Leadership basic approaches

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  • Fiedler asserts that if the leader’s style matches the situation, he or she will be effective. His model predicts that low-LPC, task motivated leaders will be effective in high and low situational control. High-LPC, relationship motivated leaders will be effective in moderate situational control.
    The Fiedler model has several practical implications for managers:
    Leaders must understand their style and the situation.
    Leaders should focus on changing the situation to match their style.
    A good relationship with followers can compensate for a lack of power.
    Leaders can compensate for task ambiguity through training and experience.
  • Leadership basic approaches

    1. 1. © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. Basic Approaches to Leadership ChapterTWELVE
    2. 2. © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. What Is Leadership?What Is Leadership? Leadership The ability to influence a group toward the achievement of goals. Management Use of authority inherent in designated formal rank to obtain compliance from organizational members.
    3. 3. © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. Trait TheoriesTrait Theories Leadership TraitsLeadership Traits:: • ExtraversionExtraversion • ConscientiousnessConscientiousness • OpennessOpenness • EmotionalEmotional IntelligenceIntelligence (qualified)(qualified) Leadership TraitsLeadership Traits:: • ExtraversionExtraversion • ConscientiousnessConscientiousness • OpennessOpenness • EmotionalEmotional IntelligenceIntelligence (qualified)(qualified) Traits Theories of Leadership Theories that consider personality, social, physical, or intellectual traits to differentiate leaders from nonleaders.
    4. 4. © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. Trait TheoriesTrait Theories LimitationsLimitations:: • No universal traits found that predictNo universal traits found that predict leadership in all situations.leadership in all situations. • Unclear evidence of the cause and effectUnclear evidence of the cause and effect of relationship of leadership and traits.of relationship of leadership and traits. • Better predictor of the appearance ofBetter predictor of the appearance of leadership than distinguishing effectiveleadership than distinguishing effective and ineffective leaders.and ineffective leaders. LimitationsLimitations:: • No universal traits found that predictNo universal traits found that predict leadership in all situations.leadership in all situations. • Unclear evidence of the cause and effectUnclear evidence of the cause and effect of relationship of leadership and traits.of relationship of leadership and traits. • Better predictor of the appearance ofBetter predictor of the appearance of leadership than distinguishing effectiveleadership than distinguishing effective and ineffective leaders.and ineffective leaders.
    5. 5. Trait ApproachTrait Approach  Traits (examples) – Extraversion – Conscientiousness – Openness  Assumption: Leaders are born  Goal: Select leaders  Problems – Traits do not generalize across situations – Better at predicting leader emergence than leader effectiveness
    6. 6. © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. Behavioral TheoriesBehavioral Theories • Behavioral theory:Behavioral theory: LLeadership behaviors can beeadership behaviors can be taught.taught. Vs.Vs. Trait theory:Trait theory: Leaders are born, not made.Leaders are born, not made. • Behavioral theory:Behavioral theory: LLeadership behaviors can beeadership behaviors can be taught.taught. Vs.Vs. Trait theory:Trait theory: Leaders are born, not made.Leaders are born, not made. Behavioral Theories of Leadership Theories proposing that specific behaviors differentiate leaders from nonleaders.
    7. 7. Behavioral ApproachBehavioral Approach  Ohio State Studies/U. of Michigan – Initiating Structure/Production Orientation – Consideration/Employee Orientation  Assumption: Leaders can be trained  Goal: Develop leaders  Problem: Effective behaviors do not generalize across situations
    8. 8. © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. Ohio State StudiesOhio State Studies Initiating Structure The extent to which a leader is likely to define and structure his or her role and those of sub- ordinates in the search for goal attainment. Consideration The extent to which a leader is likely to have job relationships characterized by mutual trust, respect for subordinate’s ideas, and regard for their feelings.
    9. 9. © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. University of Michigan StudiesUniversity of Michigan Studies Employee-Oriented Leader Emphasizing interpersonal relations; taking a personal interest in the needs of employees and accepting individual differences among members. Production-Oriented Leader One who emphasizes technical or task aspects of the job.
    10. 10. © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. The Managerial Grid (Blake and Mouton) The Managerial Grid (Blake and Mouton) E X H I B I T 12–1 E X H I B I T 12–1
    11. 11. © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. CONTINGENCY THEORIESCONTINGENCY THEORIES  All Consider the Situation – Fiedler’s Contingency Model – Cognitive Resource Theory – Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Model – Path Goal Theory Assumptions underlying the different models: Fiedler: Leader’s style is fixed Other’s: Leader’s style can and should be changed
    12. 12. Fiedler ModelFiedler Model  Leader: Style is Fixed (Task oriented vs. Relationship oriented)  Considers Situational Favorableness for Leader – Leader-member relations – Task structure – Position power  Key Assumption – Leader must fit situation; options to accomplish this: – Select leader to fit situation – Change situation to fit leader
    13. 13. © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. Fiedler’s Model: The LeaderFiedler’s Model: The Leader Least Preferred Co-Worker (LPC) Questionnaire The way in which a leader will evaluate a co-worker that is not liked will indicate whether the leader is task- or relationship-oriented. Assumption: Leader’s Style is Fixed & Can be Measured by the Least Preferred Co- Worker (LPC) Questionnaire
    14. 14. © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. Fiedler’s Model: Defining the SituationFiedler’s Model: Defining the Situation Leader-Member Relations The degree of confidence, trust, and respect subordinates have in their leader. Position Power Influence derived from one’s formal structural position in the organization; includes power to hire, fire, discipline, promote, and give salary increases. Task Structure The degree to which the job assignments are procedurized.
    15. 15. Findings of the Fiedler ModelFindings of the Fiedler Model • Category • Leader-Member Relations • Task Structure • Position Power I Good High Strong II Good High Weak III Good Low Strong IV Good Low Weak V Poor High Strong VI Poor High Weak VII Poor Low Strong VIII Poor Low Weak Good Poor Performance Relationship -Oriented Task-Oriented Favorable Moderate Unfavorable
    16. 16. © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. Findings from Fiedler ModelFindings from Fiedler Model E X H I B I T 12–2 E X H I B I T 12–2
    17. 17. © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. Cognitive Resource TheoryCognitive Resource Theory Research Support: • Less intelligent individuals perform better in leadership roles under high stress than do more intelligent individuals. • Less experienced people perform better in leadership roles under low stress than do more experienced people. Research Support: • Less intelligent individuals perform better in leadership roles under high stress than do more intelligent individuals. • Less experienced people perform better in leadership roles under low stress than do more experienced people. Cognitive Resource Theory A theory of leadership that states that the level of stress in a situation is what impacts whether a leader’s intelligence or experience will be more effective.
    18. 18. Contingency Approach: Hersey & Blanchard Situational Model Contingency Approach: Hersey & Blanchard Situational Model  Considers Leader Behaviors (Task & Relationship) – Assumes Leaders CAN change their behaviors  Considers Followers as the Situation – Follower Task maturity (ability & experience) – Follower Psychological maturity (willingness to take responsibility) Assumptions –Leaders can and should change their style to fit their followers’ degree of readiness (willingness and ability) –Therefore, it is possible to TRAIN leaders to better fit their style to their followers.
    19. 19. © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Theory Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Theory Situational Leadership Theory (SLT) A contingency theory that focuses on followers’ readiness; the more “ready” the followers (the more willing and able) the less the need for leader support and supervision. LOW Amount of Follower Readiness HIGH Amount of Leader Support & Supervision RequiredHIGH LOW
    20. 20. © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. Leadership Styles and Follower Readiness (Hersey and Blanchard) Leadership Styles and Follower Readiness (Hersey and Blanchard) WillingUnwilling Able Unable DirectiveDirective High TaskHigh Task andand RelationshipRelationship OrientationsOrientations SupportiveSupportive ParticipativeParticipative MonitoringMonitoring Follower Readiness LeadershipLeadership StylesStyles
    21. 21. © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. Leader–Member Exchange TheoryLeader–Member Exchange Theory Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Theory •Leaders select certain followers to be “in” (favorites) Based on competence and/or compatibility & similarity to leader •“Exchanges” with these “In” followers will be higher quality than with those who are “Out” •RESULT: “In” subordinates will have higher performance ratings, less turnover, and greater job satisfaction
    22. 22. © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. Leader-Member Exchange TheoryLeader-Member Exchange Theory E X H I B I T 12–3 E X H I B I T 12–3
    23. 23. © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. Path-Goal TheoryPath-Goal Theory Premise • Leader must help followers attaining goals and reduce roadblocks to success •Leaders must change behaviors to fit the situation (environmental contingencies & subordinate contingencies)
    24. 24. © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. The Path-Goal TheoryThe Path-Goal Theory E X H I B I T 12–4 E X H I B I T 12–4
    25. 25. © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. Leader-Participation ModelLeader-Participation Model Premise: •Rule based decision tree to guide leaders about when and when not to include subordinate participation in decision making •Considers 12 contingency variables to consider whether or not to include subordinates in decision making
    26. 26. © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. Contingency Variables in the Revised Leader-Participation Model Contingency Variables in the Revised Leader-Participation Model E X H I B I T 12–5 E X H I B I T 12–5 1. Importance of the decision 2. Importance of obtaining follower commitment to the decision 3. Whether the leader has sufficient information to make a good decision 4. How well structured the problem is 5. Whether an autocratic decision would receive follower commitment 6. Whether followers “buy into” the organization’s goals 7. Whether there is likely to be conflict among followers over solution alternatives 8. Whether followers have the necessary information to make a good decision 9. Time constraints on the leader that may limit follower involvement 10. Whether costs to bring geographically dispersed members together is justified 11. Importance to the leader of minimizing the time it takes to make the decision 12. Importance of using participation as a tool for developing follower decision skills
    27. 27. © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. Which leadership theory (ies) say(s) that a leader cannot be trained? Ohio State ModelOhio State Model Fiedler’s Contingency TheoryFiedler’s Contingency Theory U. Of Michigan StudiesU. Of Michigan Studies Path Goal TheoryPath Goal Theory All of the aboveAll of the above Chapter Check-Up: Leadership
    28. 28. © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. Which leadership theory (ies) say(s) that a leader cannot be trained? Chapter Check-Up: Leadership Fielder’s Contingency Theory is the only one which says a leader’s style is fixed and cannot be trained. But, what do all of the theories above have in common? Ohio State ModelOhio State Model Fiedler’s Contingency TheoryFiedler’s Contingency Theory U. Of Michigan StudiesU. Of Michigan Studies Path Goal TheoryPath Goal Theory All of the aboveAll of the above
    29. 29. © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter Check-Up: Leadership What one theory discussed in this chapter couldWhat one theory discussed in this chapter could readily explain how leaders often act towardsreadily explain how leaders often act towards their followers in “Boot Camp” and why it may betheir followers in “Boot Camp” and why it may be very effective?very effective? Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Theory explains that when followers are unwilling and unable, as many newly enlisted Boot Camp attendees are, the leader should be highly focused on providing task-based behaviors and not relationship- based behaviors.

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