• 1. Globalization is the new
buzzword that has come to
dominate the world since the
nineties of the last century
with the end of the cold war.
• In general, it is the ‘process of
opening up of world trade,
development of advanced
means of communication,
financial markets and more
generally increased mobility
of persons, goods, capital,
data and ideas’.
• India opened up its economy in the early nineties
following a major crisis led by a foreign exchange
• A Global comparison shows that India is now the
fastest growing economy just after China.
• In terms of Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) it ranks
3rd in the world. The accelerated rate of growth
helps it to rise from the 10th largest to the 3rd
largest economy in the world by 2025, just
behind US and China.
Developing countries Women are Flexible labour
induction of women into
export industries such as
sports goods, food
processing, toys, agro-
forced to work
uncomplainingly at any
allotted task, however dull,
harmful or badly paid it
Globalisation & WomenGlobalisation & Women
• In India today, globalization has had positive and negative implications
within the male-dominant society.
• Women represent the largest group of “unpaid” workers, both in rural
and urban areas. Globally, proportion of women who are “contributing
family workers” is 34.5 percent, compared to 24.9 percent of men (ILO,
• In India, male casual workers increased from 65 percent in 1972 to 80
percent in 2002; female casual workers increased from 89 percent to 92
percent over the same period (World Bank, 2008).
• Studies have shown that the burden of poverty falls more heavily on
women than on men. The inequality in income and consumption levels
between women and men has also been documented. At least 11% of
households in India are supported solely by women's income & termed
as “female-headed households” (FHH).
• Despite representing more than half of the work force,
why are women in economically vulnerable condition?
• Women are getting less than men for the same work.
Why do majority of the countries neglect the ILO’s
charters, especially equal pay for equal work?
• Women’s political, social and economic rights are an
integral and inseparable part of their human rights. But
most countries still do not consider women’s rights
seriously especially those relating to economic rights
thus there is need to analyze and assess its impact on
women work force in general and the Indian women in
particular, at the millennium.
• Total Population of India: >1000 Million
• Percentage of Women - 48%: 480 Million
• Percentage of Working Population - 36%:360 Million
• Percentage of Women in Working Population – 32%:
• Percentage of Women in Organized Sector (4% of the
• above) 4.6 Million
• Percentage of Women in Unorganized Sector-96.3%
• Percentage of Women in Service Sector-7.6%
• Percentage of Women in casual labours-41.9%
India: low ranking in cross-country comparisons
UNDP – Gender-related Development Index: 96 (out of 136)
World Economic Forum - Gender Gap Index: 98 (out of 115)
OECD - Social Institutions and Gender Index: 106 (out of 117)
Poor performance in key areas:
Health – Education - Political participation - Employment
Ratio of female to male
adult literacy (>15 years)
Maternal Mortality Ratio
(per 100,000 live births)
Source: Gender, Institutions and Development Data Base (2007), OECD
Share of women in wage employment in
the non-agricultural sector
(in % of total)
Women in Parliament
(as % of total)
Source: Gender, Institutions and Development Data Base (2007), OECD
(% of girls between 15 and 19 years
of age who are currently married,
divorced or widowed)
Violence Against Women
(absence of any legislation on
violence against women = 1)
• According India’s constitution, women are legal citizens of the
country and have equal rights with men (Indian Parliament). But
because of lack of acceptance from the male dominant society,
Indian women suffer immensely.
• Although most women(90% of working women) in India work and
contribute to the economy in one form or another, much of their
work is not documented or accounted for in official statistics.
• Women are also overworked in the field and complete the all of
the domestic work.
• Researchers have estimated that female agricultural laborers
were usually paid 40 to 60 percent of the male wage.
• Although the country’s constitution says women have equal
status to men, women are powerless and are mistreated inside
and outside the home.
Work participation rate of
Rural women 30.8
Urban women 11.9
Work participation rate refers to percentages of women worker to
total women population
(Source: Census of India- 2001)
•75% of all women workers, 85% of rural women workers
are in agriculture.
•More than 20% of rural households de facto female-
headed. Many women manage farms without male support.
•Women are 40% of agricultural workforce & % rising.
Agricultural labourers 38.9
Household enterprises 6.5
(Source: Census of India- 2001)
Female Workers across sectors Male Workers across sectors
Source: "Employment and Unemployment in India, 1999-00", Fifty-Fifth Round,
NSSO, New Delhi
by high levels of
often do not
•The informal sector
includes jobs such as
artisans, or field
laborers on a family
•Most of these jobs
are unskilled and
low paying and do
not provide benefits
to the worker.
• reveal that 76 percent of women workers are
casual and home based labourers. Moreover
only about 7 percent of women workers are
formal and the rest are all informal workers
including own account workers.
• reflect the fact that women workers generally
earn less compared to their male counterparts in
all sectors except as own account workers in
agriculture and employers in other
manufacturing formal sector.
• In the last few years, in globalized urban India women
have made great strides on screen and in society, women
have learnt to enjoy being million- dollar babies, they have
broken ceilings, of glass or of concrete, taking on roles
tradition has tried to deny them. They have risen from the
margins to craft their futures centre stage.
• The facts are there for all to see: nascent industries like
BPO and biotechnology are expected to employ 2.3 million
people by 2010 and 100 million by 2012. Winds of
opportunity are ruffling our fortunes, and in the midst of it
all, India’s young, ambitious women are no longer content
with teaching toddlers or living the cliché of office
Impact on urban women: the factImpact on urban women: the fact
• 86% feel it is imperative to be financially independent.
• 77% would continue to work after marriage.
• 2% women today are unafraid of breaking rules
• while 44% like taking risks. 19% do not always take the
• 70% insist they will live life on their own terms.
• 65% women say that even after they get married, they will
decide how they spend their money
• A study on 300 working women by the psychological
department of Punjab University in 2003 showed 90% of
the respondents had a greater sense of well-being than
Source: Eves Dropping Survey 2006, INDIA TODAY April 2007
Survey report of National commission for women,2005 shows that:-
• As globalization shifts agriculture to a capital-intensive chemical-intensive
system, women bear the disproportionate costs of both displacement and
• Women carry the heavier work burden in food production, but because of
gender discrimination they get lower returns for their work.
• Globalization has destroyed rural livelihoods of many and it is women who lose
the most. When the WTO allows dumping, which leads to a drop in farm product
prices, women are hit the hardest because their incomes go down further
• It finds that there has been a spurt in the various forms of violence against
women like rape, female foeticide, and dowry deaths and trafficking in women,
etc, as the impact of shifts in the rural economy is felt.
• It also points out that women are the ultimate sufferers of increased incidents of
farm suicides as they are left to look after the household with no assets and the
burden of indebtedness on their shoulders
REALITY: Is higher work participation
of women does have positive impact
on their status
GENDER SENSITIVE POLICIES OF THE
• The Indian constitution has gender equality and womens’ rights
• Article 15(3) empowers state to make affirmative discrimination
in favour of women
• Article (39) - directs state policy towards providing men and
women equal right to means of livelihood and equal pay for
• Article (42) directs state to make provisions for ensuring just
and humane conditions of work and maternity relief
• Article(51a) imposes fundamental duty on every citizen to
renounce practices derogatory to the dignity of women
• Tenth Plan(2002-2007) focuses on empowering women socially
and economically and eliminate gender discrimination
WORKPLACE POLICIES AND
• Two distinct sectors with a third sector making its
presence :Private, Public and the ITES
• Work culture and ethics distinctly different in each.
• Leave provisions and promotional avenues vastly
• One of the common policies: Maternity leave.
• Factories Act(1948): employer must provide a creche
where more than 30 women work full time.
• Same act prevents women from being employed on
the shop floor in heavy machinery industries.
•women's experiences with globalization are extremely complex and
diverse, both positive and negative. Just how one is affected by
globalization depends on intersecting factors such as class, nationality,
race, ability, religion, age and education.
•There are some women who have significantly benefited from current
global trends through better employment opportunities and
autonomy, access to new technologies and increased purchasing
•On the other hand, globalization processes have also meant greater
insecurity and hardship for many other women. Cuts in social services,
increased privatization and a flexible labour force are all inherent
characteristics of globalization.
•women disproportionately encounter low wages, poor working
conditions and escalating risks
• Globalization can have a positive or negative effect on
women in India, but with globalization there is the
power to uproot the traditional views towards women
so they can take an equal stance in society
• As the process is irreversible, it is important that the
government and all organizations working for the
cause of women are conscious about this divide
between rural and urban women, organized and
unorganized sector and ensure that a significant
number should not be left out or alienated in the
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