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2006 vtu syllabus

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    5 8 semfinalb-tsyllabus[1] 5 8 semfinalb-tsyllabus[1] Document Transcript

    • V SEMESTER B. E. BIO-TECHNOLOGY W.E.F. SEPTEMBER 2008 Teaching Teaching Examination SchemeSl. Subject Title Dept. (Theory / (Max. Marks) lab)No. Code (Hrs/Week) Theory/ I A Total Practical1 06BT-51 Management and BT/ChE/ 04 100 25 125 Entrepreneurship MBA/ ME/IEM2 06BT-52 Biokinetics & BT/ChE 04 100 25 125 Bioreaction Engg.3 06BT-53 Biosensors & BT/IT/ 04 100 25 125 Bioinstrumentation ML/BM4 06BT-54 Immunotechnology BT 04 100 25 1255 06BT-55 Genetic Engg. & BT 04 100 25 125 Applications6 06BT-56 Bioinformatics BT 04 100 25 1257 06BT-L57 Genetic Engineering BT 03 50 25 75 & Immunotechnology Lab8 06BT-L58 Bioinformatics Lab BT 03 50 25 75 VI SEMESTER B. E. BIO-TECHNOLOGY W.E.F FEBRUARY 2009 Teaching Teaching Examination SchemeSl. No. Subject Title Dept. (Theory / (Max. Marks) lab) Code (Hrs/Week) Theory/ IA Total Practical1 06BT-61 Bioprocess Control BT/ChE 04 100 25 125 & Automation2 06BT-62 Clinical Biotechnology BT 04 100 25 1253 06BT-63 Enzyme Technology BT 04 100 25 125 & Biotransformation4 06BT-64 Genomics and Proteomics BT 04 100 25 1255 06BT-65 Pharmaceutical BT 04 100 25 125 Biotechnology6 06BT-66 Elective – A BT/ChE/ 04 100 25 125 ME/CSE7 06BT-L67 Bioprocess Control BT/ChE 03 50 25 75 & Automation Lab8 06BT-L68 Biokinetics & BT 03 50 25 75 Enzyme Technology Lab Elective A : 06BT-661 Animal BT 06BT-662 Plant BT 06BT-663 Microbial BT 06BT-664 Perl Programming 06BT-665 Transport Phenomena 06BT-666 Bioprocess Equipment Design & CAED 1
    • VII SEMESTER B. E. BIO-TECHNOLOGY W.E.F. SEPTEMBER 2009 Teaching Teaching Examination SchemeSl. Subject Title Dept. (Theory / (Max. Marks) lab)No. Code (Hrs/Week) Theory/ IA Total Practical1 06BT-71 Economics & Plant BT/ChE 04 100 25 125 Design2 06BT-72 Upstream BT 04 100 25 125 Process Technology3 06BT-73 Downstream BT/ChE 04 100 25 125 Process Technology4 06BT-74 Food Biotechnology BT 04 100 25 1255 06BT-75 Elective – B BT/ChE/ 04 100 25 125 CSE/ISE6 06BT-76 Elective – C BT/ChE/ 04 100 25 125 CSE/ISE7 06BT-L77 Upstream processing BT 03 50 25 75 Lab8 06BT-L78 Downstream BT/ChE 03 50 25 75 processing LabElective B : Elective C :06BT-751 Aqua Culture & Marine BT 06BT-761 Biochips & Micro array Technology06BT-752 Dairy BT 06BT-762 Biomaterials06BT-753 Forensic Science 06BT-763 Health Diagnostics06BT-754 Data structures with C 06BT-764 Fundamentals of OS & DBMS06BT-755 Bioreactor Design Concepts 06BT-765 CAD & MATLAB VIII SEMESTER B. E. BIO-TECHNOLOGY W.E.F FEBRUARY 2010 Teaching Teaching Examination SchemeSl. Subject Code Title Dept. (Theory / (Max. Marks) lab)No. (Hrs/Week) Theory/ IA Total Practical1 06BT-81 Project Management BT/MBA/ 04 100 25 125 & IPR ME/IEM/ ChE2 06BT-82 Bioethics & Biosafety BT 04 100 25 1253 06BT-83 Elective – D BT/ChE/ 04 100 25 125 BM4 06BT-84 Elective – E BT/ChE 04 100 25 1255 06BT-85 Project Work BT 15 100 100 2006 06BT-86 Seminar BT 09 --- 50 50Elective D : Elective E :06BT-831 Nano Bio-Technology 06BT-841 Environmental BT06BT-832 Lab to Industrial Scaling 06BT-842 Metabolic Engineering06BT-833 Protein Engg & Insilico Drug Design 06BT-843 Medical Informatics06BT-834 Biomedical Instrumentation 06BT-844 Tissue Engineering06BT-835 Biomolecular Engineering 06BT-845 Facilitation, Validation & QC 2
    • V SEMESTER MANAGEMENT & ENTREPRENEURSHIPSub. Code : 06BT-51 I.A Marks : 25Hours/week : 04 Exam Hrs. : 03Total Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100 SYLLABUS TO BE PROVIED BY VTU BIOKINETICS & BIOREACTION ENGINEERINGSub. Code : 06BT-52 I.A Marks : 25Hours/week : 04 Exam Hrs. : 03Total Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100 PART AUNIT 1. INTRODUCTIONLaw of mass action and rate equation, definitions and examples of elementary and non-elementary reactions, theories of reaction rate and temperature dependency, analysis ofexperimental reactor data: evaluation of rate equation, integral and differential analysis forconstant volume system. Conceptual numericals. 08 HoursUNIT 2. BIOCHEMICAL EQUILIBRIAEquilibrium in chemically reactive systems (single and multiple reactions), evaluation of reactionequilibrium constant, concentration/conversion data, effect of temperature on equilibrium –derivation of G vs. T relation, application of above concepts to biochemical systems. Conceptualnumericals. 04 HoursUNIT 3. BIOREACTORSDesign equations for homogeneous system: batch, stirred tank and tubular flow reactor, sizecomparison of reactor systems, combination reactor systems. Optimization of output and yieldproblems, Qualitative design for consecutive, parallel and mixed reactions and recycle. Factorsaffecting choice of reactors: optimum yield, conversion, selectivity and reactivity. Conceptualnumericals. 08 HoursUNIT 4. NON-IDEAL BIOREACTORSNon-ideal reactors, residence time distribution studies, pulse and step input response of reactors,RTD’s for CSTR and PFR, calculations of conversions for First order reactions, tanks in seriesand dispersion models. Conceptual numericals. 06 Hours PART BUNIT 5. ENZYME KINETICSEnzyme active site, types of enzyme specificities, enzyme kinetics, initial velocity studies,formation of ES complex, derivation of Michaelis-Menton equation, definition of Km andVmax, Lineweaver-Burk and Eadie-Hofstee plots. Units of enzyme activity, Enzyme inhibition:competitive, uncompetitive and non-competitive; Regulations – allosteric and feed backregulation. Conceptual numericals. 10 HoursUNIT 6. KINETICS OF MICROBIAL GROWTH AND PRODUCT FORMATIONPhases of cell growth in batch cultures; simple unstructured kinetic models for microbial growth- Monod model; Growth of Filamentous Organisms. Growth associated (primary) and non- 3
    • growth associated (secondary) product formation kinetics; Leudeking-Piret models; substrate andproduct inhibition on cell growth and product formation; Conceptual numericals. 05 HoursUNIT 7. METABOLIC STOICHIOMETRY AND ENERGETICSStoichiometry of cell Growth and Product Formation- elemental balances, degrees of reductionof substrate and biomass; available-electron balances; yield coefficients of biomass and productformation; maintenance coefficients. Energetic analysis of microbial growth and productformation - oxygen consumption and heat evolution in aerobic cultures; thermodynamicefficiency of growth. Conceptual numericals. 05 HoursUNIT 8. MEDIA DESIGN AND STERILIZATIONMedium requirements for fermentation processes- Carbon, nitrogen, minerals, vitamins and othercomplex nutrients; oxygen requirements; Medium formulation for optimal growth and productformation - examples of simple and complex media; Thermal death kinetics of microorganisms;Batch and continuous heat – Sterilization of Liquid media; Filter sterilization of liquid media 07 HoursTEXT BOOKSChemical Reaction Engineering by Levenspiel O., John Wiley, 3rd Edition, 2006.Elements of Chemical Reaction Engineering by Fogler, H.S., Prentice Hall, 1986.Bioprocess Engineering by Shuler and Kargi Prentice Hall, 1992.Enzyme Kinetics and Mechanism by Paul F Cook & W W Cleland, Garland Science, 2007REFERENCE BOOKSBioprocess Engineering by Aiba, Humprey & Millis, Academic Press.Biochemical Engineering, James Lee, 1992.Biochemical Engineering Fundamentals by Bailey and Ollis, McGraw Hill (2nd Ed.) 1986.Bioprocess Engineering Principles by Pauline M. Doran, 1995. London.Principles of Biochemistry by Leninger A.L., II Edition, 1993.Enzyme Kinetics by Plowman, McGraw Hill, 1972.Chemical Engineering Kinetics by Smith J.M., McGraw Hill, 3rd Edition, New Delhi,1981.Wolf R. Vieth, Bioprocess Engineering – Kinetics, Mass Transport, Reactors and GeneExpression. A Wiley – Interscience Publication, 1992.Chemical Reactor Analysis and Design by Forment G F and Bischoff K B., John Wiley, 1979.Biocatalytic Membrane Reactor by Drioli, Taylor & Francis, 2005QUESTION PAPER PATTERNFor every 6-7 Hours of teaching One Question to be Set. Eight questions to be set (four fromeach part) out of which five full questions (considering at least two from each part) to beanswered. BIOINSTRUMENTATION & BIOSENSORSSub. Code : 06BT-53 I.A Marks : 25Hours/week : 04 Exam Hrs. : 03Total Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100 PART AUNIT 1. INTRODUCTIONElectrical quantities and units; functional elements of an instrumentation system; static anddynamic characteristics; principles of analog and digital meters; CRO, energy meters, time andfrequency meters; multimeters. Transducers: Classification, resistive strain gages, RTD, LVDT,Peizoelectric transducers, electromagnetic transducers, optical transducers, transducers forbiomedical applications. Conceptual numericals. 06 Hours 4
    • UNIT 2. BIOMEDICAL INSTRUMENTATIONThe terminology of medical instrumentation, a review of medical and physiological signals,Principles of EEG, ECG and EMG, PC based Instrumentation, Microcontroller basedInstrumentation, Case study on advanced instrumentation design in Cardiac Mapping.Conceptual numericals. 08 HoursUNIT 3. CARDIAC AND VASCULAR SYSTEMOverview of cardiovascular system, Types of blood pressure sensors, Lumped parametermodeling of a catheter-sensor system, Heart sounds, Cardiac catheterization, Indirectmeasurement of blood pressure, Measuring blood flow rate, Measuring blood volume,Pacemakers, Defibrillators, Cardiac-assist devices, Replacement heart valves – relatedinstrumentation of equipments involved and sensors. Conceptual numericals. 06 HoursUNIT 4. RESPIRATORY SYSTEMModeling the respiratory system, Measuring gas flow rate, Measuring lung volume, Tests ofrespiratory mechanics, Measuring gas concentration, Tests of gas transport, Ventilators,Anesthesia machines, Heart-Lung machine – related instrumentation of equipments involved andsensors. Conceptual numericals. 06 Hours PART BUNIT 5. ANALYTICAL INSTRUMENTS pH meters, Radiometric Devices, Fluorescence Spectrophotometers, Chromatology(chromatographic techniques – GC & HPLC), Electrophoresis, and Lab on a chip - relatedinstrumentation, Validation, Commissioning and Maintenance of all the above equipments.Conceptual numericals. 06 HoursUNIT 6. ASSAY TECHNOLOGIES AND DETECTION METHODSIntroduction; Bioassay Design and Implementation; Radiometric Assays; Scintillation ProximityAssays; Fluorescence methodology to cover all types of fluorescence measurements andinstrumentation; Reporter gene Assay applications; Bio-analytical Applications. Conceptualnumericals. 06 HoursUNIT 7. AUTOMATION AND ROBOTICSIntroduction to Automation, types, LERT classification system, components of a robot, softwaresused in robotics, Barcode technology, objectives, decoding, symbologies used, barcode reader(pen-type, laser type, CCD camera and camera based readers). Conceptual numericals 04 HoursUNIT 8. BIOSENSORSIntroduction to Biosensors: Concepts and applications. Biosensors for personal diabetesmanagement. Microfabricated Sensors and the Commercial Development of Biosensors.Electrochemical sensors, Chemical fibrosensors, Ion-selective FETs, Noninvasive blood-gasmonitoring, Blood-glucose sensors. Noninvasive Biosensors in Clinical Analysis. Applicationsof Biosensor-based instruments to the bioprocess industry. Application of Biosensors toenvironmental samples. Introduction to Biochips and their application to genomics. BIAcore -an optical Biosensor. Conceptual numericals. 10 HoursTEXT BOOKSBioinstrumentation and Biosensors by Donald L Wise, Marcel Dekker Inc. 1991BIOSENSORS by COOPER JM (2004). Oxford Publications.Hand book of Biomedical Instrumentation – R. S. Khandpur, 2nd Edition, TMH, 2003. 5
    • Biosensors and their applications by Yang Victor C & Ngo That T. 2000.Biosensors – An introduction by Eggins Brain R. 1997.Advances in Laboratory Automation-Robotics by J.R. Strimaitis and J.N. Little, ZymarkCorporation, MA 1991.REFERENCE BOOKSAutomation technologies for genome characterization, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1997.Transducers and Instrumentation by Murthy D V S. Prentice Hall, 1995High Throughput Screening, Edited by John. P. Devlin. Published by Marcel Dekker. (1998)Commercial Biosensors by Graham Ramsay, John Wiley & Son, INC. (1998)Introduction to bioanalytical sensors by Alice J Cunningham Newyrok, John Wiley, 1988.Applied biosensors by Doland L Wise (1989).Encyclopedia of Medical devices and Instrumentation – J G Webster – John Wiley 1999Introduction to Biomedical equipment technology – J J Carr, J M Brown, Prentice Hall. 1998.Introduction to Biomedical Engineering by J Enderle, S Blanchard & J Bronzino, Elsevier, 2005.QUESTION PAPER PATTERNFor every 6-7 Hours of teaching One Question to be Set. Eight questions to be set (four fromeach part) out of which five full questions (considering at least two from each part) to beanswered. IMMUNOTECHNOLOGYSub. Code : 06BT-54 I.A Marks : 25Hours/week : 04 Exam Hrs. : 03Total Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100 PART AUNIT 1.THE IMMUNE SYSTEMIntroduction, cells and organs of the immune system, Primary and secondary Lymphoid organs,antigens, antibodies and their structure, types of immune responses; anatomy of immuneresponse. Classification of immune system - innate and adaptive immunity. 06 HoursUNIT 2. HUMORAL-IMMUNITYB-lymphocytes and their activation; structure and function of immunoglobulins; immunoglobulinclasses and subclasses, idiotypes and anti-idiotypic antibodies, genetic control of antibodyproduction, production of monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies. 08 HoursUNIT 3. CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITYThymus derived lymphocytes (T cells) - their ontogeny and types, MHC Complex, antigenpresenting cells (APC), mechanisms of T cell activation, macrophages, dendritic cells,langerhans cells, mechanism of phagocytosis, Antigen processing and presentation.06 HoursUNIT 4. IMMUNE REGULATION AND TOLERANCEComplement activation and types and their biological functions, cytokines and their role inimmune response, immunotolerance, Hypersensitivity its types and treatment. 06 Hours PART BUNIT 5. IMMUNOLOGICAL DISORDERAutoimmune disorders and types, pathogenic mechanisms, treatment, experimental models ofauto immune disease, primary and secondary immunodeficiency disorders, mechanism of AIDS,rheumatoid arthritis and allergies. 06 Hours 6
    • UNIT 6. TRANSPLANTATION IMMUNOLOGYImmunological basis of graft, types of transplantation, mechanism of graft rejection, role of HLAin graft rejection, tissue typing, immunosuppression and immunosuppressive drugs, tumorspecific antigens. 06 HoursUNIT 7. MOLECULAR IMMUNOLOGYVaccines and their types, production of recombinant-DNA vaccines. Catalytic antibodies,application of PCR technology to produce antibodies, immunotherapy with geneticallyengineered antibodies. Brief mention about stem cells and applications to immunology. 06 HoursUNIT 8. IMMUNODIAGNOSISAntigen antibody interaction – Precipitation reactions, Agglutination reactions, Blood typing, A,B, ABO & Rh, principles and applications of ELISA, Radio Immuno Assay (RIA), western blotanalysis, immuno-electrophoresis, Immunofluorescence, chemiluminescence assay. 08 HoursTEXT BOOKSImmunology – an Introduction by Tizard, Thomson 2004.Immunology by J Kubey, WH Freeman. 2003.Immunology & Immunotechnology by Ashim K Chakravarthy, Oxford University Press, 2006.Immundiagnostics by S C Rastogi, New Age International. 1996.REFERENCE BOOKSEssential Immunology by Roitt I. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, 1991.Molecular Immunology By Benjamini E. 2002.Immunology A short course by Benjamini E. and Leskowitz S. Wiley Liss, NY, 1991.The Immune System by Peter Parham, Garland Science, 2005Understanding Immunology by Peter Wood, Pearson Education, II edition, 2006QUESTION PAPER PATTERNFor every 6-7 Hours of teaching One Question to be Set. Eight questions to be set (four fromeach part) out of which five full questions (considering at least two from each part) to beanswered. GENETIC ENGINEERING & APPLICATIONSSub. Code : 06BT-55 I.A Marks : 25Hours/week : 04 Exam Hrs. : 03Total Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100 PART AUNIT 1. INTRODUCTIONRole of genes within cells, genetic code, genetic elements that control gene expression, methodof creating recombinant DNA molecules, vectors in recombinant DNA technology, biology andsalient features of vectors, types of vectors – plasmids, cosmids, phages and viruses. 06 HoursUNIT 2. ENZYMES IN GENETIC ENGINEERINGIntroduction. Restriction Endonculeases - Exo & exdo nucleases, classification, mode of action.Enzymes in modification - Polynucleotide phosphorylase, DNase, Methylases, phosphatases,polynucleotide Kinase, Ligases, RNase and their mechansim of action. 06 HoursUNIT 3. NUCLEIC ACID HYBRIDIZATION AND AMPLIFICATIONMethods of nucleic acid detection, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and its applications,variations in PCR and applications, methods of nucleic acid hybridization, probe and target 7
    • sequences, Southern and Northern hybridization techniques, nucleic acid mutagenesis in vivo andin vitro. 08 HoursUNIT 4. CONSTRUCTION OF DNA LIBRARIESIsolation and purification of nucleic acids, quantification, storage, Isolation of plasmids,Construction of genomic and cDNA libraries, screening and preservation. 06 Hours PART BUNIT 5. GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUESGene transfer techniques in plants, animals and microbes – Transformation, electroporation,microprojectile system, liposome mediated transfer, gene gun etc. Agrobacterium-mediated genetransfer in plants – Ti plasmid: structure and functions, Ti plasmid based vectors - advantages.Chloroplast transformation. 08 HoursUNIT 6. TRANSGENIC SCIENCE AND GENETIC IMPROVEMENTTransgenic science in plant improvement, biopharming – plants as bioreactors, transgenic cropsfor increased yield, resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses.Techniques of gene mapping in plants. Marker-assisted selection and breeding for improvement.Transgenic science for animal improvement, biopharming - animals as bioreactors forrecombinant proteins, Gene mapping in farm animals. Marker-assisted selection and geneticimprovement of livestock. 08 HoursUNIT 7. OTHER APPLICATIONSMicrobial biotechnology - Genetic manipulation, engineering microbes for the production ofantibiotics, enzymes, Insulin, growth hormones, monoclonal antibodies, clearing oil spills. 06 HoursUNIT 8. GENE THERAPYIntroduction. Methods of Gene therapy. Gene targeting and silencing. Gene therapy in thetreatment of cancer, SCID, muscular dystrophy, respiratory disease (emphysema) etc.,Challenges in gene therapy. Future of gene therapy. 04 HoursTEXT BOOKSIntroduction to Genetic Engineering by Nicholl. Cambridge Low Price Edition, 2006.Principles of gene manipulation - An introduction to genetic engineering, Old R.W., PrimroseS.B., Blackwell Scientific Publications, 1993.From Genetics to Gene Therapy – the molecular pathology of human disease by David SLatchman, BIOS scientific publishers, 1994.Genes VIII by Benjamin Lewis. Oxford University & Cell Press, 2007.DNA Science by David A Micklos, Greg A Freyer and Dvaid A Crotty, I K International, 2003.REFERENCE BOOKSMolecular Biotechnology: Prnciples and Practices by Channarayappa, 2006, University Press.Genetic Engineering Vol. 1-4 (Williamson Edition)Recombinant DNA by Watson et al., 1983.Vectors by Rodriguer and Denhardt, 1987.Current protocols in molecular biology, Greena Publishing Associates, NY, 1988.Berger S.L. Kimmel A.R. Methods in enzymology, Vol.152, Academic Press, 1987.Molecular cloning Volumes I, II and III. Sambrook J et al (2000). Cold Spring Harbor lab Press. 8
    • QUESTION PAPER PATTERNFor every 6-7 Hours of teaching One Question to be Set. Eight questions to be set (four fromeach part) out of which five full questions (considering at least two from each part) to beanswered. BIOINFORMATICSSub. Code : 06BT-56 I.A Marks : 25Hours/week : 04 Exam Hrs. : 03Total Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100 PART AUNIT 1. DATABASES & TOOLSIntroduction to Bioinformatics, Need for informatics tools and exercises, Significance ofdatabases towards informatics projects. The nucleotide and protein sequence Databases:GenBank, DDBJ, EMBL, PIR, Primary and Secondary Databases; Format of databases, Genebank flat file. Protein Data Bank (PDB) flat file; FASTA Format, PIR Format; Structure fileformats, PDBSUM, PDBLite, MMDB, SCOP, Pfam; Database of structure viewers. Specializeddatabases: NCBI, Pubmed, OMIM, Medical databases, KEGG, EST databases; Overview ofother popular tools for bioinformatics exercises. 06 HoursUNIT 2. SEQUENCE ALIGNMENT AND DATABASE SEARCHESIntroduction, The evolutionary basis of sequence alignment, the Modular Nature of proteins,Optional Alignment Methods, Substitution scores, substitution matrices, PAM, BLOSUM, Gappenalties, Statistical significance of Alignments, Database similarity searching, FASTA, BLAST,Low-Complexity Regions, Repetitive Elements. Practical Aspect of Multiple SequenceAlignment, Progressive Alignment Methods, CLUSTALW, Motifs and Patterns, PROSITE,3DPSSM. Hidden Markov Models (HMMs), and Threading methods. Conceptual numericals. 08 HoursUNIT 3. PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSISIntroduction to Phylogenetic analysis, rooted and unrooted trees, Elements of phylogeneticModels, Phylogenetic Data Analysis: Alignment, Substitution Model Building, Tree Building,and Tree Evaluation, Building the Data Model (Alignment), Determining the Substitution Model,Tree - Building Methods, Searching for Trees, Rooting Trees, Evaluating Trees and Data,Phylogenetic softwares (CLUSTALW, PHYLIP etc), Conceptual numericals. 06 HoursUNIT 4. PREDICTIVE METHODSPredictive Methods using Nucleotide sequences: Framework, Masking repetitive DNA,Database searches, Codon Bias Detection, Detecting Functional Sites in the DNA (promoters,transcription factor binding sites, translation initiation sites), Integrated Gene Parsing, findingRNA Genes, Web based tools (GENSCAN, GRAIL, GENEFINDER).Predictive Methods using Protein sequences: Protein Identity based on composition, Physicalproperties Based on sequence, secondary structure and folding classes, specialized structures orfeatures, tertiary structure. Related web based software (JPRED, PROSEC, NNPREDICT,SOPMA). 06 Hours PART BUNIT 5. PLASMID MAPPING AND PRIMER DESIGNRestriction mapping, Utilities, DNA strider, MacVector and OMIGA, gene construction KIT,Vector NTI, Web based tools (MAP, REBASE); Primer design – need for tools, Primer designprograms and software (PRIME3). Conceptual numericals. 04 Hours 9
    • UNIT 6. GENOME BIOINFORMATICSSequencing methods (qualitative), Bioinformatics tools and automation in Genome Sequencing,analysis of Raw genome sequence data, Utility of EST database in sequencing, Bioinformatics indetection of Polymorphisms, SNPs and their relevance, Bioinformatics tools in microarray dataanalysis, tools for comparative genomics. 04 HoursUNIT 7. MOLECULAR VISUALIZATIONGeneration or Retrieval, Structure Visualization, Conformation Generation. Graphicalrepresentation of molecular structures: small molecules (low molecular weight – peptides,nucleotides, disaccharides, simple drugs molecules) and macromolecules (high molecular weightmolecules - proteins, DNA, RNA, membranes). Usages of visualization software available inpublic domain like VMD, Rasmol, Pymol, SpdbViewer, Chime, Cn3D. Rotameric Structures ofProteins (Conformational Flexibility), Canonical DNA Forms (DNA Sequence Effects).Systematic methods of exploring conformational space. 06 HoursUNIT 8. INSILICO MODELING & DRUG DESIGNScope and applications of insilico modeling in modern biology. Comparative modeling,Constructing an initial model, refining the model, manipulating the model, moleculesuperposition and structural alignment, concept of energy minimization, different types ofinteractions and formulation of force fields. Basic MD algorithm, its limitations, treatment oflong range forces. Molecular modeling in drug discovery, deriving bioactive conformations,molecular docking, quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR), deriving thePharmacophoric Pattern, Receptor Mapping, Estimating Biological Activities, Ligand - ReceptorInteractions: Docking, Calculation of Molecular Properties, Energy Calculations (no derivation).Conceptual numericals. 12 HoursTEXT BOOKSBIOINFORMATICS by Andreas D Baxevanis. Wiley Interscience, 1998.BIOINFORMATICS: by David W Mount, cold spring harbor, 2001.Introduction to Bioinformatics by Arthur Lesk, Oxford, 2006.BIOINFORMATICS: Stuart M Brown, NYU Medical Center, NY USA. 2000.Fundamental Concepts of Bioinformatics by D E Krane & M L Raymer, Pearson, 2006.REFERENCE BOOKSComputational methods for macromolecular sequence analysis: R F Doolittle. Academic Press,1996.Computational methods in Molecular Biology. S.L.Salzberg, D B Searls, S Kasif, Elsevier, 1998.BIOINFORMATICS – METHODS AND APPLICATIONS: GENOMICS, PROTEOMICS AND DRUGDISCOVERY BY S C RASTOGI, N MENDIRATTA & P RASTOGI, PHI, 2006.The molecular modeling perspective in drug design by N Claude Cohen, 1996, Academic PressAnalytical Tools for DNA, Genes & Genomes: by Arseni Markoff, New Age, 2007.INTRODUCTION TO BIOINFORMATICS by ANNA TRAMONTANO (2007) TAYLOR &FRANCIS.BIOINFORMATICS by DES HIGGINS & WILLIE TAYLOR (2005) OXFORD.QUESTION PAPER PATTERNFor every 6-7 Hours of teaching One Question to be Set. Eight questions to be set (four fromeach part) out of which five full questions (considering at least two from each part) to beanswered. 10
    • GENETIC ENGINEERING & IMMUNOTECHNOLOGY LABORATORYSub. Code : 06BTL-57 I.A Marks : 25Hours/week : 03 Exam Hrs. : 03 Exam Marks : 501. Preparation of DNA for PCR applications- Isolation, purity & quantification2. Introduction to PCR – working of PCR equipment, programming, preparation of reagentsand buffers3. Primer designing using softwares4. Gene/ DNA amplification by random/ specific primers5. Southern hybridization6. Gene Transformation7. Agglutination Technique: Blood group identification8. Bacterial Agglutination Technique-Widal test (Tube / slide agglutination)9. Ouchterlony Double Diffusion (ODD) and Radial Immunodiffusion (RID)10. ELISA11. Countercurrent immunoelectrophoresis (CCIEP)12. Immunoelectrophoresis (IEP)13. Rocket immunoelectrophoresis (RIEP)14. Western blot15. Separation of lymphocytes from peripheral blood.TEXT/REFERENCE BOOKSPrinciples of gene manipulation - An introduction to genetic engineering, Old R.W., PrimroseS.B., Blackwell Scientific Publications, 1993.Genetic Engineering Vol. 1-4 (Williamson Edition)Immunology & Immunotechnology by Ashim K Chakravarthy, Oxford University Press,2006.11Immunodiagnostics by S C Rastogi, New Age International.Genes VIII by Benjamin Lewis. Oxford University & Cell PressCurrent protocols in molecular biology, Greena Publishing Associates, NY, 1988.Berger S.L. Kimmel A.R. Methods in enzymology, Vol.152, Academic Press, 1987.DNA Science by David A Micklos, Greg A Freyer and David A Crotty, I K International, 2003.Molecular cloning Volumes I, II and III. Sambrook J et al (2000). Cold Spring Harbor lab Press.Introduction to Genetic engineering by Sandhya Nair BIOINFORMATICS LABORATORYSub. Code : 06BTL-58 I.A Marks : 25Hours/week : 03 Exam Hrs. : 03 Exam Marks : 501. Bibliographic search from PUBMED, SCIRUS, MEDMINER2. Sequence retrieval from Nucleic acid and Protein databases.3. Sequence (FASTA and BLAST) searches – Retrieval of homologs, paralogs, orthologs, andxenologs4. Pair wise comparison of sequences – Analysis of parameters affecting alignment.5. Multiple alignments of sequences and pattern determination using PROSITE 11
    • 6. Evolutionary studies / Phylogenetic analysis – Analysis of parameters affecting trees.7. Identification of functional sites in Genes / Genomes.8. Secondary structure prediction of proteins and comparison with PDB.9. Restriction mapping: Analysis of maps for suitable molecular biology experiment.10. Primer Design: Factors affecting primer design.11. PDB structure retrieval and visualization: Analysis of homologous structures.12. Comparative Modeling of homologous sequences and validation of modeled structures.13. Determination of ligand-protein interactions using SPDBV/ LIGPLOT14. Superposition of structures – Calculation of RMSD.15. Docking studies – Analysis of substrate / ligand binding using homologous structures.16. Derivation of pharmacophore patterns for sigma selective ligands.TEXT/REFERENCE BOOKSBIOINFORMATICS by Andreas D Boxevanis. Wiley Interscience, 1998.BIOINFORMATICS by David W Mount, cold spring harbor, 2001.BIOINFORMATICS: A biologists guide to biocomputing and the internet. Stuart M Brown,NYU Medical Center, NY USA. 2000.Analytical Tools for DNA, Genes & Genomes: by Arseni Markoff, New Age, 2007.DISCOVERING GENOMICS, PROTEOMICS & BIOINFORMATICS BY A M CAMPBELL & L J HEYER,PEARSON EDUCATION, 2007Fundamental Concepts of Bioinformatics by D E Krane & M L Raymer, Pearson, 2006.Computational methods in Molecular Biology. S.L.Salzberg, D B Searls, S Kasif, Elsevier, 1998.BIOINFORMATICS – METHODS AND APPLICATIONS: GENOMICS, PROTEOMICS AND DRUGDISCOVERY BY S C RASTOGI, N MENDIRATTA & P RASTOGI, PHI, 2006Introduction to Bioinformatics by Arthur Lesk, Oxford, 2006 12
    • VI SEMESTER BIOPROCESS CONTROL & AUTOMATIONSub. Code : 06BT-61 I.A Marks : 25Hours/week : 04 Exam Hrs. : 03Total Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100UNIT 1: INSTRUMENTATIONInstrumentation - principles, Introduction to flow, pressure, temperature and liquid levelmeasurements, measurement of important physico-chemical and biochemical parameters,methods of on-line and off-line biomass estimation, flow injection analysis for measurement ofsubstrates, products and other metabolites. 08 HoursUNIT 2: FIRST ORDER SYSTEMSProcess characteristics, Laplace transforms, first order systems – examples, mercury in glassthermometer, liquid level system, linearization, response of first order system for step, pulse,impulse and sinusoidal changes in input, conceptual numericals. 06 HoursUNIT 3: FIRST ORDER SYSTEMS IN SERIESInteracting and non-interacting systems and their dynamic response to step, pulse and impulseinputs; conceptual numericals. 04HoursUNIT 4: SECOND ORDER SYSTEMSSecond order systems with transfer functions (spring-damper, control valve, U-tube manometer),response of second order system to step, pulse / impulse and sinusoidal input – Over damped,under damped and critically damped condition of second order system, transportation lag. 08 Hours PART BUNIT 5: CONTROLLERS AND FINAL CONTROL ELEMENTSActuators, Positioners, Valve body, Valve plugs, Characteristics of final control elements,controllers – two position control, proportional control, derivative control, integral control, P-I(proportional-integral) control, P-D (proportional- derivative) control, P-I-D (proportional-integral-derivative) control, conceptual numericals. 05 HoursUNIT 6: CLOSED LOOP CONTROL SYSTEMSBlock diagrams for servo and regulatory problems. Transient response of first and second orderprocesses for set point changes and load changes with proportional and PI controllers, conceptualnumericals. 05 hoursUNIT 7: CONTROLLER DESIGN AND STABILITYCriteria for stability, Routh test; Root locus (basics), Introduction to frequency response, Bodecriteria for stability, Nyquist criteria; Conceptual numericals. 10 HoursUNIT 8: BIOPROCESSES DYNAMICS AND CONTROLDynamics and control of bioreactors & sterilizers. On-line data analysis for state and parameterestimation techniques for biochemical processes. 06 HoursTEXT BOOKSProcess System analysis and Control by Donald R Coughanowr, 2nd Edition,. McGraw-Hill,1991.Chemical Process Control by George Stephanopoulos, Prentice-Hall of India, 1999. 13
    • REFERENCE BOOKSProcess dynamics and control by D E Seborg, T F Edger, John Wiley, 1989Process Control by Wayne C. Bequette, Pearson Education Asia.Essentials of Process Control, Luyben and Luyben.Process Modeling, Simulation and Control, William Luyben.Biochemical Engineering Fundamentals by Bailey and Ollis, Mcgraw Hill (2nd Ed.). 1986.Bioprocess Engineering by Shule and Kargi Prentice Hall, 1992.Bioprocess Engineering Principles by Pauline M. Doran, 1995.Wankat P.C. Rate controlled separations, Elsevier, 1990.QUESTION PAPER PATTERNFor every 6-7 Hours of teaching One Question to be Set. Eight questions to be set (four fromeach part) out of which five full questions (considering at least two from each part) to beanswered. CLINICAL BIOTECHNOLOGYSub. Code : 06BT-62 I.A Marks : 25Hours/week : 04 Exam Hrs. : 03Total Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100 PART AUNIT 1. INTRODUCTIONThe philosophy behind and organization of clinical research. Disease target identification andselection, receptor-based approaches, agonists, antagonists, enzyme inhibitors, includinggenomics, proteomic methods for lead optimization and candidate selection of molecules forexploratory human investigation. 06 HoursUNIT 2. CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGYPre-clinical development to support testing in humans: In vitro and in vivo testing of newcompounds-preclinical & clinical trials. Relationship between animal and human pharmacology.Safety testing – acute, sub acute toxicology, genotoxicology, reproductive toxicology, topicalirritation and hypersensitivity, safety pharmacology, immunotoxicology. PharmaceuticalDevelopment - formulations, manufacture and supply of materials, labeling and presentation,stability and storage, purity, compatibility, disposal; Concepts of pharmacovigilance.08 HoursUNIT 3. THERAPEUTICSClinical importance of Therapeutic Proteins: Therapeutic Antibodies and Enzymes; Hormonesand Growth Factors used as therapeutics (erythropoietin & insulin as examples). Interferons,Interleukins and additional Regulatory Factors. Preservation and clinical use of blood and bloodcomponents, principles and safety guide lines for blood transfusion. 05 HoursUNIT 4. MANAGEMENT OF DRUGSManagement of common acute and chronic diseases. Major drug classes including biologicals.Drug effects: Quantification of drug effects, adverse drug reactions (short term & long term),benefits and risks. Population-based drug prescriptions: e.g. children, elderly, pregnant andbreast feeding women, patients with renal or hepatic impairment. Drug Monitoring:Restrictively-used drugs and drug dependence, Overdose and treatment of drug toxicity. Patientcompliance and patient records 07 Hours 14
    • PART BUNIT 5. STEM CELLS IN HEALTH CAREIntroduction to Stem Cell Biology, Fate Mapping of Stem Cells, Brief introduction into thedifferent types of stem cells. Use of stem cells in therapy of neurological, hematopoetic, hepatic,pancreatic disorders. Applications of epidermal stem cell in Tissue engineering. HematopoieticStem Cells, Classification and clinical manifestations of hematopoietic stem cell disorders. . 07 HoursUNIT 6. HEALTHCARE MARKETPLACEPrinciples and practice of marketing: Marketing structure and competition, Price negotiations,National and local formularies. Product information (Generic v/s Rx), advertising and claims,Product support and promotion Product life-cycle management, Product liability Codes ofpractice (including the MHRA Blue Guide Measurement of healthcare), governmental policy andthird-party reimbursement. Principles of health economics Pharmacoepidemiology Competition,in-licensing, co-marketing. 07 HoursUNIT 7. SOCIAL, ETHICAL AND LEGAL ISSUESIPR: patents and copyrights, (with emphasis on patenting of new active substances). Genetic &sex discrimination: insurance and employment, human cloning, foeticide. Ethical principles withregard to: somatic and germ line gene therapy, Role of ethics committees. Biosafety containmentfacilities, biohazards, genetically modified organisms (GMOs) & living modified organisms(LMOs). 06 HoursUNIT 8. CLINICAL RESEARCHGeneral principles and guide to data sources, types of epidemiology study designs, ecological(correlation) studies, case reports, prevalence surveys or cross-sectional studies, case controlstudies, Clinical trials-informed consent, Placebo Responses, Clinical Registries. ClinicalResearch Institutes, Data Management, Clinical Research from Pharmaceutical IndustryPerspective. 06 HoursTEXT BOOKSBiochemistry and Biotechnology by Gary Walsh. (2002): John Wiley & Sons Ltd.Principles and Practice of Clinical Research by J. I. Gallin and F. P. Ognibene, 2nd Edition,Elsevier Publication, 2007Hematology, William J. Williams, Ernest Beutler, Allan JU. Erslev, Marshall A. Lichtman.Stem Cell Biology by Marshak, 2001, Cold Spring Harbour Symposium Pulblications.Current Trends in Pharmacology by Arunabha Ray & Kavitha Gulati, IK Intl, 2007.REFERENCES BOOKSDevelopmental Biology, 6th Edition, Scott F. Gilbert.Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3rd Edition, Bruce Alberts, Dennis Bray, Julian Lewis, MartinRaff, Keith Roberts, James D. Watson.Text book of Medical Biochemistry by R L Nath, New Age, 2002.Pharmaceutical Biotechnology by K Sambamurthy & Ashutosh Kar, New Age, 2006.Basic & Clinical Pharmacology (2004) 9th Edition by Bartram G. Katzung, Mc Graw HillQUESTION PAPER PATTERNFor every 6-7 Hours of teaching One Question to be Set. Eight questions to be set (four fromeach part) out of which five full questions (considering at least two from each part) to beanswered. 15
    • ENZYME TECHNOLOGY & BIOTRANSFORMATIONSub. Code : 06BT-63 I.A Marks : 25Hours/week : 04 Exam Hrs. : 03Total Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100 PART AUNIT 1. INTRODUCTIONIntroduction to enzymes, Classification, Sources, Mechanism of enzyme action. Strategies ofpurification of enzymes, criteria of purity, molecular weight determination and characterizationof enzymes. 06 HoursUNIT 2. BIOCATALYSTSAdvantages of enzymes vs chemical catalysts, Isolated Enzymes versus whole cell systems,enzymes in fermentation, Biocatalytic Application, Enzyme catalysis (Acid-base, Covalent,Metal ion catalysis, Substrate strain & entropy effects) Mechanism of coenzymes (NAD/NADP,FAD/FADH2, PLP, Coenzyme A, TPP, Biotin) 08 HoursUNIT 3. ENZYMES OF BIOLOGICAL IMPORTANCEAcetylcholinesterase, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), ACE Inhibitors, HMG Co Areductase inhibitors, pseudocholinesterase, 5-nucleotidase (5NT), glucose-6-phosphatedehydrogenase (GPD), CKisoforms, immunoreactive trypsinogen (IRT) and chymotrypsin;amylase isoenzymes, 06 HoursUNIT 4. ENZYMATIC TECHNIQUESEnzyme and isoenzyme measurement methods with two examples (fixed incubation and kineticmethods); Methods for investigating the kinetics of Enzyme catalysed reactions – Initial velocitystudies, rapid-reaction techniques. Standardization and optimization methods, stability ofenzymes. 06 Hours PART BUNIT 5. IMMOBILIZED ENZYMESTechniques of enzyme immobilization; kinetics of immobilized enzymes, effect of solute,partition & diffusion on the kinetics of immobilized enzymes, design and configuration ofimmobilized enzyme reactors; applications of immobilized enzyme technology, Economicargument for immobilization. 08 HoursUNIT 6. ENZYMATIC TRANSFORMATIONReaction engineering for enzyme-catalyzed biotransformations. Catalytic antibodies.Biocatalysts from extreme Thermophilic and Hyperthermophilic microorganisms(extremozymes). Peptide Synthesis. The design and construction of novel enzymes, artificialenzymes, Biotransformation of drugs (hydroxylation of Steroids), Host Guest Complexationchemistry, enzyme design using steroid templates. 06 HoursUNIT 7. MEDICAL APPLICATIONSImportance of enzymes in diagnostics, Enzyme pattern in diseases like Myocardial infarctions(SGOT, SGPT & LDH). Isoenzymes (CK, LD, ALP). Use of isozymes as markers in cancer andother diseases. Enzymes in immunoassay techniques. Therapeutic enzymes. 06 HoursUNIT 8. INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONSEnzymes used in detergents, use of proteases in food, leather and wool industries; methodsinvolved in production of glucose syrup from starch (using starch hydrolyzing enzymes),production of maltose and sucrose, glucose from cellulose, uses of lactase in dairy industry,glucose oxidase and catalase in food industry; Restriction enzymes and DNA ligases. 06 Hours 16
    • TEXT BOOKSFundaments of Enzymology by Nicholas C Price and Stevens Oxford Press. (1999).Enzymes – Biochemistry, Biotechnology, Clinical Chemistry By Trevor Palmer.Biotransformations in organic synthesis By Faber.Enzymes in Industry: Production and Applications, W. Gerhartz (1990), VCH Publishers, NYEnzyme Technology by M.F. Chaplin and C. Bucke, CUP, Cambridge, 1990REFERENCE BOOKSEnzyme Technology by Messing.Purifying Proteins for Proteomics by Richard J Simpson, IK International, 2004Proteins and Proteomics by Richard J Simpson, IK International, 2003Enzymes: Dixon and Webb. IRL Press.Principles of Enzymology for technological Applications (1993): Butterworth Heinemann Ltd.Oxford.Biocatalyst for Industry: J.S. Dordrick (1991), Plenum press, New york.Enzymes in Industry: Production and Applications, W. Gerhartz (1990), VCH Publishers, NY.Principles of Enzymology for technological Applications (1993): Butterworth Heinemann Ltd.Oxford.Biocatalyst for Industry: J.S. Dordrick (1991), Plenum press, New york.Fundaments of Enzymology by Prices and Stevens Oxford Press. (1999).QUESTION PAPER PATTERNFor every 6-7 Hours of teaching One Question to be Set. Eight questions to be set (four fromeach part) out of which five full questions (considering at least two from each part) to beanswered. GENOMICS & PROTEOMICSSub. Code : 06BT-64 I.A Marks : 25Hours/week : 04 Exam Hrs. : 03Total Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100 PART AUNIT 1. INTRODUCTIONGenes and Proteins, Polymorphisms – types of polymorphism, genome sequences and databasesubscriptions, discovery of new genes and their function. 04 HoursUNIT 2. SEQUENCING & GENOME PROJECTSEarly sequencing efforts. Methods of preparing genomic DNA for sequencing, DNA sequenceanalysis methods, Sanger Dideoxy method, Fluorescence method, shot-gun approach. Genomeprojects on E.coli., Arabidopsis and rice; Human genome project and the genetic map. 06 HoursUNIT 3. GENOMICSGene variation and Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs), Expressed sequenced tags (ESTs),Gene-disease association, diagnostic genes and drug targets, genotyping tools - DNA Chips,diagnostic assays, diagnostic services; comparative genomics. Functional genomic studies withmodel systems such as Drosophila, Yeast or C. elegans. 08 HoursUNIT 4. GENOME MANAGEMENT IN EUKARYOTESCell differentiation and gene regulation. Inheritance pattern in eukaryotes, Mutations,organization of eukaryotic genome within the nucleus, chloroplast and mitochondria. Regulationof transcription, transcription factors and the co-ordination of gene expression, translation andpost-translational modification in eukaryotes. Interference RNA, RNA silencing, SiRNA,Applications in Functional genomics, Medicine and Gene Knockdown. 08 Hours 17
    • PART BUNIT 5. STRUCTURAL GENOMICSC-Values of genomes. General architecture of prokarytoc and eukaryotic genome. Organization ofmitochondrial and chloroplast genome. 04 HoursUNIT 6. GENOME ANALYSISGenetic and physical maps: Breeding requirements for mapping. Molecular markers - RFLP,RAPD, AFLP, microsatellites and SNPs. Methods of molecular mapping, Marker assistedselection. Map-based cloning, T-DNA and transposon tagging. Differential display via RT-PCR.Micro-array in functional genomics. Bioinformatics analysis – clustering methods. Approachesto Physical mapping, FISH - DNA amplification markers; Telomerase as molecular markers.Genome mapping approaches for microorganisms. 07 HoursUNIT 7. PROTEOMICSIntroduction to proteins, Methods of protein isolation, purification, quantification, Large scalepreparation of proteins, use of peptides as probes. Proteomics databases, proteins as drugs;Proteome functional information, two hybrid interaction screens. 05 HoursUNIT 8. PROTEOME ANALYSISMass-spec based analysis of protein expression and post-translational modifications. "ProteinChip" - interactions and detection techniques. Methods of measurement of mRNA expression,DNA array hybridization, Non-DNA array hybridization, Two dimensional PAGE for proteomeanalysis, Image analysis of 2D gels, High throughput proteome analysis by stable isotopelabeling, Automation in proteomics, Applications of proteome analysis to drug development andtoxicology, Phage antibodies as tools for proteomics, Glycoanalysis in proteomics, Proteomics astool for plant genetics and plant breeding. 10 HoursTEXT BOOKSIntroduction to Genomics by Arthur M Lesk, Oxford University Press, 2007.Plant Genome Analysis. Edited by Peter M Gresshoff, CRC Press.Genetic Analysis – Principles, Scope and Objectives by JRS Finchman, Blackwell Science,1994.DISCOVERING GENOMICS, PROTEOMICS & BIOINFORMATICS BY A M CAMPBELL & L J HEYER,PEARSON EDUCATION, 2007Protein Arrays, Biochips and Proteomics by J S Albala & I Humprey-Smith, CRC Press, 2003Genomics & Proteomics by Sabesan, Ane Books, 2007.Proteomics by S R Pennington and M J Dunn, 2004.Purifying Proteins for Proteomics by Richard J Simpson, IK International, 2004Proteins and Proteomics by Richard J Simpson, IK International, 2003REFERENCE BOOKSDNA sequencing by Luhe Alphey, 2004Biocomputing Informatics and the Genome Projects by Smith D.W., Academic Press,1993.Genes VIII by Benjamin Lewis. Oxford University & Cell Press.BIOINFORMATICS – METHODS AND APPLICATIONS: GENOMICS, PROTEOMICS AND DRUGDISCOVERY BY S C RASTOGI, N MENDIRATTA & P RASTOGI, PHI, 2006Genomics and evolution of Eukaryotes by Laura Katz and D Bhattacharya, 2007.QUESTION PAPER PATTERN 18
    • For every 6-7 Hours of teaching One Question to be Set. Eight questions to be set (four fromeach part) out of which five full questions (considering at least two from each part) to beanswered. PHARMACEUTICAL BIOTECHNOLOGYSub. Code : 06BT-65 I.A Marks : 25Hours/week : 04 Exam Hrs. : 03Total Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100 PART AUNIT 1. INTRODUCTIONIntroduction to pharma industry, Biotechnology and Drug design: development and economics,Preclinical studies & principles/practices of process development, early proof-of-concept ofbiological/chemical entities Orphan drugs. Provisions for and use of unlicensed medicines. Drugabuse and dependence, Prescription and Non-prescription drugs. 07 HoursUNIT 2. DRUG METABOLISMEvolution of Drug Metabolism Phase I Metabolism (microsomal oxidation, hydroxylation,dealkylation) Phase II Metabolism (Drug conjugation pathway) CYP Families.Pharmacodynamics and Pharmacokinetics of protein based drugs. Physiologic PharmacokineticModel, Mean Residence Time and Statistical Moment Theory Molecular Mechanism of DrugAction. 07 HoursUNIT 3. TOXICOLOGYBasic concepts, mechanism of action of toxins, biotransformation of toxins & their clearancefrom the body; Toxic intermediates. 04 HoursUNIT 4. DRUG MANUFACTURE AND FORMULATIONBasic concepts and applications, composition, preparation, physicochemical considerations inmanufacture of current biotech products & herbal medicines. Quality control, storage andstability of biotech products. Concept & testing of preformulations & their parameters. Tablets:compressed, granulation, coatings, pills, capsules. Parental preparations, herbal extracts, Oralliquids, Ointments. 08 Hours PART BUNIT 5. DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMSAdvanced Sustained Release, Advanced drug Delivery Systems: Liposomes and Nanoparticles,biodegradable drug delivery system (hydrogel based). 04 HoursUNIT 6. ANALYSIS OF PHARMACEUTICALSValidation techniques for pharmaceutical industries, Pilot Plant, Scale-Up Techniques.Analytical methods and tests for various drugs & packaging techniques- Glass containers, plasticcontainers, film wrapper, bottle seals; Quality assurance and control. 08 HoursUNIT 7. ADVANCED PHARMACOLOGYIntroduction to pharmaceutical chemistry, classification of drugs based on therapeutic actionsusing suitable examples. Antineoplastic agents, Immunomodulators, Heavy metals and heavymetal antagonists, Therapeutic gases. Free radical biology and antioxidants. 06 HoursUNIT 8. PHARMACOTHERAPYSpecial emphasis on Vitamins, cold remedies, laxatives, analgesics, non-steroidal contraceptives,external antiseptics, antacids, antibiotics, biologicals, herbal products. Pharmacotherapy ofmigraine, Alzheimers, cancer, TB, diabetes and male sexual dysfuntion. Hormone replacementtherapy. Advances and promises of Gene Therapy in combating diseases wherein cure presentlyunknown. 08 Hours 19
    • TEXT BOOKSAn Introduction to Synthetic Drugs (1980) by Singh & Rangnekar, Himalaya publishing House.Biopharmaceuticals, Biochemistry and Biotechnology by Gary Walsh, Wiley Pub, II ed 2003.Principles of Medicinal Chemistry by Foye.Industrial Pharmaceutical Biotechnology by Heinrich Klefenz, Wiley-VCH edition.Biopharmaceutical Drug Design and Development by S Wu-Pong, Y Rojanasakul, and JRobinson.Pharmaceutical Biotechnology by K Sambamurthy & Ashutosh Kar, New Age, 2006.Pharmaceutical Biotechnology by S P Vyas and V K Dixit, CBS Publishers, 2007REFERENCE BOOKSBasic & Clinical Pharmacology (2004) 9th Edition by Bartram G. Katzung, Mc Graw HillThe Theory & Practice of Industrial Pharmacy (1987) 3rd Edition by Leon Lachman, Herbert A.Lieberman & Joseph & Kanig, Vergese Publishing House BombayEnzyme Technologies for pharmaceutical and biotechnological applications by Herbert A Kirst,Wu-Kuang Yeh, Milton J.Current Trends in Pharmacology by Arunabha Ray & Kavitha Gulati, IK Intl, 2007.QUESTION PAPER PATTERNFor every 6-7 Hours of teaching One Question to be Set. Eight questions to be set (four fromeach part) out of which five full questions (considering at least two from each part) to beanswered. ELECTIVE A ANIMAL BTSub. Code : 06BT-661 I.A Marks : 25Hours/week : 04 Exam Hrs. : 03Total Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100 PART AUNIT 1. INTRODUCTIONHistory and development of animal tissue culture. Equipment and materials (culture vessels, CO2incubator, inverted microscope, cell counters). Principles of sterile techniques. Sources oftissues, types of tissues - epithelial, muscle, connective, nerve and blood. Introduction tobalanced salt solutions. Cell culture media - components of the medium, physical, chemical andmetabolic functions of media. Role of serum and supplements, serum-free media, features andspecifications of MEM, DMEM, RPMI and Ham’s medium. Role of antibiotics in media. 08 HoursUNIT 2. TECHNIQUESMeasurement of cell number - hemocytometer, coulter counter. Measurement of cell viabilityand cytotoxicity. Dye exclusion and inclusion tests, colonigenic assay, macromolecularestimation, MTT based assay. Measuring parameters of growth – growth curves, PDT, Platingefficiency and factors influencing growth. 05 HoursUNIT 3. CELL LINESPrimary culture – Mechanical and enzymatic mode of desegregation, establishment of primaryculture. Subculture - passage number, split ratio, seeding efficiency, criteria for subculture. Celllines - definite and continuous cell lines, characterization, authentication, maintenance andpreservation of cell lines. Contamination - bacterial, viral, fungal and mycoplasmacontaminations, detection and control, cell transformation – normal v/s. transformed cells, 20
    • growth characteristics of transformed cells. Viral and chemical-mediated methods of cellimmortalization. 08 HoursUNIT 4. CELL CULTUREScale-up of animal cell culture – Factors to be considered. Scale-up of suspension cultures -Batch reactor, continuous culture, perfusion systems. Scale-up of monolayer cultures – rollerbottles, Nunc cell factory, microcarrier cultures, organotypic culture, matrices, factors affectingculture and perspectives. 05 Hours PART BUNIT 5. INVITRO FERTILIZATION & CLONINGConventional methods of animal improvement, predominantly selective breeding and cross-breeding. Embryo biotechniques for augumentation of reproductive efficiency and fastermultiplication of superior germ plasm. Super ovulation Oestrus synchronization. Embryocollection, evaluation and transfer. Invitro maturation of oocytes. Invitro fertilisation and embryoculture. Embryo preservation. Micro manipulation and cloning. Artificial insemination,preparation of foster mother, surgical and non-surgical methods of embryo transfer, donor andrecipient aftercare. Cloning - concept of nuclear transfer, nuclear reprogramming and creation ofDolly. Stem cells - embryonic and adult stem cells, plasticity and concept of regenerativemedicine. 10 HoursUNIT 6. HUMAN GENOMEHuman genome - complexicity of the genome, outlines of human genome project, human diseasegenes. Molecular biological techniques for rapid diagnosis of genetic diseases. Chemicalcarcinogenesis, transfection, oncogenes and antioncogenes. Cryo preservation and transport ofanimal germ plasm (i.e. semen, ovum and embryos). Genetherapy - ex vivo and in vivo genetherapy methods, applications. 06 HoursUNIT 7. TRANSGENICSTansgenic animals - retroviral, microinjection, and engineered embryonic stem cell method oftransgenesis. Application of transgenic animals - biopharming, disease models, functionalknockouts. 04 HoursUNIT 8. OTHER APPLICATIONSApplication of animal cell culture - Vaccine production, specialized cell types. Concepts oftissue engineering - skin, liver, kidney, bladder and heart. Principles and species suitable foraquaculture (Indian major carps and prawns). Genetic status of culture stocks. Chromosomemanipulations - Production of all male and sterile populations, Hypophysation in fishes andprawns. Pearl culture - pearl producing mollusks, rearing of oysters, nucleation for pearlformation and harvesting of pearls. Probiotics and their significance in aquaculture. Moleculartools for the identification of diseases in aquatic species. 06 HoursTEXT BOOKSCulture of Animal Cells, (3rd Edn) R Ian Fredhney. Wiley-LissAnimal Cell Biotechnology, 1990- Spier, RE and Griffith, JB Academic Press, LondonAnimal Biotechnology by Murray Moo-Young (1989), Pergamon Press, OxfordAnimal Cell Technology, Principles and practices, 1987, Butter, M Oxford pressMolecular Biotechnology by Primrose.AN INTRODUCTION TO MOLECULAR BIOTECHNOLOGY by MICHAEL WINK (2006),WILEY 21
    • REFERENCE BOOKSMethods in Cell Biology, Vol. 57, Animal Cell Culture Methods Ed. JP Mather and D Bames.Academic PressFish and Fisheries India VG JhingramLiving resources for Biotechnology, Animal cells by A. Doyle, R. Hay andB.E. Kirsop (1990),cambridge University Press, cambridge.Animal Cell Culture – Practical Approach, Ed. John RW. Masters, OxfordAnimal Cell Culture Techniques Ed Martin Clynes, SpringerCell Culture Lab Fax. Eds. M Butler & M Dawson, Bios Scientific Publications Ltd. OxfordQUESTION PAPER PATTERNFor every 6-7 Hours of teaching One Question to be Set. Eight questions to be set (four fromeach part) out of which five full questions (considering at least two from each part) to beanswered. PLANT BTSub. Code : 06BT-662 I.A Marks : 25Hours/week : 04 Exam Hrs. : 03Total Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100UNIT 1. INTRODUCTIONIntroduction to cell and tissue culture. Tissue culture media (composition and preparation).Organogenesis, somatic embryogenesis. Embyo culture. Androgenesis and gynogenesis.Endosperm culture. Protoplast culture and selection of cybrids. Cryopreservation. 04 HoursUNIT 2. PLANT GENETIC ENGINEERINGInduction to Plant Genetic Engineering: Types of plant vectors and their use - Particlebombardment, electroporation, microinjection. Agrobacterium mediated transformation –Technique and applications. Ti and Ri-plasmids as vectors. Screening and selection oftransformants – PCR and hybridization methods. Viruses as a tool to delivery foreign DNA.Transformation of monoctos. Mechanism of transgene interaction - Transgene stability and genesilencing. Generation and maintenance of transgenic plants. 08 HoursUNIT 3. PLANTS FOR BIOTIC STRESSESIntroduction to biotic stresses, types. Application of plant transformation – bt genes, Structureand function of Cry proteins – mechanism of action, critical evaluation. Non-bt like proteaseinhibitors, alpha amylase inhibitor, Transgenic technology for development of virus, bacterialand fungal resistance plants. 06 HoursUNIT 4. IMPROVEMENT OF VARIETIESAbiotic stress – Introduction to drought and salinity stresses, transgenic strategies fordevelopment of drought resistant plants, case studies. Post-harvest losses, long shelf life of fruitsand flowers, use of ACC synthase, polygalacturanase, ACC oxidase, male sterile lines, barstarand barnase systems. Herbicide resistance - phosphoinothricin, glyphosate, atrazine; insectresistance. Biosafety regulations and evaluation of transgenics contained conditions. Implicationsof gene patents 06 Hours 22
    • PART BUNIT 5. MOLECULAR FARMING AND APPLICATIONSPlant metabolic engineering and industrial products: Molecular farming for the production ofindustrial enzymes, biodegradable plastics, polyhydroxybutyrate, antibodies, edible vaccines.Metabolic engineering of plants for the production of fatty acids, industrial oils, flavonoids etc.,Engineering of carotenoid and provitamin biosynthetic pathways. 06 HoursUNIT 6. NITROGEN FIXATION AND APPLICATIONSNitrogen fixation and biofertilizers - Diazotrophic microorganisms, nitrogen fixation genes. Twocomponent regulatory mechanisms. Transfer of nif genes and nod genes – structure, function androle in nodulation; Hydrogenase - Hydrogen metabolism. Genetic engineering of hydrogenasegenes. 06 HoursUNIT 7. SIGNAL TRANSUCTION IN PLANTSSignal transduction in plants: Mechanism, plant hormone signaling, transduction, lightperception and signaling network in higher plants, calcium signaling, sphingolipids in plantsingling, other molecules. 06 HoursUNIT 8. ALGAL TECHNOLOGIESBlue-green algae and Azolla - Identification of elite species and mass production for practicalapplication. Mycorrhizae - importance in agriculture and forestry. Algae as a source of food,feed, single cell protein, biofertilizers; industrial uses of algae. Mass cultivation of commerciallyvaluable marine macroalgae for agar agar, alginates and other products of commerce and theiruses. Mass cultivation of microalgae as a source of protein and feed. 08 HoursTEXT BOOKSPlant Cell Culture : A Practical Approach by R.A. Dixon & Gonzales, IRL Press.Plant biotechnology in Agriculture by K. Lindsey and M.G.K. Jones (1990), Prentice hall, NewJersey.Plant Biotechnology 1994, Prakash and Perk, Oxford & IBH Publishers CoJ Hammond, P McGarvey and V Yusibov (Eds): Plant Biotechnology. Springer Verlag, 2000HS Chawla: Biotechnology in Crop Improvement. Intl Book Distributing Company, 1998RJ Henry: Practical Application of Plant Molecular Biology. Chapman and Hall 1997REFERENCE BOOKSPlant Tissue Culture: Applications and Limitations by S.S. Bhojwani (1990), Elsevier,Amsterdam.TJ Fu, G Singh and WR Curtis (Eds): Plant Cell and Tissue Culture for the Production of FoodIngredients. Kluwer Academic Press, 1999.PK Gupta: Elements of Biotechnology. Rastogi and Co. Meerut 1996.Biotechnology in Agriculture , MS Swamynathan, McMillian India Ltd.Gene Transfer to Plants (1995) Polyykus I and Spongernberg, G.Ed. Springer Scam.Genetic Engineering with Plant Viruses, 1992 T Michael, A Wilson and JW Davis, CRC Press.Molecular Approaches to Crop Improvement 1991. Dennis Liwelly Eds.Plant Cell and Tissue Culture- A Laboratory mannual 1994. Reinert J and Yeoman MM,Springer.PLANT TISSUE CULTURE by SATHYANARAYANA BN (2007) IK INTL PUBLISHERSMolecular Biotechnology: Prnciples and Practices by Channarayappa, 2006, University Press. 23
    • QUESTION PAPER PATTERNFor every 6-7 Hours of teaching One Question to be Set. Eight questions to be set (four fromeach part) out of which five full questions (considering at least two from each part) to beanswered. MICROBIAL BTSub. Code : 06BT-663 I.A Marks : 25Hours/week : 04 Exam Hrs. : 03Total Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100 PART - AUNIT 1. INTRODUCTIONStudy of Prokaryotes & Eukaryotes, Classification and Identification of Microorganisms,classification and identification of fungi. 02 HoursUNIT 2. MICROBIAL PROCESS ENGINEERINGIntroduction to microbial process development. Analysis of experimental data. Design &optimization of fermentation media. Kinetics of cell growth. Sterilization of air and media.Modes of cell culture. Bioreactor systems including utilities. Mass transfer in Microbialprocesses. Scale - up of microbial processes. Instrumentation and control of process parameters. 08 HoursUNIT 3. MICROBIAL BIOTECHNOLOGYa) In BacteriaGenetic Transfer in bacteria, Transformation, Conjugation, Transduction, cloning techniques,polymerase chain reaction, expression of cloned Genes, Recovery and purification of expressedproteins. 03 Hoursb) In YeastIntroduction of DNA into yeast cells, yeast cloning vectors, expression of foreign genes in yeast,expression of foreign gene products in secreted form. 03 HoursUNIT 4. INDUSTRIAL MICROBIOLOGYIndustrial production of Vitamins, Antibiotics, organic acids and hormones. Impact ofBiotechnology on vaccine development; sub unit vaccines, fragments of antigen sub unit assynthetic peptide vaccines. Bacillus thuringinesis, Sphaericus, Popilliae, BaculovirusesProduction of Microbial enzymes, strain, medium, fermentation processes. Large scaleapplication of Microbial enzymes - starch processing, textile designing, detergents, cheeseindustry, production of glucose isomerase. 10 Hours PART – BUNIT 5. MICROBIAL BY PRODUCTS.Bacterial Polysaccharides – structure & role in nature xanthan Gum - structure, production &Biosynthesis polyesters. Saccharification & fermentation. Organic synthesis & Degradation ofmicrobial byproducts, microbial transformation of steroids & sterols. 06 HoursUNIT 6. ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGYContamination in air, water and soil, Waster water microbiology, Microbiological Degradationof xenobiotics. 02 HoursUNIT 7. BIOREMEDIATION AND BIOLEACHINGUses of Bacteria in Bioremediation – Biodegradation of hydrocarbons, Granular sludge consortiafor bioremediation, crude oil degradation by bacteria, Immobilization of microbes for 24
    • bioremediation, Methanotrophs, PCB dechlorination, Genetic engineering of microbes forbioremediation. Phytoremediation – plants capable of assimilating heavy metals. Studies ofPyrite Dissolution in Pachuca Tanks and Depression of Pyrite Flotation by Bacteria, Factorsaffecting Microbial Coal Solubilization, Sulfur Leaching by Thermophilic Microbes of CoalParticles Varying in size, Microbiological Production of Ferric Ion for Heap and DumpLeaching, New Bacteriophage which infects Acidophilic, Heterotrophic Bacteria from AcidicMining Environments, Treatment of Coal Mine Drainage with Constructed Wetlands. 12 HoursUNIT 8. FOOD MICROBIOLOGYMicrobial spoilage of food and its control; food preservatives; fermented foods; single cellprotein (SCP) and single cell oil (SCO); food borne infections and their control. 06 HoursTEXT BOOKSFundamentals of Biotechnology. Edited by Paule Prave, Uwe Faust, Wolfgang Sitting and DieterA Sukatsch. VCH Publishers.Principles of fermentation Technology, P.F. Stanbury and A. Whitaker, Pergamon Press, 1984.Alexander N Glazer, Hiroshi Nikaido by Microbial Biotechnology, W H Freeman & CompanyNewyork.REFERENCE BOOKSMicrobiology by Bernard Davis & Renato Dulbecco, Lippincott Company, Philadelphia.Principle of Microbe & Cell Cultivation (1975), SJ Prit, Blackwell Scientific co.).QUESTION PAPER PATTERNFor every 6-7 Hours of teaching One Question to be Set. Eight questions to be set (four fromeach part) out of which five full questions (considering at least two from each part) to beanswered. PERL PROGRAMMINGSub. Code : 06BT-664 I.A Marks : 25Hours/week : 04 Exam Hrs. : 03Total Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100 PART AUNIT 1. INTRODUCTIONAn overview of Perl: Getting started, interpreted vs compiled source code, documentation inperl, statement blocks, ASCII and Unicode, Escape sequences, whitespaces, numerical data type,strings in perl, alternative delimiters, conversion between numbers and strings, Arithmeticaloperators, bitwise operators, Boolean operators, string operators, string comparison, operatorprecedence, variables, modifying a variable, autoincrement and autodecrement operators,multiple assignments, scoping, special variables, regular expression variables, input/ outputvariables, filehandle / format variables, error variables and system variables variableinterpolation. 08 HoursUNIT 2. LISTS, ARRAYS AND HASHESIntroduction to lists, simple lists, complex lists, accessing list values, list slices, ranges,combining ranges and slices, arrays, assigning arrays, scalar vs list context, adding elements toan array, accessing single and multiple elements from an array, running through arrays, arrayfunctions (pop, push, shift, unshift, and sort); Introduction to Hashes, creating a hash, workingwith hash values, adding, changing and taking values from a hash, accessing multiple values. 06 Hours 25
    • UNIT 3. LOOPS AND DECISIONSIntroduction, Changing Array Size, Interacting Over an Array by Reference, Extracting UniqueElements from a List, Computing Union, Intersection, or Difference of Unique Lists, AppendingOne Array to Another, Reversing an Array, Processing Multiple Elements of an Array, FindingAll Elements in an Array Matching Certain Criteria, Sorting an Array Numerically. 06 HoursUNIT 4. REGULAR EXPRESSIONIntroduction to regular expressions, patterns, interpolation, escaping special characters, anchors,character classes, word boundaries, posix and Unicode classes, detecting repeating words, well-defined repetition, back reference variables, match operator, substitution operator andtransliteration operator, binding operators, meta-characters, changing delimiters, modifiers,usage of split and join keywords, inline comments and modifiers, grouping and alternation,grouping with back references. 06 Hours PART BUNIT 5. FILES AND REFERENCESIntroduction to Filehandle, STDIN, STDOUT, STDERR file handles, reading lines, creatingfilters, line separator, reading paragraphs, reading entire files, writing to files, writing on a filehandle, accessing filehandle, writing binary data, selecting a filehandle, buffering, filepermissions, opening pipes, piping in, piping out, file tests, reading directories and globbing,introduction to references, lifecycle of a reference, anonymous reference, dereferencing,reference modification, array and hash referencing, reference counting and destruction. 08 HoursUNIT 6. SUBROUTINES AND MODULESIntroduction to subroutines, difference between subroutines and modules, defining subroutines,order of declaration, subroutines for calculations, return values, caching, context, subroutineprototypes, scope, global variables, lexical variables, runtime scope, aliases, passing references ,arrays, hashes and filehandles to a subroutine, modules, usage of keywords do, require and use,changing @INC, package hierarchies, exporters, standard modules in perl. 06 HoursUNIT 7. RUNNING AND DEBUGGING PERLExamining syntax errors, runaway strings, brackets around conditions, missing semicolons,braces, commas and barewords. Diagnostic modules, use warnings, scope of warnings, use strict,strict on variables, references, subroutines, use diagnostics, perl command line switches, usage of–e, -n, -p, -c, -I, -M, -s, -I, @INC, -a, -F and –T switches, Debugging techniques, usage of print,comments, context, scope and precedence in debugging, Defensive programming. 06 HoursUNIT 8. BIOPERLOverview, Bioperl Objects, Brief descriptions (Seq, PrimarySeq, LocatableSeq, RelSegment,LiveSeq, LargeSeq, RichSeq, SeqWithQuality, SeqI), Location objects, Interface objects andimplementation objects, Representing large sequences (LargeSeq), Representing changingsequences (LiveSeq), Using Bioperl: Accessing sequence data from local and remote databases,Accessing remote databases (Bio::DB::GenBank, etc), Indexing and accessing local databasesBio::Index::*, bp_index.pl, bp_fetch.pl, Bio::DB::*), Transforming sequence files (SeqIO),Transforming alignment files (AlignIO); 06 HoursTEXT BOOKSSimon Cozens, Peter Wainwrigth, Beginning Perl, Wrox press, 1st edition , 2000.Tom Christiansen and Nathan Torkinton, Perl cook book, O’Reilly & Associates, USA, 1998.Programming Perl (III edition) by Larry Wall, Tom Christiansen, Jon Orwant, 2000. 26
    • Learning Perl (III edition) by Randal L, Schwartz, Tom Phoenix, 2001.REFERENCE BOOKSPerl by Example by Ellie Quigley Prentice Hall.Perl in a Nutshell by O’Reilley.Perl: The programmer Companion by Nigel Chapman, Wiley.BioPerl by O’Reilly & Associates.Bioperl from Beginning Perl for Bioinformatics by James Tisdall.QUESTION PAPER PATTERNFor every 6-7 Hours of teaching One Question to be Set. Eight questions to be set (four fromeach part) out of which five full questions (considering at least two from each part) to beanswered. TRANSPORT PHENOMENASub. Code : 06BT-665 I.A Marks : 25Hours/week : 04 Exam Hrs. : 03Total Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100 PART AUNIT 1. MOMENTUM TRANSFER AND OVERALL BALANCESFluid Statics, General molecular transport equations for momentum, heat and mass transfer,Viscosity of fluids, Overall balances: mass balance/continuity equation, energy balance,momentum balance, shell momentum balance and velocity distribution in laminar flow, designequation for laminar and turbulent flow in pipes, compressible flow of gases. 06 HoursUNIT 2. MOMENTUM TRANSFER – PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONSFlow past immersed objects, packed and fluidized beds, Non-Newtonian fluids, Differentialequations of continuity, momentum transfer (motion), use of these equations, other solutionmethods for differential equation of motion, boundary layer flow and turbulence, dimensionalanalysis in momentum transfer. 08 HoursUNIT 3. STEADY STATE HEAT TRANFERMechanisms of heat transfer, conduction – through solids in series, steady state conduction andshape factors, Forced convection - heat transfer inside pipes, heat transfer outside variousgeometries, natural convection heat transfer, boiling and condensation, heat exchangers,radiation heat transfer (basic and advanced), heat transfer to non-Newtonian fluids, special heattransfer coefficients, dimensional analysis in heat transfer, numerical methods for steady stateheat transfer in two dimensions. 06 HoursUNIT 4. UNSTEADY STATE HEAT TRANSFERDerivation of basic equation, simplified case for systems with negligible internal resistance,unsteady state heat transfer in various geometries, finite difference methods, chilling andfreezing of food and biological materials, differential equation of energy change, boundary layerflow and turbulence in heat transfer. 06 Hours PART BUNIT 5. MASS TRANSFERMass transfer and diffusion, molecular diffusion in gases, liquids, biological solutions and gels,and solids, numerical methods for steady state molecular diffusion in two dimensions. 06 HoursUNIT 6. UNSTEADY STATE AND CONVECTIVE MASS TRANSFERUnsteady state diffusion, convective mass transfer coefficients, for various geometries, masstransfer to suspensions of small particle, molecular diffusion plus convection and chemical 27
    • reaction, diffusion of gases in porous solids and capillaries, numerical methods for unsteady statemolecular diffusion, dimensional analysis in mass transfer, boundary layer flow and turbulencein heat transfer. 09 HoursUNIT 7. SEPARATION PROCESSES-1Evaporation, Drying, Humidification, Absorption, Distillation. 05 HoursUNIT 8. SEPARATION PROCESSES-2Adsorption, Ion Exchange, Leaching, Crystallization, Membrane processes, Settling,Centrifugation and Size Reduction. 06 HoursTEXT BOOKTransport Processes and Separation Process Principles, C. J. Geankoplis, 4th Edition.Momentum, Heat and Mass Transfer, Bennett and Myers.Introduction to Transport Phenomena, William J. Thomson, PHI.Transport Phenomena, Bird, Stewart, Lightfoot, 2nd Edition, JWI.Fundamentals of momentum, heat and mass transfer, Welty, Wicks and Wilson.Fundamentals of FLUID MECHANICS by SAWHNEY GS (2008) IK Publishers.REFERENCE BOOKSUnit Operations of Chemical Engg. by McCabe & Smith (M G H Publications), 6th Edition 1999.Principles of Unit Operations in Chemical Engg. by Geonklopins.Fluid Mechanics by K L Kumar.Mechanics of fluids by B.S. Massey.QUESTION PAPER PATTERNFor every 6-7 Hours of teaching One Question to be Set. Eight questions to be set (four fromeach part) out of which five full questions (considering at least two from each part) to beanswered. BIOPROCESS EQUIPMENT DESIGN AND CAEDSub. Code : 06BT- 666 I.A Marks : 25Hours/week : 04 Exam Hrs. : 04Total Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100UNIT 1: INTRODUCTION TO DESIGNa) Types of joints (welded)b) Types of pipe fittingsc) Types of valves- ball and safetyUNIT 2: PROCESS EQUIPMENTS DESIGN USING CAEDDetailed process and mechanical design of the following equipmentsa) Agitated and jacketed vesselsb) Fermentor vesselsc) Shell and tube exchangersTEXT BOOKSProcess equipment design, M V Joshi.Unfired pressure vessel I S Code 2825Shell and tube heat exchanger specifications, I S Code 4503Chemical engineers hand book, Perry and Green, 7th Edition, 1997.REFERENCE BOOKSProcess equipment and mechanical aspect, V C Bhattacharya. 28
    • Mechanical equipment design, Brownell and Young.Fermentation and biochemical engineering hand book. (1983), Principles, process design andequipment. H C Vogel, Noyes.Chemical Engineering, Coulson and Richradson, Vol. 6.Equipment design by Atkins.QUESTION PAPER PATTERNTwo main questions to be set, out of which one full question to be answered BIOPROCESS CONTROL & AUTOMATION LABSub. Code : 06BTL-67 I.A Marks : 25Hours/week : 03 Exam Hrs. : 03 Exam Marks : 50 1. Characteristics of Transducers (Temperature). 2. Characteristics of Transducers (Pressure). 3. Characteristics of Transducers (Flow). 4. Measurement of OD and DO for microbial cultures 5. Dynamics of First order system (mercury thermometer) for step input and impulse input. 6. Non-interacting system responses to step / pulse input 7. Interacting System responses to step / pulse input 8. Temperature controller – responses to set point / load change 9. pH controller – responses to set point / load change 10. Tuning of Flow controller (ZN and CC methods) and responses of tuned P, PI and PID controllers 11. Tuning of Pressure controller (ZN and CC methods) and responses of tuned P, PI and PID controllers 12. Offline measurement of protein quantity and purity using SDS PageTEXT / REFERENCE BOOKSProcess System analysis and Control by Donald R Coughanowr, 2nd Edition,. McGraw-Hill,1991Chemical Process Control by George Stephanopoulos, Prentice-Hall of India.Bioprocess Engineering by Shule and Kargi Prentice Hall, 1992.Bioprocess Engineering Principles by Pauline M. Doran, 1995.Wolf R. Vieth, Bioprocess Engineering – Kinetics, Mass Transport, Reactors and GeneExpression. A Wiley - Interscience Publication, 1992. BIOKINETICS & ENZYME TECHNOLOGY LABSub. Code : 06BTL-68 I.A Marks : 25Hours/week : 03 Exam Hrs. : 03 Exam Marks : 501. Batch Growth Kinetics.2. Mixed Flow Reactor Analysis.3. Plug Flow Reactor Analysis.4. Batch Reactor Analysis5. RTD in PFR6. RTD in MFR 29
    • 7. Isolation of enzymes (alpha-amylase from sweet potato or saliva, urease from horse gram orkidney gram, acid phosphotase from sweet potato)8. Determination of Enzyme activity and Specific activity.9. Effect of substrate concentration on enzyme activity (Km & Vmax determination)10. Effect of pH on enzyme activity11. Effect of temperature on enzyme activity12. Effect of inhibitors on enzyme activity13. Ammonium sulphate fractionation and desalting (Dialysis/G-25 column chromatography)14. Molecular weight determination of a protein by SDS PAGE / molecular sieving15. Enzyme Immobilization Techniques and Kinetics.TEXT/REFERENCE BOOKSBiochemical Engineering Fundamentals by Bailey and Ollis, Mcgraw Hill (2nd Ed.). 1986.Bioprocess Engineering by Shule and Kargi Prentice Hall, 1992.Wolf R. Vieth, Bioprocess Engineering – Kinetics, Mass Transport, Reactors and GeneExpression. A Wiley – Interscience Publication, 1992.Smith J.M. Chemical Engineering Kinetics, McGraw Hill, 3rd Edition, New Delhi,1981.Carbery J A. Chemical and Catalytic Reactor Engineering, McGraw Hill, 1976.Enzymes in Industry: Production and Applications : W. Gerhartz (1990), VCH Publishers,New York.Enzyme Technology by M.F. Chaplin and C. Bucke, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge,1990.Enzymes: Dixon and Webb. IRL Press.Principles of Enzymology for technological Applications (1993): B Heinemann Ltd. Oxford. 30
    • VII SEMESTER ECONOMICS & PLANT DESIGNSub. Code : 06BT-71 I.A Marks : 25Hours/week : 04 Exam Hrs. : 03Total Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100 PART AUNIT 1: PROCESS DESIGN DEVELOPMENTDesign project procedure, design information from the literature and other sources ofinformation, flow diagrams, preliminary design, comparison of different processes, firm processdesign, equipment design and specialization, scale up in design, safety factors specifications,materials of construction. 06 HoursUNIT 2: GENERAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONSMarketability of the product, availability of technology, raw materials, human resources, landand utilities, site characteristics, plant location, plant layout, plant operation and control, utilities,structural design, storage, materials handling, materials and fabrication selection, optimumdesign and design strategy. Waste disposal, govt. regulations and other legal restrictions,community factors, safety and hazard control measures. 08 HoursUNIT 3: CAPITAL INVESTMENTSFixed capital investments including land, building, equipment and utilities, installation costs,(including equipment, instrumentation, piping, electrical installation and other utilities), workingcapital investments. 06 HoursUNIT 4: MANUFACTURING COSTS AND PLANT OVERHEADSManufacturing Costs: Direct Production costs (including raw materials, human resources,maintenance and repair, operating supplies, power and other utilities, royalties, etc.), fixedcharges (including depreciation, taxes, insurance, rental costs etc.). Plant Overheads:Administration, safety and other auxiliary services, payroll overheads, warehouse and storagefacilities etc. Conceptual numericals. 06 Hours PART BUNIT 5: COST ANALYSIS AND TIME VALUE OF MONEYCost Analysis: Factors involved in project cost estimation, methods employed for the estimationof the capital investment. Estimation of working capital. Time value of money and equivalence.Conceptual numericals. 08 HoursUNIT 6: DEPRECIATION AND TAXESDepreciation calculation methods. Equivalence after Taxes. Cost comparison after taxes.Conceptual numericals. 06 HoursUNIT 7: PROFITABILITY ANALYSISMethods for the evaluation of profitability. Return on original investment, interest rate of return,accounting for uncertainty and variations and future developments. Replacement and AlternativeInvestments. Opportunity costs. Conceptual numericals. 08 HoursUNIT 8: FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND REPORTSFinancial statements. Cash flow diagrams. Break-even analysis. Design Report: Types of reports.Organization of report . Conceptual numericals. 04 Hours 31
    • TEXT BOOKSPeters and Timmerhaus, Plant Design and Economics for Chemical Engineers, McGraw Hill4th edition, 1989.REFERENCE BOOKSRudd and Watson, Strategy of Process Engineering, Wiley, 1987.Bioprocess Engineering by Shule and Kargi Prentice Hall, 1992.Bioprocess Engineering Principles by Pauline M. Doran, 1995.Backhurst, J.R And Harker, J. H - Process Plant Design, Heieman Educational Books, (1973).Coulson J.M. and Richardson J.F Chemical Engineering Vol. VI (An introduction to ChemicalEngineering Design) Pergamon Press, 1993.Joshi M.V - Process Equipment Design 3rd Edn MacMillan India Ltd 1981.Plant Process Simulation by B V Babu, Oxford University Press.QUESTION PAPER PATTERNFor every 6-7 Hours of teaching One Question to be Set. Eight questions to be set (four fromeach part) out of which five full questions (considering at least two from each part) to beanswered. UPSTREAM PROCESS TECHNOLOGYSub. Code : 06BT-72 I.A Marks : 25Hours/week : 04 Exam Hrs. : 03Total Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100 PART AUNIT 1. PLANT CELL AND TISSUE CULTURE TECHNIQUESPlant Cell Culture: Introduction, Requirements, Techniques, Media Constituents, MediaSelection. Cellular Totipotency, Practical Applications of Cellular totipotency.. Organogenicdifferentiation, Cyto-differentiation. Somatic Embryogenesis, Factors Affecting Somaticembryogenesis - Induction, development and Maturation of Somatic embryos, Large scaleProduction of somatic Embryos, Synthetic Seeds. 08 HoursUNIT 2. HAPLOIDS AND TRIPLOID PRODUCTIONAndrogenesis and gynogeneis - Techniques for production of haploids, diploidization,production of double haploids, Applications. Triploids production - Endosperm culture andApplications. 04 HoursUNIT 3. IN VITRO SECONDARY METABOLITE PRODUCTIONSecondary metabolite production – Basic strategies, factors affecting secondary metaboliteproduction, specialized strategies. Bioreactor & Bioprocess consideration in plant secondarymetabolite production: Designing of bioreactors, Immobilization strategies, biotransformation,hairy-root culture. 06 HoursUNIT4. ANIMAL CELL CULTURE TECHNIQUESSterilization of equipments and apparatus. Media for culturing animal cells and tissues; Naturaland synthetic media. Preparation, sterilization and storage of Media. Short-term lymphocyteculture, Fibroblast cultures from chick embryo. Development and maintenance of cell lines. 08 Hours PART BUNIT 5. HYBRIDOMA TECHNOLOGYHybridoma and monoclonal antibody production. In vitro culture of oocytes/embryos.Cell/embryo cryopreservation. Stem cell isolation and culture. Bioreactors considerations foranimal cell cultures – Production of Monoclonal antibodies and therapeutic proteins. 06 Hours 32
    • UNIT 6. MICROBIAL CELL CULTURE TECHNIQUESSterilization, media preparation and Culture maintenance. Isolation of pure-colonies. Bacterialtitre estimation. Growth curve. Culture characterization. Auxotroph culture. Biochemicalcharacterization. Antibiotic sensitivity. Bacterial recombination, replica plating technique. 06 HoursUNIT 7. FERMENTATION TECHNOLOGYIntroduction. Instrumentation. Optimization of fermentation process - physiological and geneticstrategies. Production of primary metabolites. Production of secondary metabolites. Strategies tooptimize product yield. Long, medium and short term storage of microbial products. Antibioticproduction. Search and discovery of novel microbial secondary metabolites. Improvement ofexisting Classes. Microbiology of brewing. 08 HoursUNIT 8. INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONSUse of microbes in industrial waste treatment. Nutrient cycling and Microbial Metal Mining.Utilizing genetically engineered organism for bioprocessing – Strategies and applications. 06 HoursTEXT BOOKSPlant Cell Culture : A Practical Approach by R.A. Dixon & Gonzales, IRL Press.Experiments in Plant Tissue Culture by John H. Dodds & Lorin W. Robert.Plant tissue Culture : Theory and Practice by S.S. Bhojwani and M.K. Razdan (1996) Elsevier,AmsterdamAnimal Biotechnology by Murray Moo-Young (1989), Pergamon Press, OxfordPrinciples of fermentation Technology by P.F. Stanbury and A. Whitaker, Pergamon Press, 1984.Microbial Biotechnology by Alexander N Glazer, Hiroshi Nikaido, W H Freeman & CompanyNewyork.REFERENCE BOOKSPLANT TISSUE CULTURE by SATHYANARAYANA BN (2007) IK Intl. PublishersPlant Molecular biology by D. Grierson & S.N. Covey Blackie, London.Animal Cell biotechnology by R.E. Spier and J.B. Griffiths (1988), Academic press.Living resources for Biotechnology, Animal cells by A. Doyle, R. Hay andB.E. Kirsop (1990), cambridge University Press, cambridge.Fermentation & Enzyme Technology by D.I.C. wang et.al., Wiley Eastern 1979.Principle of Microbe & Cell Cultivation (1975), SJ Prit, Blackwell Scientific co.Animal cell culture Techniques by Ian Freshney.QUESTION PAPER PATTERNFor every 6-7 Hours of teaching One Question to be Set. Eight questions to be set (four fromeach part) out of which five full questions (considering at least two from each part) to beanswered. DOWNSTREAM PROCESS TECHNOLOGYSub. Code : 06BT-73 I.A Marks : 25Hours/week : 04 Exam Hrs. : 03Total Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100 PART AUNIT 1. INTRODUCTIONRole and importance of downstream processing in biotechnological processes. Problems andrequirements of byproduct purification. Economics of downstream processing in Biotechnology.Cost cutting strategies, Characteristics of biological mixtures, Process design criteria for various 33
    • classes of byproducts (high volume, low value products and low volume, high value products),Physico-chemical basis of different bio-separation processes. 04 HoursUNIT 2. PRIMARY SEPARATION TECHNIQUESCell disruption methods for intracellular products, removal of insolubles, biomass (andparticulate debris) separation techniques; flocculation and sedimentation, Centrifugation (ultraand differential) and filtration methods. 07 HoursUNIT 3. PRODUCT IDENTIFICATION TECHNIQUESPrinciple and Applications for Electrophoresis – various types, Iso-electric focusing, ELISA(Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbant Assay). 05 HoursUNIT 4. PRODUCT SEPARATION TECHNIQUES - CLASSICALDistillation, Liquid - liquid extraction, Absorption and Adsorption, Evaporation. 10 Hours PART BUNIT 5. MEMBRANE SEPARATION PROCESSESMembrane – based separations theory; Design and configuration of membrane separationequipment; Solute polarization and cake formation in membrane ultra filtration – causes,consequences and control techniques; Applications: Use of membrane diffusion as a tool forseparating and characterizing naturally occurring polymers; enzyme processing using ultrafiltration membranes; separation by solvent membranes; reverse osmosis. 08 HoursUNIT 6. ENRICHMENT OPERATIONSPrecipitation methods with salts, organic solvents, and polymers, extractive separations. Aqueoustwo-phase extraction, supercritical extraction; In situ product removal / integrated bio-processing. 06 HoursUNIT 7. PRODUCT RESOLUTION / FRACTIONATIONAdsorptive chromatographic separation processes, Electrophoretic separations, hybrid separationtechnologies, Dialysis; Crystallization. 04 HoursUNIT 8. PRODUCT RECOVERY - CHROMATOGRAPHIC TECHNIQUESPartition chromatography - Single dimensional (Both Ascending and Descending) and twodimensional chromatography - Thin layer chromatography, Gas liquid Chromatography,Adsorption Chromatography: Adsorption column chromatography and TLC. Ion ExchangeChromatography: cation Exchange and anion Exchange chromatography. Gel FiltrationChromatography, Gel Permeation Chromatography, Molecular Sieving, Molecular ExclusionChromatography, Affinity Chromatography, High Performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). 10 HoursTEXT BOOKSBioseparation – Downstream processing for biotechnology by Belter P.A., Cussier E. and WeiShan Hu., Wiley Interscience Pub, 1988.Separation Processes in Biotechnology by Asenjo J. and Dekker M, 1993.Bioseparations by Belter P.A. and Cussier E., Wiley, 1985.Product Recovery in Bioprocess Technology - BIOTOL Series,VCH,1990Fermentation & Enzyme Technology by D.I.C. Wang et.al., Wiley Eastern 1979.Purifying Proteins for Proteomics by Richard J Simpson, IK International, 2004BIOSEPARATIONS: SCIENCE & ENGINEERING by ROGER G HARRISON (2006), OxfordPublications. 34
    • REFERENCE BOOKSRate controlled separations by Wankat P.C., Elsevier, 1990Bioprocess Engineering by Shule and Kargi Prentice Hall, 1992.Wolf R. Vieth, Bioprocess Engineering – Kinetics, Mass Transport, Reactors and GeneExpression. A Wiley – Interscience Publication, 1992.Enzymes in Industry: Production and Applications : W. Gerhartz (1990), VCH Publishers,New York.Enzyme Technology by M.F. Chaplin and C. Bucke, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge,1990.QUESTION PAPER PATTERNFor every 6-7 Hours of teaching One Question to be Set. Eight questions to be set (four fromeach part) out of which five full questions (considering at least two from each part) to beanswered. FOOD BIOTECHNOLOGYSub. Code : 06BT-74 I.A Marks : 25Hours/week : 04 Exam Hrs. : 03Total Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100 PART AUNIT 1. FOOD SCIENCEIntroduction, constituents of food, colloidal systems in food, stability of colloidal systems, typesof food starches, soluble fibres (pectins, gums, mucilages), protein rich foods, popular fats andoils in foods, factors leading to rancidity and reversion, prevention of rancidity, commercial usesof fats and oils. 04 HoursUNIT 2. INTRINSIC AND EXTRINSIC PARAMETERS OF FOODSMinerals in foods. Aroma compounds in foods, Food flavours, Browning reactions; Foodadditives: Vitamins, amino acids, minerals. Aroma substance flavour enhancers (monosodiumglutamate, nucleotides). Sugar substitutes (sorbitol. Sweeteners-saccharin, cyclamate). Foodcolours. Anti-nutritional factors and Food contaminants. Chemical changes during processing ofvolatile compounds. 06 HoursUNIT 3. FOOD INDUSTRYCharacteristics of Food Industry. Food manufacturing & processing: Objectives of foodprocessing, effect of processing on food constituents, methods of evaluation of food, proximateanalysis of food constituents, Nutritional value, labelling of constituents [soya foods, organicfoods, dietary foods (for individuals, for specific groups), nutritional food supplements]. Foodpackaging, edible films. Factors influencing food product development: marketing, andpromotional strategies, Market Place, ecologically sustainable production; Risks and benefits offood industry. 08 HoursUNIT 4: BIOTECHNOLOGY IN FOOD INDUSTRYApplications of Biotechnology to food industry, impact on nutritional quality, utilization ofenzymes (hydrolases and lipases), applications of immobilized enzymes in food industry,economic aspects, enzyme generation of flavor and aroma compounds, flavor lipid modifications.Tissue Culture techniques, microbial transformations, regulatory and social aspects of BT. 08 Hours 35
    • PART BUNIT 5. MICROORGANISMS IN FOODSPrimary Sources of microorganisms found in Foods Synopsis of Common Food-borne bacteria,genera of Molds, genera of Yeasts. Microbial spoilage of vegetables, fruits, fresh and processedmeats, poultry, and seafood. 04 HoursUNIT 6. DETECTION OF MICROORGANISMSCulture, Microscopic and Sampling Methods; SPC, Membrane Filters, Microscope colonyCounts, Agar Droplets, Dry Films, Most probable Numbers (MPN), Dye-reduction, Roll Tubes,Direct Microscopic Count (DMC), Microbiological Examination of surfaces, Air Sampling,Metabolically Injured Organisms, Enumeration and detection of food-borne organisms. 06 HoursUNIT 7. FOOD PRESERVATIONFood Preservation using irradiation: Characteristics of Radiations of Interest in FoodPreservation, Principles Underlying the Destruction of Microorganisms by Irradiation,Processing of Foods for Irradiation, Application of Radiation. Legal Status of Food Irradiation,Effect of Irradiation on Food constituents; Food Preservation with Low Temperatures, FoodPreservation with High Temperatures, Preservation of Foods by Drying. 06 hoursUNIT 8. FOOD TECHNOLOGYProperties of fluid foods, Measurement of rhelogical parameters, properties of granular food andpowders; properties of solids foods. Measurement of food texture. Thermal properties of frozenfoods. Prediction of freezing rates: Qualitative explanation via Plank’s equation, Neumannproblem and Tao solution. Food freezing equipments: Air blast freezers, Plate freezers andimmersion freezers. Food dehydration: Estimation of drying time, constant rate period andfalling rate period dehydration. Equipments: fixed tray dehydration, cabinet drying, tunnel drying.Freeze Dehydration, calculation of drying times, Industrial freeze drying. Equipments related topulping, Fruit juice extraction, Dehulling, and distillation. Conceptual numericals. 10 HoursTEXT / REFERENCE BOOKSModern Food Micro-Biology by James M.Jay, (2005), CBS Publishers.Food Science & Nutrition, by Suneta Roady, Oxford University Press, 2007.Food biotechnology by kalidas shetty et al, crc press, 2005Food Science and Food BT by Gustavo F and Lopez. CRC PressFood Biotechnology by J Polak, J Tramper and S Bielecki, Elsevier.QUESTION PAPER PATTERNFor every 6-7 Hours of teaching One Question to be Set. Eight questions to be set (four fromeach part) out of which five full questions (considering at least two from each part) to beanswered. 36
    • ELECTIVE B AQUA CULTURE & MARINE BTSub. Code : 06BT-74 I.A Marks : 25Hours/week : 04 Exam Hrs. : 03Total Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100 PART AUNIT 1. AQUATIC ENVIRONMENTMajor physical and chemical factors (light, temperature, gases, nutrients). Aquatic biota:phytoplankton, zooplankton, benthos, periphyton, macrophytes, fish and other animals.Production & Nutrient dynamics in lakes, rivers, estuaries and wetlands. Eutrophication andwater pollution: monitoring and control conservation and management of lakes, rivers andwetlands. Importance of coastal aquaculture - design and construction of aqua farms, Criteria forselecting cultivable species. Culture systems – extensive, semi intensive and intensive culturepractices. 07 HoursUNIT 2 AQUA CULTUREClassification and Characteristics of Arthropoda. Crustacean characteristic key to MyanmarsEconomically Important species of Prawns and Shrimps, General biology, embryology,morphology, anatomy and organ systems of – (a) Shrimp and Prawn, (b) Finfish, (c) Marine andfreshwater fish. Preparation, culture and utilization of live food organisms, phytoplanktonzooplankton cultures, Biology of brine shrimp Artemia, quality evaluation of Cyst, hatchingand utilization, culture and cyst production. 08 HoursUNIT 3. AQUACULTURE ENGINEERINGPrinciples and criteria for site selection; multi-design, layout plan for prawn, shrimp andfish hatchery; design, lay-out plan and pond construction for grow- out production, design andconstruction of feed mill and installation of machineries. 04 HoursUNIT 4. TECHNIQUESChromosome manipulation in aquaculture - hybridization, ploidy induction, gynogenesis,androgenesis and sex reversal in commercially important fishes. Application of microbialbiotechnology in culture ponds, bioaugmentation, bioremediation, nutrient cycling, and bio-fertilization. Probiotics – Immunostimulants. Tools for disease diagnosis in cultivable organisms- Enzyme immuno assays - Dot immunobinding assay - Western blotting - Latex agglutinationtest - Monoclonal antibodies - DNA based diagnosis. Cryopreservation techniques. 07 Hours PART BUNIT 5. MARINE ENVIRONMENTBiological Oceanography: The division of the marine environment – benthing, pelagic, batuyal,littoral. Ocean waters as biological environment. Distribution and population of plants andanimals. Marine ecology and fisheries potential. Effects of pollution on marine life. Geologicaland geophysical Oceanography: Geophysical and geological processes. Ocean basin rocks andsediments. Beach and beach processes, littoral sediment transports. Coastal erosion-causes andprotection. Resources of the ocean-renewable and non-renewable. 05 HoursUNIT 6: MARINE MICROBIOLOGYBiology of micro-organisms used in genetic engineering (Escherichia coil, Rhizobium sp.,Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, phage lambda, Nostoc, Spirulina, 37
    • Aspergillus, Pencillium and Streptomyces). Methods of studying the marine micro-organisms-collection, enumeration, isolation, culture & identification based on morphological,physiological and biochemical characteristics. Preservation of marine microbes, culturecollection centres (ATCC, IMTECH, etc.). Microbial nutrition and nitrogen fixation. Seafoodmicrobiology - fish & human pathogens. Indicator of Pollution - faecai coliforms - Prevention &control. 08 HoursUNIT 7: MARINE BIOTECHNOLOGYPhysical, Chemical and Biological aspects of marine life. Air – Sea interaction – Green housegases (CO2 and Methane). Marine pollution-major pollutants (heavymetal, pesticide, oil, thermal,radioactive, plastics, litter and microbial). Biological indicators and accumulators: Protein asbiomarkers, Biosensors and biochips. Biodegradation and Bioremediation. Separation,purification and bioremoval of pollutants. Biofouling - Biofilm formation Antifouling and Antiboring treatments. Corrosion Process and control of marine structures. Biosafety - specialcharacteristics of marine environment that bear on biosafety. Ethical and moral issues - foodhealth, and environmental safety concerns. 08 HoursUNIT 8: MARINE PHARMACOLOGYTerms and definitions. Medicinal compounds from marine flora and fauna - marine toxins –antiviral, antimicrobial. Extraction of crude drugs, screening, isolation, purification andstructural characterization of bioactive compounds. Formulation of drugs and Drug designing:Pharmacological evaluation – routes of drug administration – absorption, distribution,metabolism and excretion of drugs. 05 HoursTEXT BOOKSRecent advances in Marine Biotechnology. Vol. 4. Fingerman, M. 2000.Marine Biotechnology by David J.Attaway et al., 1993.Aquaculture, Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi.Aquatic Microbiology, Rheinhemer, G., 1980. Johnwiley & Sons, pp. 235.Aquatic microbiology. An ecological approach. Ford, T.E., 1993. Blackwell scientificpublications, London, 518 pp.Fish Biotechnology by Ranga & Shammi, 2003.REFERENCE BOOKSBiotechnology and Genetics in Fisheries and Aquaculture by Andy Beamount and K Hoare,2004.Krichman, D.L., 2000. Microbial ecology of the oceans. Wiley – liss, New york, 542 pp.Kenneth, C. Highnam and Leonard Hill, 1969. The comparative endocrinology of theinvertebrates. Edward Arnold Ltd.Aquaculture, farming and husbandry and fresh and marine organisms. Wiley lnterscience, NY.Iverson, E.S. 1976. Farming the edge of the sea. Fishing News Ltd. London.Kenneth, B.D., 2000. Environmental impacts of Aquaculture. CRC. pp. 214.Morries H. Baslow, 1969. Marine Pharmacology. The Williams & Wilkins Co., Baltimore.MOLECULAR ECOLOGY by JOANNA FREELAND (2005), WileyQUESTION PAPER PATTERNFor every 6-7 Hours of teaching One Question to be Set. Eight questions to be set (four fromeach part) out of which five full questions (considering at least two from each part) to beanswered. 38
    • DAIRY BTSub. Code : 06BT-752 I.A Marks : 25Hours/week : 04 Exam Hrs. : 03Total Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100UNIT 1. DAIRY INDUSTRYOverview of dairy industry, Characteristics of dairy Industry. Manufacturing & processing ofdairy products, effect of processing on constituents and methods of evaluation of dairy products. 02 hoursUNIT 1. DAIRY MICROBIOLOGYMicrobial quality of milk produced under organized versus unorganized milk sector in India andcomparison with developed countries; Morphological and biochemical characteristics ofimportant groups of milk microbes and their classification i.e. psychrotrophs, mesophiles,thermodurics, and thermophiles. Impact of various stages like milking, chilling, storage andtransportation on microbial quality of milk with special reference to psychrotrophic organisms;Direct and indirect rapid technique for assessment of microbial quality of milk. Milk as a vehicleof pathogens; Food infection, intoxication and toxic infection caused by milk borne pathogens.Microbiological changes in bulk refrigerated raw milk; Mastitis milk: organisms causing mastitis,detection of somatic cell count (SCC). Role of microorganisms in spoilage of milk; souring,curdling, bitty cream, proteolysis, lipolysis; abnormal flavors and discoloration. Significance ofantimicrobial substances naturally present in milk. 10 hoursUNIT 2. DAIRY BIOTECHNOLOGYGenetic engineering of bacteria and animals intended for dairy-based products: DNA cloning.protoplast fusion & cell culture methods for trait improvement with instances cited. Enzymes indairy industry & production by whole cell immobilization. Biotechnology of dairy effluenttreatment. Ethical issues relating to genetic modification of dairy microbes & milk-yieldinganimals. 04 hoursUNIT 3. DAIRY ENGINEERINGSanitization: Materials and sanitary features of the dairy equipment. Sanitary pipes and fittings,standard glass piping, plastic tubing, fittings and gaskets, installation, care and maintenance ofpipes & fittings. Description and maintenance of can washers, bottle washers.Homogenization: Classification, single stage and two stage homogenizer pumps, powerrequirements, care and maintenance of homogenizers, aseptic homogenizers.Pasteurization: Batch, flash and continuous (HTST) pasteurizers, Flow diversion valve,Pasteurizer control, Care and maintenance of pasteurizers.Filling Operation: Principles and working of different types of bottle filters and capping machine,pouch filling machine (Pre-pack and aseptic filling bulk handling system, care and maintenance. 10 hours PART BUNIT 5. DAIRY PROCESS ENGINEERINGEvaporation: Basic principles of evaporators, Different types of evaporators used in dairyindustry, Calculation of heat transfer area and water requirement of condensers, Care andmaintenance of evaporators.Drying: Introduction to principle of drying, Equilibrium moisture constant, bound and unboundmoisture, Rate of drying- constant and falling rate, Effect of Shrinkage, Classification of dryers- 39
    • spray and drum dryers, spray drying, etc., air heating systems, Atomization and feeding systems.Fluidization: Mechanisms of fluidization characteristics of gas-fluidization systems, applicationof fluidization in drying.Membrane Processing: Ultra filtration, Reverse Osmosis and electro dialysis in dairy processing,membrane construction & maintenance for electro-dialysis & ultra-filtration, effect of milkconstituents on operation. 08 hoursUNIT 6. DAIRY PLANT DESIGN AND LAYOUTIntroduction of Dairy Plant design and layout. Type of dairies, perishable nature of milk,reception flexibility. Classification of dairy plants, selection of site for location. General pointsof considerations for designing dairy plant, floor plant types of layouts, service accommodation,single or multilevel design. Arrangement of different sections in dairy, Arrangement ofequipment, milk piping, material handling in dairies. Drains and drain layout for small and largedairies. Ventilation, fly control, mold prevention, illumination in dairy plants. 06 hoursUNIT 7. QUALITY AND SAFETY MONITORING IN DAIRY INDUSTRYCurrent awareness on quality and safety of dairy foods; consumer awareness and their demandsfor safe foods; role of Codex Alimentations Commission (CAC) in harmonization ofinternational standards; quality (ISO 9001:2000) and food safety (HACCP) system and theirapplication during milk production and processing. National and international food regulatorystandards; BIS, PFA, ICMSF, IDF etc., their role in the formulation of standards for controllingthe quality and safety of dairy foods. Good Hygiene Practices (GHP). Quality of water andenvironmental hygiene in dairy plant; treatment and disposal of waste water and effluents. 08 hoursUNIT 8. BY PRODUCTS TECHNOLOGYStatus, availability and utilization of dairy by-products in India and abroad, associated economicand pollution problems. Physico chemical characteristics of whey, butter milk and ghee residue;by-products from skim milk such as Casein; Whey processing & utilization of products generatedfrom whey. 04 hoursTEXT BOOKSDiary Science & Technology Handbook (Vols 1-3). Ed by Hui, Y.H, Wiley PublishersDiary Microbiology Handbook (3rd Ed). Robinson, R.K., Wiley PublishersREFERENCE BOOKSComprehensive Biotechnology (Vol 6)- Ed N.C Gautam- Shree Pblns.General Microbiology ( Vol 2)– Powar & Daginawala- Himalaya PublishersMilk composition, production & biotechnology (Biotechnology in Agriculture Series 18)-CABIPublishersHandbook of Farm, Dairy & Food Machinery - Myer Kutz- Andrew Publishers.QUESTION PAPER PATTERNFor every 6-7 Hours of teaching One Question to be Set. Eight questions to be set (four fromeach part) out of which five full questions (considering at least two from each part) to beanswered. 40
    • FORENSIC SCIENCESub. Code : 06BT-753 I.A Marks : 25Hours/week : 04 Exam Hrs. : 03Total Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100 PART - AUNIT 1. INTRODUCTIONIntroduction, Definition and Scope, History and Development of Forensic science, Legalprocedures and use of court. 04 HoursUNIT 2. CRIME LABOrganization of a crime Laboratory services of the crime laboratory, Basic services provided byfull service crime laboratories, Physical Science unit, Biological unit, Firearms unit, DocumentExamination unit. [Function and duties performs by each unit and lab] 06 HoursUNIT 3. FORENSIC ANALYSISAnalysis of Physical evidence, Expert unit men, specially trained evidence collection technician,Analytical technician. 08 HoursUNIT 4. FORENSIC BIOLOGYForensic Pathology : Rigor mortis, Lovor mortis, Algor mortis. Forensic Anthropology, ForensicEntomology, Forensic Psychiatry, Forensic Odontology, Foresnsic Engineering, DNA Analysis,Dactyloscopy, Fenerprints : Classification and patterns. 08 Hours PART - BUNIT 5. FORENSIC DIGITAL IMAGINGIntroduction , Digital cameras and forensic imaging, Uses of digital imaging, Maintaining chainof control with digital images, digital videos, scanners, presenting pictures in courtroom,Detecting compression and forgeries and Maintaining Records. 06 HoursUNIT 6. APPLIED FORENSIC STATISTICSProbability population and sampler, weight of evidence and the Bayesian likelihood ratio,Transfer evidence application of statistics to particular areas of forensic science, Knowledgebase systems, Quality base of system. 08 HoursUNIT 7. INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERSGeneral concepts and tools, Arithmetic and logical operation, Developing an algorithm to solveproblem, Modularization, Function and procedures, Arrays, File processing , Reports andcontrol breaks, Processing the date. 06 HoursUNIT 8. ETHICS IN FORENSICSThe importance of professional ethics to science practitioners, Development of a code of conductand code of ethics for forensic science, Application of codes and ethics, How ethicalrequirement, impact the daily work of a forensic scientist, ethical dilemmas and their resolution. 06 HoursTEXT BOOKCriminalistics : An Introduction to Forensic Science by Richard Saperstein, (Prentice Hall, 2001)REFERENCE BOOKPrinciples of Forensic Medicine, by Apurba Nandy, New central book agency (p) Ltd. 41
    • QUESTION PAPER PATTERNFor every 6-7 Hours of teaching One Question to be Set. Eight questions to be set (four fromeach part) out of which five full questions (considering at least two from each part) to beanswered. DATA STRUCTURES WITH CSub. Code : 06BT-754 I.A Marks : 25Hours/week : 04 Exam Hrs. : 03Total Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100UNIT 1:Pointers: Concepts, Pointer variables, Accessing variables through pointers, Pointer declarationand definition, Initialization of pointer variables, Pointers and functions, Pointer to pointers,Compatibility, Lvalue and Rvalue, Arrays and pointers, Pointer arithmetic and arrays, Passing anarray to a function, Understanding complex declarations, Memory allocation functions, Array ofpointers. 07 HoursUNIT 2:Strings: String concepts, C strings, String I/O functions, Array of strings, String manipulationfunction, Memory formatting. 02 HoursDerived types -Enumerated, Structure, and Union: The type definition, Enumerated types,Structure, Accessing structures, Complex structures, Array of structures, Structures and functions,Unions 03 HoursBinary Files: Classification of Files, Using Binary Files, Standard Library Functions for Files 02 HoursUNIT 3:The Stack: Definition and Examples, Representing Stacks in C, An Example – Infix, Postfix, andPrefix 06 HoursUNIT 4:Recursion: Recursive Definition and Processes, Recursion in C, Writing Recursive Programs,Simulating Recursion, Efficiency of Recursion. 04 HoursQueues: The Queue and its Sequential Representation 02 Hours PART – BUNIT 5:Lists: Linked Lists, Lists in C, An Example – Simulation using Linked Lists. 07 HoursUNIT 6:Lists contd.: Other List Structures 06 HoursUNIT 7:10. Trees: Binary Trees, Binary Tree Representations. 06 HoursUNIT 8:Trees contd.: Representing Lists as Binary Trees, Trees and their applications 07 HoursTEXT BOOKSComputer Science A Structured Programming Approach Using C, Second Edition, Behrouz A.Forouzan and Richard F. Gilberg, Thomson, 2003(Chapter 9.1 to 9.9, Chapter 10.1 to 10.6, Chapter 11.1 to 11.6, Chapter 12.1 to 12.8, Chapter13.1 to 13.3). 42
    • Data Structure using C, Aaron M. Tenenbaum, Yedidyah Langsam & Moshe J. Augenstein,Pearson Education/PHI, 2006. (Chapter 2, 3, 4, 5.1, 5.2, 5.4, 5.5).REFERENCE BOOKSC & DATA STRUCTURES by MUNISWAMY .VV (2007), IK PUBLISHERS.QUESTION PAPER PATTERNFor every 6-7 Hours of teaching One Question to be Set. Eight questions to be set (four fromeach part) out of which five full questions (considering at least two from each part) to beanswered. BIOREACTOR DESIGN CONCEPTSSub. Code : 06BT-755 I.A Marks : 25Hours/week : 04 Exam Hrs. : 03Total Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100 PART AUNIT 1. FUNDAMENTALS OF REACTOR DESIGNKinetics: Definitions of rate, Microbial growth and product formation kinetics, Thermal deathkinetics of microorganisms, Heterogeneous reaction kinetics, Enzyme kinetics, Multiplereactions – series, parallel and mixed. Basic Design Equations/ Mole Balances: Batch, Fed Batchand Repetitive Batch Reactors, Continuous: Stirred tank and tubular flow reactors (includingrecycle) size comparison of reactors. 10 HoursUNIT 2. BIOREACTOR REQUIREMENTSFermentation Process – General requirements; Basic design and construction of fermenters andits ancillaries; Material of construction, Vessel geometry, Bearing assemblies, Motor drives,Aseptic seals; Flow measuring devices, Valves, Agitator and Sparger Design, Sensors. Factorsaffecting choice, optimum yield and conversion, selectivity and reactivity, Bioprocess andbioreactor design considerations for plant and animal cell cultures. Medium requirements forfermentation processes – examples of simple and complex media; Design and usage ofcommercial media for industrial fermentations; Effect of media on reactor design. 06 HoursUNIT 3. NON-ISOTHERMAL REACTORS AND HEAT TRANSFER EFFECTSStoichiometry of Cell growth and Product formation – Elemental balances, available- electronbalances, degrees of reduction; yield coefficients of biomass and product formation; maintenanceof coefficients; oxygen consumption and heat evolution in aerobic cultures. Conceptualnumericals. Non-isothermal homogeneous reactor systems. Adiabatic reactors, batch andcontinuous reactors, optimum temperature progression. Batch and continuous heat – sterilizationof Liquid media; Filter sterilization of liquids. Conceptual numericals. 04 HoursUNIT 4. MASS TRANSFER EFFECTSExternal mass transfer limitations, correlations for stirred tank, packed bed and fluidized bedreactors. Internal mass transfer limitations, correlations for stirred tank, packed bed and fluidizedbed reactors. Combined effect of heat and mass transfer effects Mass transfer in heterogeneousbiochemical reaction systems; Oxygen transfer in submerged fermentation processes; Oxygenuptake rates and determination of oxygen transfer coefficients (kLa); role of aeration andagitation in oxygen transfer. Heat transfer processes in biological systems. Conceptualnumericals. 06 Hours 43
    • PART BUNIT 5. NON-IDEAL REACTORSNon-ideal reactors, residence time, distribution studies, pulse and step input response of reactors,RTD’s for CSTR and PFR, calculations of conversions for I and II order reactions, tanks in seriesand dispersion models. 06 HoursUNIT 6. DESIGN OF PACKED BED REACTORS1D model of packed bed, 2D model of packed bed, Design of Immobilized enzyme packed bedreactor. 06 HoursUNIT 7. DESIGN OF FERMENTORSProcess and mechanical design of fermenters, volume, sparger, agitator – type, size and motorpower, heat transfer calculations for coil and jacket, sterilization system. 08 HoursUNIT 8. NOVEL BIOREACTORS DESIGNFluidized bed reactors, Slurry Reactors, Air lift & Loop reactors, Packed bed and Hollow fibermembrane bioreactors, Bioreactors for waste treatment processes; Scale-up of bioreactors, SSFbioreactors. Conceptual numericals. 06 HoursTEXT BOOKSPrinciples of Biochemistry by Leninger A.L., II Edition, 1993.Contemporary Enzyme Kinetics and Mechanism by Daniel L. Purich, Melvin I. Simon, John N.Abelson, 2000.Biochemical Engineering Fundamentals by Bailey and Ollis, McGraw Hill (2nd Ed.). 1986.Bioprocess Engineering by Shule and Kargi Prentice Hall, 1992.Bioprocess Engineering Principles by Pauline M. Doran, 1995.Elements of Chemical Reaction Engineering by Fogler, H.S., Prentice Hall, 1986.Chemical Reaction Engineering by Levenspiel O., John Wiley, 2nd Edition, London, 1972.Chemical Engineering Kinetics by Smith J.M., McGraw Hill, 3rd Edition, New Delhi,1981.Biocatalytic Membrane Reactor by Drioli, Taylor & Francis, 2005REFERENCE BOOKSWolf R. Vieth, Bioprocess Engineering – Kinetics, Mass Transport, Reactors and GeneExpression. A Wiley – Interscience Publication, 1992.Chemical Kinetic Methods: Principles of relaxation techniques by Kalidas C. New AgeInternational.Chemical Reactor Analysis and Design by Forment G F and Bischoff K B., John Wiley, 1979.QUESTION PAPER PATTERNFor every 6-7 Hours of teaching One Question to be Set. Eight questions to be set (four fromeach part) out of which five full questions (considering at least two from each part) to beanswered. 44
    • ELECTIVE C BIOCHIPS & MICROARRAY TECHNOLOGYSub. Code : 06BT-761 I.A Marks : 25Hours/week : 04 Exam Hrs. : 03Total Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100UNIT 1 INTRODUCTIONBasics of Biochips and Microarray technology, Historical Development. 02 HoursUNIT 2. CONSTRUCTIONFlow chart for construction of an micro array, Preparation of the sample, Microarray labels,Preparation of the Micro array, Microarray robotics, Hybridization (Microarrayscanners/headers), related instrumentation. 08 HoursUNIT 3. TYPESOF MICROARRAYSDNA microarrays, oligonucleotide, CDNA and genomic micrarrays, tissue chip, RNA chip,Protein chip, Glyco chips, Integrated biochip system, Megaclone technology for fluidmicroarrays, SERS (Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy]-based microarrays. 08 HoursUNIT 4. DATA ANALYSISAutomation of microarray and biosensor technologies, Biochip versus gel-based methods.Evaluation of conventional microarray technology, Electrical detection method for microarray,types of Micro array data, Bioinformatics tools for microarray data analysis. 08 Hours PART B5. BIOCHIPS IN HEALTH CAREMolecular Diagnostics, Pharmacogenomics, application of microarray technology in drugdiscovery development and drug delivery. Biochips as neural prostheses. Use of Microarray ingenetic disease monitoring. 08 Hours6. OTHER APPLICATIONSUse of microarrays in population genetic and epidemiology, use of microarrays on forensics,DNA chip technology for water quality management, Bioagent chip, Applicatin of microarray inthe agro industry limitation of biochip technology. 06 Hours7. COMMERCIAL ASPECTS OF BIOCHIP TECHNOLOGYMarkets for biochip technologies, Commercial support for the development of biochips,Government support for biochip development, Business strategies, Patent issues. 06 Hours8. DNA COMPUTINGIntroduction, Junctions, other shapes, Biochips and large-scale structures, Discussion ofRobinson and Kallenbach, Methods for designing DNA shapes, DNA cube, Computing withDNA, Electrical analogies for biological circuits, Challenges, Future Trends. 06 HoursTEXT BOOKSBiochips and Microarrays -- Technology and Commercial Potential Published by : InformaGlobal Pharmaceuticals and Health CareProtein Arrays, Biochips and Proteomics by J S Albala & I Humprey-Smith, CRC Press, 2003Microarray for an Integrative Genomics by Isaac S Kohane, Alvin Kho and Atul J Butte, 2004.Microarray Gene Expression Data Analysis by Helen C Causton et al, 2004. 45
    • REFERENCE BOOKSDNA Arrays: Technology and Experimental Strategies (2002), Grigorenko, E.V (ed), CRCPress,.Microarray Analysis (2002) Mark Schena; J. Wiley & Sons (ed.,New York)Microarray for Integrative Genomics by Kohane, MIT, 2004.Microarray Gene Expression data Analysis by Causton, BLK, 2004.QUESTION PAPER PATTERNFor every 6-7 Hours of teaching One Question to be Set. Eight questions to be set (four fromeach part) out of which five full questions (considering at least two from each part) to beanswered. BIOMATERIALSSub. Code : 06BT-762 I.A Marks : 25Hours/week : 04 Exam Hrs. : 03Total Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100UNIT 1. INTRODUCTIONIntroduction, Historical developments, construction materials, impact of biomaterials, strength ofbiological tissues, performance of implants, tissue response to implants, interfacial phenomena,safety and efficacy testing. Structure and Properties of Materials: Atomic and molecular bonds,crystal structure of solids, phase changes, crystal imperfections, non-crystalline solids, surfaceproperties, mechanical properties of materials, thermal treatments, surface improvements,sterilization. 08 HoursUNIT 2. METALS & CERAMICSIntroduction, Stainless steels, Cobalt-Chromium alloys, Titanium based alloys, Nitinol, othermetals, metallic Corrosion, biological tolerance of implant metals, Carbons, Alumina, Yttriastabilized zirconia, surface reactive ceramics, resorbable ceramics, composites, analysis ofceramic surfaces 06 HoursUNIT 3. SYNTHETIC POLYMERSPolymers in biomedical use, polyethylene and polypropylene, perfluorinated polymers, acrylicpolymers, hydrogels, polyurethanes, polyamides, biodegradable synthetic polymers, siliconerubber, plasma polymerization, micro-organisms in polymeric implants, polymer sterilization. 06 HoursUNIT 4. BIOCOMPATIBILITYDefinition, Wound healing process-bone healing, tendon healing. Material response: Functionand Degradation of materials in vivo. Host response: Tissue response to biomaterials , Effects ofwear particles. Testing of implants: Methods of test for biological performance- In vitro implanttests, In vivo implant test methods. Qualification of implant materials. 06 Hours PART BUNIT 5. BIOPOLYMERSPolymers as biomaterials, microstructure, mechanical properties – effects of environment onelastic moduli, yield strength and fracture strengths, sterilization and disinfections of polymericmaterials. Biocompatibility of polymers, polymers as biomaterials, heparin and heparin-likepolysaccharides, proteoglycans, structure and biological activities of native sulfatedglycosaminoglycans, chemically modified glycosaminoglycans, heparin like substances from 46
    • nonglycosaminoglycan polysaccharides and microbial glycosaminoglycan, surface immobilizedheparins. 08 HoursUNIT 6. MEDICAL DEVICESPolyurethane elastomers, applications of polymers in medicine and surgery. Skin graft polymers,biodegradable polymers in drug delivery and drug carrier systems. Properties of implantmaterials, metals and alloys, polymers, ceramics and composites, qualification of implantmaterials, goal of clinical trials, design and conclusion of clinical trials. 06 HoursUNIT 7. CARDIOVASCULAR BIOMATERIALSTissue properties of blood vessels, Treatments of atherosclerosis; Biomechanical design issuespertaining to stents, balloon angioplasty, and pacemakers. Soft Tissue Reconstruction; Naturaland Synthetic. Wound healing. Tissue ingrowths: Stability; Biofixation, Foreign Body response,Soft implants. Case Studies. Tissue Engineering: Current issues and Future Directions. 06 HoursUNIT 8. REGULATORY ISSUESReview of Cell and Tissue Structure and their Functions. Functional Requirements ofBiomaterials and Tissue Replacements. Synthetic Biomaterials: Metals, Polymers, Ceramics,Gels, Hybrids, Sterilization Technology. Foreign Body Response, Biocompatibility and WoundHealing. 06 HoursTEXT BOOKSBiomaterials Science : An Introduction to materials in medicine by Buddy D Ratner. AcademicPress (1996).Polymeric Biomaterials by Severian Dumitriu (1994).Material Science by Smith, McGraw Hill.Material Science and Engineering by V Raghavan, Prentice Hall, 1985.Biomaterials by Sujata V. Bhat, Narosa Publishing House, 2002Biomaterials, Medical Devices and Tissue Engineering: An Integrated Approach by Frederick HSilver, Chapman and Hall publications 1994.REFERENCE BOOKSAdvanced Catalysts and Nanostructures Materials, William R Moser, Academic Press.J B Park , "Biomaterials - Science and Engineering", Plenum Press , 1984Jonathan Black, " Biological Performance of materials", Marcel Decker, 1981Piskin and A S Hoffmann," Polymeric Biomaterials(Eds)", Martinus NijhoffLawrence Stark & GyanAgarwal , "Biomaterials"L. Hench & E. C. Ethridge, " Biomaterials - An Interfacial approach"QUESTION PAPER PATTERNFor every 6-7 Hours of teaching One Question to be Set. Eight questions to be set (four fromeach part) out of which five full questions (considering at least two from each part) to beanswered. 47
    • HEALTH DIAGNOSTICSSub. Code : 06BT-763 I.A Marks : 25Hours/week : 04 Exam Hrs. : 03Total Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100 PART AUNIT 1. INTRODUCTIONBiochemical disorders, Immune disorders, Infectious diseases, Parasitic diseases, Geneticdisorders chromosomal disorders, single cell disorders and complex traits. Chromosomaldisorders : autosomal; sex chromosomal; karyotype analysis. 03 HoursUNIT 2. DNA BASED DIAGNOSTICSG-banding, in situ hybridization (FISH and on-FISH), and comparative genomic, hybridization(CGH). Cancer cytogenetics: spectral karyotyping. DNA diagnostics: PCR based diagnostics;ligation chain reaction, Southern blot diagnostics, array-based diagnostics, DNA sequencing,genetic profiling, single nucleotide polymorphism. Haemoglobinopathies. Neuro developmentaldisorders. Neuro degenerative disorders. Dynamic mutations. G-banded chromosomalpreparations for detection of autosomes of autosomal/sex chromosomal disorders. (translocation,deletion, Down’s syndrome, Klumefelter syndrome, Turner’s syndrome, etc.) FISH fordetections of: translocations, inversions (using appropriate probes) (e.g., chro 9-22 translocation;X-Y translocation). PCR bases diagnosis (e.g. fragile-X syndrome; SRY in sex chromosomalanomalies). Southern blot-based diagnosis (e.g. trinucleoide expansions in fragile-X syndrome,SCA, etc.) DNA sequencing of representative clones to detect mutation(s), PCR-SSCP to detectmutations (e.g., sickle cell anemia, thalassemia), SNP analysis for known SNPs. PAGE: banddetection of enzyme variants. 15 HoursUNIT 3. BIOCHEMICAL DIAGNOSTICSInborn errors of metabolism, haemoglobinopathies, mucopolysaccharidoses, lipidoses, lipidprofiles, HDL, LDL, Glycogen storage disorders, amyloidosis. 03 HoursUNIT 4. CELL BASED DIAGNOSTICS:Antibody markers, CD Markers, FACS, HLA typing, Bioassays. 04 Hours PART BUNIT 5. IMMUNODIAGNOSTICSIntroduction, Antigen-Antibody Reactions, Conjugation Techniques, Antibody Production,Enzymes and Signal Amplification Systems, Separation and Solid-Phase Systems, Case studiesrelated to bacterial, viral and parasitic infections. Diagnosis of infectious diseases, respiratorydiseases (influenza, etc.) Viral diseases-HIV etc., bacterial diseases, enteric diseases, parasiticdiseases and mycobacterium diseases. Phage display, immunoarrays, FACs. 10 HoursUNIT 6. IMAGING DIAGNOSTICSImaging Techniques (Basic Concepts), Invasive and Non-Invasive, Electrocardiography (ECG),Uses of ECG, Electroencephalography (EEG), Use of EEG, Computerized Tomography (CT),Uses of CT, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), uses of MRI, Ultrasound Imaging (US), Usesof Ultrasound, Planning and Organization of Imaging Services in Hospital, Introduction,Planning, Physical Facilities, Layout, Organization, Organization and Staffing, Records, Policies,Radiation Protection. 10 Hours 48
    • UNIT 7. PRODUCT DEVELOPMENTImmunoassay Classification and Commercial Technologies, Assay Development, Evaluation,and Validation, Reagent Formulations and Shelf Life Evaluation, Data Analysis, Documentation,Registration, and Diagnostics Start-Ups. 03 HoursUNIT 8. BIOSENSORSConcepts and applications, Biosensors for personal diabetes management, NoninvasiveBiosensors in Clinical Analysis, Introduction to Biochips and their application in Health. 03 HoursTEXT / REFERENCE BOOKS:Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry, Carl A. Burtis, Edward R. Ashwood, HarcourtBrace & Company Aisa Pvt. Ltd.Commercial Biosensors: Graham Ramsay, John Wiley & Son, INC. (1998).DNA sequencing by Luhe Aplhey, 2004.Essentials of Diagnostic Microbiology, Lisa Anne Shimeld.Diagnostic Microbiology, Balley & Scott’s.Tietz Text book of Clinical Biochemistry, Burtis & Ashwood.The Science of Laboratory Diagnosis, Crocker Burnett.QUESTION PAPER PATTERNFor every 6-7 Hours of teaching One Question to be Set. Eight questions to be set (four fromeach part) out of which five full questions (considering at least two from each part) to beanswered. FUNDAMENTALS OF OS & DBMSSub. Code : 06BT-764 I.A Marks : 25Hours/week : 04 Exam Hrs. : 03Total Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100 PART AUNIT 1. INTRODUCTIONWhat is O.S, Von-Neumann architechture, Supercomputers, Mainframe systems, Desktopsystem, Multiprocessor systems, Distributor systems, Clustered systems, Real time systems,Hand held systems, Future migration, Computing environment, System components, OSservices, System calls, System programs, system structure, OS design and implementation,microkernels, virtual machines 06 HoursUNIT 2. PROCESS MANAGEMENTProcess concept, process state, process control block, process scheduling, snail diagrams,schedulers, creation and removal of a process, interprocess communication, models for IPC,independent and cooperating processes, threads, overview, multithreading, applications, criticalselection problem, Semaphores, deadlocks and starvation. 06 HoursUNIT 3. STORAGE MANAGEMENTMemory management, dynamic loading and linking, overlays, logical vs physical address space,memory management unit, swapping, contigous allocation, fragmentation, paging, page table,segmentation, virtual memory, demand paging, thrashing file system, interface-file concept,directory implementation . 06 HoursUNIT 4. LINUX AND WIN NTLinux: Design principles, Kernel modules, process management, scheduling, memorymanagement systems, input and output, interprocess communication. 49
    • WinNT: Design principles, system components, environmental subsystems, file system,networking and programming interface 08 Hours PART BUNIT 5. DESIGN OF DBMSIntroduction to DBMS, terminology, Systems Development Life Cycle, terms of reference,feasibility report, data flow diagrams, addition of data sources, identification of individualprocesses, inputs and outputs, system boundaries, Entity-Relationship modeling, examples,database creation using MS Access, designing tables using Access, Data Integrity,Normalization, relationships between tables, comparing E-R design with Normalization design,Inclusion of new requirements from feasibility report, documentation, amending primary keysand database tables, Practical examples. 08 HoursUNIT 6. DATA DICTIONARY AND QUERY DESIGNData dictionary, criteria, compiling a list of field names, entry sequence for the table data,entering, sorting and filtering of data in a table, introduction to queries, identifying field names,selection criteria and sort order in a query, calculations in queries, modifying a query, creating aquery using design view and wizard in MS Access 08 HoursUNIT 7. REPORTING, TESTING AND DOCUMENTATIONIntroduction to reporting, dataflow diagram based reporting and table based reporting, formcreation using wizard, entering and searching records in a form, modifying forms and reports,Introduction to testing, types (unit testing, system testing, integration testing, interface testing,performance testing and user testing), test data, executing and error reporting, introduction todocumentation, areas of documentation 06 HoursUNIT 8. SETTING UP THE DATA AND HOUSEKEEPINGApproaches to set up data (parallel, bigbang, phased and pilot implementation), working data,data entry methods to the database (systems screen, external source), introduction tohousekeeping, regular backups, archiving old data, maintaining security in a database. 04 HoursTEXT / REFERENCE BOOKSMastering Database Design by Helen Holding, Macmillan publications, 1999.Operating system concept by Silberschatz, peterhalvin and Greg Gague, VI edition, John Wiley,2003.DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS by PS.GILL(2008), IK Publishers.Linux: the complete reference by Richard Peterson, McGraw Hill, 1998Operating System – A concept based approach by D Dhamdene, Tata McGraw Hill, 2002.The complete reference-By Coach and loneyA Beginners guide- By Abbey and corneyDatabase System-Elmasri and Navathe.QUESTION PAPER PATTERNFor every 6-7 Hours of teaching One Question to be Set. Eight questions to be set (four fromeach part) out of which five full questions (considering at least two from each part) to beanswered. 50
    • CAD & MATLABSub. Code : 06BT-765 I.A Marks : 25Hours/week : 04 Exam Hrs. : 03Total Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100UNIT 1. FLUID FLOW SYSTEMSCAD of fluid flow system: Flow of Newtonian fluids in pipes. Pressure drop in compressibleflow. Flow of non-Newtonian fluids in pipes. Pipe network calculations. Two phase flow system. 06 HoursUNIT 2. HEAT TRANSFER SYSTEMSCAD of heat transfer equipment: Shell and tube exchangers without phase change. Condensers,Reboilers. Furnaces. 06 HoursUNIT 3. MASS TRANSFER SYSTEMSCAD of mass transfer equipment: Distillation, gas absorption and liquid extraction.06 HoursUNIT 4. REACTOR SYSTEMSCAD of chemical Reactors: Chemical reaction equilibrium analysis of rate data, ideal reactormodels. Non-ideality in chemical reaction. Performance analysis using residence timedistribution. Temperature effects in homogeneous reactors. Heterogeneous systems. Fluidizedbed reactors. 08 Hours PART BUNIT 5. MATLABIntroduction to Matlab Environment, basics, matlab sessions, creating an array of numbers,printing simple plots, creating, saving and executing a script file, function file, working with filesand directories. 06 HoursUNIT 6. INTERACTIVE COMPUTINGMatrices and vectors, indexing, matrix manipulation, creating vectors, arithmetic, relational, andlogical operations, elementary mathematical functions, matrix functions, character strings,vectorization, inline functions, anonymous functions, built-in functions and online help, savingand loading data, plotting simple graphs. 06 HoursUNIT 7. PROGRAMMING IN MATLABScript files, function files, executing a function, subfunctions, compiled functions, profiler,global variables, loops, branches and control flow, interactive input, recursion, multidimensionalmatrices, structures, cells, publishing reports. 06 HoursUNIT 8. APPLICATIONSSolving a linear system, Gaussian elimination, finding eigenvectors and eigenvalues, matrixfactorizations, polynomial curvefitting, least squares curvefitting, nonlinear fits, interpolation,data analysis and statistics, numerical integration, a first order linear ODE, specifying tolerance,the ODE suite, roots of polynomials, 2D plotting, options, overlay plots, 3D plotting, rotate view,mesh and surface plots, vector field, subplots for multiple graphs, saving and printing graphs. 08 HoursTEXT/REFERENCE BOOKSChemical Process Computation by Raghu Raman, Elsevier Scientific Publishers, London, 1987.Fundamentals and Modeling of Separation Process by C.D. Holland, Prentice Hall, Inc. NewJercey, 1975.Catalytic Reactor Design by Orhan, Tarhan McGraw Hill, 1983.Chemical Engineering, Vol. 6 by Sinnot, pergamon Press, 1993. 51
    • Getting started with MATLAB 7, Rudrapratap, Oxford University Press.Essential MATLAB for Scientists and Engineers, Arnold / Wiley, NY.A handbook on technique lab MATLAB based experiments by MISHRA. K K (2007) IKPublishers.QUESTION PAPER PATTERNFor every 6-7 Hours of teaching One Question to be Set. Eight questions to be set (four fromeach part) out of which five full questions (considering at least two from each part) to beanswered. UPSTREAM BIOPROCESSING LABORATORYSub. Code : 06BTL-77 I.A Marks : 25Hours/week : 03 Exam Hrs. : 03 Exam Marks : 501) Callus Induction Techniques – Carrot/Beet root/ or any other material2) Development of suspension culture from callus3) Induction of Secondary metabolite – Anthocyanin4) Estimation of Lycopene from tomato fruits5) Estimation of Anthocyanin from leaf /callus tissue6) Estimation of DNA (by DPA method)7) Estimation of unknown protein by Lowry’s method.8) Development of inocula; lag time effect9) Shake flask studies; Comparison of yield in synthetic and complex media (Bacteria/Yest)10) Fed batch culture – Penicillin production and Assessment of yield11) Preparation of the fermenter12) Production of Ethanol in fermenter - Study of growth, product formation kinetics, end substrate utilizationTEXT / REFERENCE BOOKSPlant Molecular biology by D. Grierson & S.N. Covey Blackie, London.Plant Cell Culture : A Practical Approach by R.A. Dixon & Gonzales, IRL Press.Experiments in Plant Tissue Culture by John H. Dodds & Lorin W. Robert.Plant tissue Culture : Theory and Practice by S.S. Bhojwani and M.K. Razdan (1996) Elsevier,AmsterdamPrinciples of fermentation Technology by P.F. Stanbury and A. Whitaker, Pergamon Press, 1984.Microbial Biotechnology by Alexander N Glazer, Hiroshi Nikaido, W H Freeman & CompanyNewyork.Animal Cell biotechnology by R.E. Spier and J.B. Griffiths (1988), Academic press.Living resources for Biotechnology, Animal cells by A. Doyle, R. Hay andB.E. Kirsop (1990), cambridge University Press, cambridge.Animal Biotechnology by Murray Moo-Young (1989), Pergamon Press, OxfordFermentation & Enzyme Technology by D.I.C. wang et.al., Wiley Eastern 1979.Principle of Microbe & Cell Cultivation (1975), SJ Prit, Blackwell Scientific co.Animal cell culture Techniques by Ian Freshney 52
    • DOWNSTREAM BIOPROCESSING LABORATORYSub. Code : 06BTL-78 I.A Marks : 25Hours/week : 03 Exam Hrs. : 03 Exam Marks : 501. Cell disruption techniques.2. Solid-liquid separation methods: Filtration.3. Solid-liquid separation methods: Sedimentation.4. Solid-liquid separation methods: Centrifugation.5. Product enrichment operations: Precipitation – (NH4)2 SO4 fractionation of a protein.6. Product enrichment operations: Two – phase aqueous extraction.7. Product drying techniques.8. Separation of Amino acids / Carbohydrates by TLC.9. Characterization of protein by Western blotting10. Estimation of % of ethanol from fermented broth.11. Estimation of Citric acid from fermented broth.12. Separation of proteins by molecular sieving / SDS PAGE.13. Analysis of biomolecules by HPLC / GC (using standard spectra).TEXT/REFERENCE BOOKSProtein Purification by Scopes R.K., IRL Press,1993.Rate controlled separations by Wankat P.C., Elsevier, 1990Bioseparations by Belter P.A. and Cussier E., Wiley, 1985.Product Recovery in Bioprocess Technology - BIOTOL Series, VCH, 1990Separation processes in Biotechnology by Asenjo J. and Dekker M. 1993BIOSEPARATION S: SCIENCE & ENGINEERING BY ROGER G HARRISON, PAUL TODD, SCOTT RRUDGE, DEMETRI P PETRIDES, OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS, 2006 53
    • VIII SEMESTER PROJECT MANAGEMENT & IPRSub. Code : 06BT-81 I.A Marks : 25Hours/week : 04 Exam Hrs. : 03Total Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100 PART AUNIT 1. INTRODUCTIONDefinitions, network planning techniques, benefits and limitations of network planning, projectreporting, case studies. 02 HoursUNIT 2. PROJECT PLANNINGPlanning procedures, developing a network planning diagram, project evaluation and reviewtechniques. Developing the project schedule: scheduling procedure, timing estimates, manualtiming calculations, optional start and finish times, tabulating the schedule, setting up thecalendar schedule, constructing the bar chart time, schedule. Monitoring and controlling theproject: constructing the progress schedule constructing the summary bar chart, constructing theproject status report, status reporting using the milestone approach. Scheduling and ControllingProject Costs: Developing the Project Cost Schedule Monitoring Project Costs. Cost Minimizing:Time/Cost Trade-Offs, Planning Personnel/Labor Requirements, Need for PlanningPersonnel/Labor, Planning Personnel Requirements, Early Start Scheduling. 12 HoursUNIT 3. ROLE OF THE COMPUTERSoftware Packages, features of a Project Management Package,Background Planning the Project Scheduling the Project, Monitoring the Project Schedule,Controlling Project Costs, Planning for Labor and Personnel, Using the Computer for Planningand Scheduling. 06 HoursUNIT 4. MANAGEMENT SYSTEMBackground developing a plan of action, conducting the audit, preparing the feasibilityreport, obtaining management approval, planning and scheduling projectimplementation, procuring, installing, and trying out the equipments, designing andconstructing the site 06 Hours PART BUNIT 5. IPRIntroduction to IPR, Concept of Property, Mar’x theory on Property, Constitutional aspects ofIntellectual property. Basic principles of Patent laws: Historical background in UK, US andIndia. Basis for IP protection. Criteria for patentability: Novelty, Utility, and Inventive step, Nonobviousness, Non patentable invention. 06 HoursUNIT 6. CONVENTIONS & AGREEMENTSParis convention (1883), Berne convention for protection of literary and artistic works (1886),Patent Corporation Treaty (PCT), Madrid agreement (1891) and protocols of relative agreement1989). Rome convention (1961) on the protection of performances, producers of phonogramsand Broadcasting organization, TRIPS agreement (1994), WIPO performance and phonogramsTreaty (WPPT, 1996). 06 Hours 54
    • UNIT 7. PATENT LAWS & BTObjectives, Evolution of Biotechnology, Application of Biotechnology, Commercial potential ofBT invention, R & D investments, Rationale and applications. Concept of Novelty and Inventivestep in BT, Micro organisms and BT inventions, Moral issues in patenting BT invention.Substantiation of Patent laws & international agreements related to pharma, microbial,environmental, agricultural and informatics sectors via classical case studies. 06 HoursUNIT 8. TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGEIntroduction, Justification for plant variety protection, International position, UPOV, 1961, 1978,1991 guidelines, Plant variety protection in India. Justification for geographical indications,Multi-lateral treaties. Concept of Traditional knowledge, stake holders, issues concerningtraditional knowledge, Bioprospecting & Biopyracy – ways to tackle, Protectability of traditionalknowledge under existing IP framework, need for sui-generis regime, Traditional knowledge onthe International arena, Traditional knowledge at WTO and National level, Traditionalknowledge digital library. 08 HoursTEXT BOOKSThe Law & Strategy of Biotechnology Patents, Sibley Kenneth.Intellectual Property by Bently, Lionel : Oxford University Press, 2001.Cases and Materials on Intellectual Property by Cornish, W R, 3rd Ed., 1999.Project Management by Sahni, Ane Books, 2007.Project Management by Elsevier, 2007.REFERENCE BOOKSGopalakrishnan, N S, Intellectual Property and Criminal Law, Bangalore: National Law Schoolof India Univeristy, 1994Intellectual Property Law by Tina Gart and Linda Fazzani, London: McMillan Publishing Co.,1997Intellectual Property Rights in the WTO and developing contry by Watal Jayashree, OxfordUniversity Press, 2001.QUESTION PAPER PATTERNFor every 6-7 Hours of teaching One Question to be Set. Eight questions to be set (four fromeach part) out of which five full questions (considering at least two from each part) to beanswered. BIOETHICS & BIOSAFETYSub. Code : 06BT-82 I.A Marks : 25Hours/week : 04 Exam Hrs. : 03Total Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100 PART AUNIT 1. BIOTECHNOLOGY AND SOCIETYIntroduction to science, technology and society, biotechnology and social responsibility, publicacceptance issues in biotechnology, issues of access, ownership, monopoly, traditionalknowledge, biodiversity, benefit sharing, environmental sustainability, public vs. private funding,biotechnology in international relations, globalization and development divide. Publicacceptance issues for biotechnology: Case studies/experiences from developing and developed 55
    • countries. Biotechnology and hunger: Challenges for the Indian Biotechnological research andindustries. 08 HoursUNIT 2. LEGAL ISSUESThe legal and socioeconomic impacts of biotechnology, Public education of the processes ofbiotechnology involved in generating new forms of life for informed decision making – withcase studies. 04 HoursUNIT 3. BIOETHICSLegality, morality and ethics, the principles of bioethics: autonomy, human rights, beneficence,privacy, justice, equity etc. The expanding scope of ethics from biomedical practice tobiotechnology, ethical conflicts in biotechnology - interference with nature, fear of unknown,unequal distribution of risks and benefits of biotechnology, bioethics vs. business ethics, ethicaldimensions of IPR, technology transfer and other global biotech issues. 06 HoursUNIT 4. BIOSAFETY CONCEPTS AND ISSUESRational vs. subjective perceptions of risks and benefits, relationship between risk, hazard,exposure and safeguards, biotechnology and biosafety concerns at the level of individuals,institutions, society, region, country and the world. The Cartagena protocol onbiosafety. Biosafety management: Key to the environmentally responsible use ofbiotechnology. Ethical implications of biotechnological products and techniques. Social andethical implications of biological weapons. 08 Hours PART BUNIT 5. BIOSAFETY IN THE LABORATORYLaboratory associated infections and other hazards, assessment of biological hazards and levelsof biosafety, prudent biosafety practices in the laboratory/ institution. 04 HoursUNIT 6. REGULATIONSBiosafety assessment procedures in India and abroad. International dimensions in biosafety:Catagena protocol on biosafety, bioterrorism and convention on biological weapons. Biosafetyregulations and national and international guidelines with regard to rDNA technology,transgenic science, GM crops, etc. Experimental protocol approvals, levels of containment.Guidelines for research in transgenic plants. Good manufacturing practice and Good labpractices (GMP and GLP). 08 HoursUNIT 7. FOOD SAFETYThe GM-food debate and biosafety assessment procedures for biotech foods & related products,including transgenic food crops, case studies of relevance. Environmental aspects of biotechapplications. Use of genetically modified organisms and their release in environment. 06 HoursUNIT 8. AGRI & PHARMA SECTORPlant breeder’s rights. Legal implications, Biodiversity and farmers rights. Recombinantorganisms and transgenic crops, case studies of relevance. Biosafety assessment ofpharmaceutical products such as drugs/vaccines etc. Biosafety issues in Clinical Trials.08 HoursTEXT BOOKSBiotechnology and Safety Assessment by Thomas, J.A., Fuch, R.L. (2002), Academic Press.Biological safety Principles and practices) by Fleming, D.A., Hunt, D.L., (2000). ASM Press.Biotechnology - A comprehensive treatise. Legal economic and ethical dimensions VCH.Bioethics by Ben Mepham, Oxford University Press, 2005. 56
    • Bioethics & Biosafety by R Rallapalli & Geetha Bali, APH Publication, 2007.REFERENCE BOOKSBIOETHICS & BIOSAFTEY by SATEESH MK (2008), IK Publishers.Sassaon A. Biotechnologies and development. UNESCO Publications, 1988.Sasson A. Biotechnologies in developing countries, UNESCO Publishers,1993.Intellectual Property Rights on Biotechnology by Singh K. BCIL, New Delhi.WTO and International Trade by M B Rao. Vikas Publishing House Pvt. Ltd.IPR in Agricultural Biotechnology by Erbisch F H and Maredia K M. Orient Longman Ltd.Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety, January 2000.Biological Warfare in the 21st century, by M.R. Dano, Brassies London, 1994.Safety Considerations for Biotechnology, Paris, OECD, 1992 and latest publications.Biosafety Management by P.L. Traynor, Virginia polytechnic Institute Publication, 2000.QUESTION PAPER PATTERNFor every 6-7 Hours of teaching One Question to be Set. Eight questions to be set (four fromeach part) out of which five full questions (considering at least two from each part) to beanswered. ELECTIVE D NANOBIOTECHNOLOGYSub. Code : 06BT-831 I.A Marks : 25Hours/week : 04 Exam Hrs. : 03Total Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100 PART AUNIT 1. INTRODUCTIONA Brief History of the Super Small, Definition of nanotechnology, Nanobiotechnology;Discussions on nanofabrication, Bottom-Up versus Top-Down; Nanolithography,Microelectronic fabrication, Structure-property relationships in materials, biomolecule-surfaceinteractions. Fabrication in Hard Materials: Silicon and glass materials for nano- andmicrofabrication, Fabrication in Soft Materials: Hydrogels/PDMS/other polymers and basematerials for nano- and microfabricated devices. Valuing Nanobiotechnology. 08 HoursUNIT 2. NANOMATERIALS AND THEIR CHARACTERIZATIONBuckyballs, Nanotubes, Fullerenes, Carriers, Dendrimers, Nanoparticles, Membranes / Matrices,Nanoshells, Quantum Dot, Nanocrystals, hybrid biological/inorganic devices, Scanningtunneling microscopy, Atomic force microscopy, DNA microarrays. 06 HoursUNIT 3. BIONANOMATERIALSFunction and application of DNA based nanostructures. In-vitro laboratory tests on theinteraction of nanoparticles with cells. Assessment of the toxic effects of nanoparticles based onin-vitro laboratory tests. Identification of pathogenic organisms by magnetic nanoparticle-basedtechniques. 06 HoursUNIT 4. NANODIAGNOSTICSDiagnostics and Sensors, Rapid Ex-Vivo Diagnostics, Nanosensors as Diagnostics,Nanotherapeutics. Nanofabricated devices to separate and interrogate DNA, Interrogation ofimmune and neuronal cell activities through micro- and nanotechnology based tools and devices. 06 Hours 57
    • PART BUNIT 5. DRUG DISCOVERY AND DRUG DELIVERYDrug Discovery Using Nanocrystals, Drug Discovery Using Resonance Light Scattering (RLS)Technology. Benefits of Nano-Imaging Agents, Nanosensors in Drug Discovery, Drug Deliveryusing Nanobiosensors, Drug Delivery Applications, Bioavailability, Suistained and targetedrelease, Nanorobots, Benefits of Nano-Drug Delivery. Drug Delivery, Health Risks, andChallenges, Targeting. Drug Delivery Revenues. Use of microneedles and nanoparticles for localhighly controlled drug delivery. 08HoursUNIT 6. MICROFLUIDICSLaminar flow, Hagen-Pouiselle eqn, basic fluid ideas, Special considerations of flow in smallchannels, mixing, microvalves & micropumps, Approaches toward combining living cells,microfluidics and ‘the body’ on a chip, Chemotaxis, cell motility. Case Studies in MicrofluidicDevices. 06 HoursUNIT 7. BioMEMS – INTRODUCTIONIntroduction and Overview, Biosignal Transduction Mechanisms: Electromagnetic TransducersMechanical Transducers, Chemical Transducers, Optical Transducers – Sensing and Actuatingmechanisms (for all types). 06 HoursUNIT 8. BioMEMS – APPLICATIONSCase Studies in Biomagnetic Sensors, , Applications of optical and chemical transducers.Ultimate Limits of Fabrication and Measurement, Recent Developments in BioMEMS. 06 HoursTEXT BOOKSBiological molecules in Nanotechnology by Stephen Lee and Lynn M SavageNanobiotechnology Protocols, Rosenthal, Sandra J and Wright, David W., Humana Press,2005.Nanotechnology, Richard Booker and Earl Boysen (Eds), Wiley dreamtech 2005 editionNanotechnology – Basic Science & Emerging Technologies, Chapman & Hall/CRC 2002Nanotechnology, Gregory Timp (Ed), Spring 1998REFERENCE BOOKSNANOTECHNOLOGY IN BIOLOGY & MEDICINE by TUAN VO-DINH, Taylor Francis.NANOTECHNOLOGY By M. KARKARE (2008), IK Intl. Publishers.Unbounding the future by K Eric DrexlerNanotechnology – A gentle Introduction to the Next Big Idea, Mark Ratner and DanielRatner, Pearson Education 2005Transducers and instrumentation, D.V.S. Murthy, Prentice Hall of Inida.Principles of Applied Biomedical Instrumentation Ed. 3.,Geddes (L.A.) & Baker (L.E)Biochip Technology, Jing chung & Larry J. Kricka harwood academic publishers, 2001.QUESTION PAPER PATTERNFor every 6-7 Hours of teaching One Question to be Set. Eight questions to be set (four fromeach part) out of which five full questions (considering at least two from each part) to beanswered. 58
    • LAB TO INDUSTRIAL SCALINGSub. Code : 06BT-832 I.A Marks : 25Hours/week : 04 Exam Hrs. : 03Total Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100 PART AUNIT 1. INTRODUCTIONFermentation as a Biochemical process, Microbial biomass, Enzymes, Metabolites recombinantproducts. 04 HoursUNIT 2. INDUSTRIALLY IMPORTANT MICROBESIsolation of industrially important microorganisms preservation of microbes, Strain developmentby various methods, Isolation of mutants and recombinants, application of continuous, batch andfed batch culture. 08 HoursUNIT 3. RAW MATERIALS AND STERILIZATIONSelection of typical raw materials, Different media for fermentation, Optimization of media,Different sterilization methods – batch sterilization, continuous sterilization, filter sterilization,Oxygen requirement. 08 HoursUNIT 4. PREPARATION OF INOCULUMInoculum preparation from laboratory scale to pilot scale and large scale fermentation,maintenance of aseptic condition. 06 Hours PART BUNIT 5. DESIGN OF FERMENTERSBasic structure of fermenter body construction. Description of different parts of fermenteraseptic conditions. Different types of fermenters. 05 HoursUNIT 6. PROCESS CONTROLInstruments involved in the fermentation, control of pressure, temperature, flow rate, agitation,stirring, foaming. Online analysis for measurement of physico chemical and biochemicalparameters. Method of online and off line bio mass estimation. Flow injection analysis formeasurement of substrates products and other metabolites, computer based data acquisition. 08 HoursUNIT 7. AREATION AND AGITATIONSupply of oxygen, fluid rheology, factors affecting aeration and agitation. Scale up and scaledown of aeration and agitation. 05 HoursUNIT 8. INDUSTRIAL OPERATIONSRecovery and purification of products, Use of filtration and centrifugation, cell disruption,chemical methods, extraction, chromatographs methods, drying and crystallization, membraneprocess. Effluent treatment: Disposal methods, treatment process, aerobic and anaerobictreatment, byproducts. Economic aspects: Fermentation as a unit process, economy offermentation, market potential. Legalization of products like antibiotics and recombinants. 08 HoursTEXT BOOKSP.F. Stanbury, A Whitkar and S.J. Hall (1997) “Principles of Fermentation Technology” (AdityaBook, New Delhi)Banks. G.T. (1996) “Enzymes and fermentation”REFERENCE BOOKSBailey and Ollis “Biochemical Engineering” MaCgrew. Hill Publishers. 59
    • Shuler and Kargi “Bioprocess Engineering” Prentice Hall.Perlman. D (Ed) “Fermentation advances” Academic press New YorkReed. G (Ed) “Industrial Microbiology” McMillan LondonQUESTION PAPER PATTERNFor every 6-7 Hours of teaching One Question to be Set. Eight questions to be set (four fromeach part) out of which five full questions (considering at least two from each part) to beanswered. PROTEIN ENGINEERING AND INSILICO DRUG DESIGNSub. Code : 06BT-833 I.A Marks : 25Hours/week : 04 Exam Hrs. : 03Total Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100 PART AUNIT 1. STRUCTURE OF PROTEINSOverview of protein structure, PDB, structure based classification, databases, visualization tools,structure alignment, domain architecture databases, protein-ligand interactions. 04 HoursUNIT 2. PROTEIN STRUCTURE PREDICTIONPrimary structure and its determination, secondary structure prediction and determination ofmotifs, profiles, patterns, fingerprints, super secondary structures, protein folding pathways,tertiary structure, quaternary structure, methods to determine tertiary and quaternary structure,post translational modification. 06 HoursUNIT 3. PROTEIN ENGINEERING AND DESIGNMethods of protein isolation, purification and quantification; large scale synthesis of engineeredproteins, design and synthesis of peptides; methods of detection and analysis of proteins. Proteindatabase analysis, methods to alter primary structure of proteins, examples of engineeredproteins, protein design, principles and examples. 06 HoursUNIT 4. MOLECULAR MODELINGConstructing an Initial Model, Refining the Model, Manipulating the Model, Visualization.Structure Generation or Retrieval, Structure Visualization, Conformation Generation, DerivingBioactive Conformations, Molecule Superposition and Alignment, Deriving the PharmacophoricPattern, Receptor Mapping, Estimating Biological Activities, Molecular Interactions: Docking,Calculation of Molecular Properties, Energy Calculations (no derivation), Examples of SmallMolecular Modeling Work, Nicotinic Ligands, Sigma Ligands, Antimalarial Agents. 10 Hours PART BUNIT 5. INSILICO DRUG DESIGNGeneration of Rational Approaches in Drug Design, Molecular Modeling: The SecondGeneration, Conceptual Frame and Methodology of Molecular Modeling, The Field CurrentlyCovered, Importance of the "Bioactive Conformation", Molecular Mimicry and StructuralSimilarities, Molecular Mimicry, Structural Similarities and Superimposition Techniques,Rational Drug Design and Chemical Intuition, An Important Key and the Role of the MolecularModel, Limitations of Chemical Intuition Major Milestones and Future Perspectives. 06 HoursUNIT 6. COMPUTER ASSISTED NEW LEAD DESIGNIntroduction, Basic Concepts, Molecular Recognition by Receptor and Ligand Design, ActiveConformation, Approaches to Discover New Functions, Approaches to the Cases with knownand unknown receptor structure. 04 Hours 60
    • UNIT 7. DOCKING METHODSProgram GREEN Grid: Three - Dimensional Description of Binding Site Environment andEnergy Calculation, Automatic Docking Method, Three-Dimensional Database SearchApproaches, Automated Structure Construction Methods, Structure Construction Methods withknown Three-Dimensional Structure of the Receptor, Structure Construction in the case ofUnknown Receptor Structure. Scope and Limitations, Points for Consideration in Structure,Construction Methods, Handling of X-Ray Structures of Proteins, Future Perspectives, Types ofprograms available for molecular modeling- scope and limitations- interpretation of results. 08 HoursUNIT 8. COMPUTER - ASSISTED DRUG DISCOVERYThe Drug Development Process, Introduction, The Discovery and Development Process, NewLead Discovery Strategies, Composition of Drug Discovery Teams, The Practice of Computer-Assisted Drug Discovery (CADD), Current Practice of CADD in the pharmaceutical Industry,Management Structures of CADD Groups, Contributions and Achievements of CADD Groups,Limitations of CADD Support, Inherent Limitations of CADD Support, State of CurrentComputational Models, Software and Hardware Constraints. 08 HoursTEXT/REFERENCE BOOKSProtein Engineering in Industrial Biotechnology by Lilia Alberghina (2003).Moody P.C.E. and A.J. Wilkinson Protein Engineering, IRL Press, Oxford, 1990.Creighton T.E. Proteins, Freeman W.H. Second Edn, 1993.PROTEIN STRUCTURE 2 e/d by CREIGHTON (2004), Oxford.Branden C. and Tooze R. Introduction of protein structure, Garland,1993.The molecular modeling perspective in drug design by N Claude Cohen, 1996, Academic Press.Bioinformatics Methods & Applications: Genomics, Proteomics & Drug Discovery, S C Rastogi,N Mendiratta & P Rastogi, PHI, 2006 BIOMEDICAL INSTRUMENTATIONSub. Code : 06BT-834 I.A Marks : 25Hours/week : 04 Exam Hrs. : 03Total Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100UNIT 1. INTRODUCTIONSources of Biomedical signals, Basic medical instrumentation system, Performance requirementsof medical instrumentation systems, PC based medical instruments, General constraints in designof medical instrumentation systems. 04 HoursUNIT 2. BIOELECTRIC SIGNALS AND ELECTRODEOrigin of bioelectric signals, Recording electrodes, - Electrode-tissue interface, metal electrolyteinterface, electrolyte - skin interface, Polarization, Skin contact impedance, Silver – silverchloride electrodes, Electrodes for ECG, EEG, EMG, Electrical conductivity of electrode jelliesand creams, Microelectrode. Patient Safety: Electrode shock hazards, Leakage currents. 08 HoursUNIT 3. ECG & EEGElectrical activity of heart, Genesis & characteristics of Electrocardiogram (ECG), Blockdiagram description of an Electrocardiograph, ECG Lead Systems, Multichannel ECG machine 61
    • Genesis of Electroencephalogram (EEG), Block diagram description of anElectroencephalograph, 10-20 Electrode system, Computerized analysis of EEG. 08 HoursUNIT 4. CARDIAC PACEMAKERS AND DEFIBRILLATORSNeed for Cardiac pacemaker, External pacemaker, Implantable pacemaker, Programmablepacemakers, DC defibrillator, AC defibrillator and Implantable Defibrillator. 06 Hours PART BUNIT 5. PATIENT MONITORING SYSTEMBedside monitors, Central Monitoring System, Measurement of Heart rate - Average heart ratemeter, Instantaneous heart rate meter, (Cardio tachometer), Measurement of Pulse Rate, Bloodpressure measurement - direct and indirect method, Rheographic method, Oscillometric method,Ultrasonic Doppler shift method, Measurements of Respiration rate - Thermistor method,impedance puenmography, CO2 method, and Apnea detector. Blood flow meters:Electromagnetic and its types, Ultrasonic, NMR, Laser Doppler. Blood gas analyzers: Blood pHmeasurement, Measurement of Blood pCO2, pO2. 10 HoursUNIT 6. PHYSIOLOGICAL TRANSDUCERSIntroduction, classification, performance characteristics of transducers-static and dynamictransducers, Displacement, position and motion transducers, Pressure transducer, Transducers forbody temperature measurement, Optical Fiber sensor and Biosensor 04 HoursUNIT 7. RECORDING SYSTEMSBasic recoding system, general considerations for signal conditioners, preamplifiers-instrumentation amplifier, isolation amplifier, ink jet recorder, potentiometric recorder, thermalarray recorder and electrostatic recorder. 04 HoursUNIT 8. ANALYSISa) Cardiac output measurement: Indicator dilution method, Dye dilution method, Thermaldilution techniques, Measurement of Continuous cardiac output derived from the aortic pressurewaveform, Impedance technique. 04 Hoursb) Pulmonary function analysis: Pulmonary function measurement, Spirometry,Puemotachometer, Measurement of Volume, Nitrogen washout technique. 04 HoursTEXTBOOKSHand book of Biomedical Instrumentation – R. S. Khandpur, 2nd Edition, Tata McGraw-HillPublishing Company Limited, 2003.Biomedical Information Technology by David Feng, 2008.REFERENCE BOOKSIntroduction to Biomedical Engineering by J Enderle, S Blanchard & J Bronzino, Elsevier, 2005.Encyclopedia of Medical devices and Instrumentation – J G Webster – John Wiley 1999Principals of applied Biomedical instrumentation – John Wiley and sonsIntroduction to Biomedical equipment technology – Joseph J Carr, John M Brown Prentice hall4th Edition.QUESTION PAPER PATTERNFor every 6-7 Hours of teaching One Question to be Set. Eight questions to be set (four fromeach part) out of which five full questions (considering at least two from each part) to beanswered. 62
    • BIOMOLECULAR ENGINEERINGSub. Code : 06BT-835 I.A Marks : 25Hours/week : 04 Exam Hrs. : 03Total Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100 PART AUNIT 1: THERMODYNAMICSVolumetric and thermodynamic properties of fluids; equations of state; heat effects; ideal andnon-ideal mixtures; fugacities and activity coefficients; vapour-liquid and liquid-liquid phaseequilibrium; solubility of gases and solids in liquids; chemical reaction equilibrium. 06 HoursUNIT 2: BIOMOLECULAR INTERACTIONSThermodynamics of biomolecular interactions, noncovalent forces underlying bioenergetics:hydrogen bonding, van der Waals, hydrophobic effect, water in context of molecular recognitionbiomolecular stability. Case studies: Stability and energetics of Antibody-Antigen; Streptavidin-Biotin. 06 HoursUNIT 3: ENZYME KINETICSEnzymes as Biological Catalysts, Enzyme Activation, Unireactant Enzymes, Multi-site andAllosteric Enzymes, Simple Inhibition, Multiple Inhibition Models, Multi-Reactant Systems, pHand Temperature Effects. Reaction kinetics and enzyme energetics for the case of CatalyticAntibodies. 06 HoursUNIT 4: BIOENERGETICSEnergetics of Biological Systems, Molecular Recognition. Concepts of Free Energy, Enthalpyand Entropy in the living cell, Biochemical Reactions, Metabolic Cycles, ATP Synthesis(Respiration and Photosynthesis), Membrane Ion Gradients (ATP and Ion Gradients), ProteinFolding, Protein-Nucleic Acid interactions. Rheology of DNA. Protein misfolding and disease. 08 Hours PART BUNIT 5: BIODESIGNRational Biotherapeutic Design: molecular modeling, computational approaches to predictingenergetics, Case study: PeptidoMimetic therapeutics. Directed Evolution for BiotherapeuticDesign: random mutagenesis approaches and techniques, phage display and selection techniques,combinatorial approaches and techniques. Case study: Antibody Engineering, enzymeengineering, phage display. 08 HoursUNIT 6: CELULAR WARFAREReceptor-mediated recognition in immune system surveillance, macrophage-B-Cell collaboration,T-Cell and natural killer cell function, vaccines. Case studies: Engineered T-Cell Therapeutics,Vaccines. 05 HoursUNIT 7 BIOREACTION NETWORKSControl of Metabolic Pathways, Metabolic Engineering (Metabolic Flux Analysis, MetabolicControl Analyisis), Metabolic Simulations, Systems Biology approaches. 05 HoursUNIT 8: APPLICATIONSBiodegradable materials, Polymeric scaffolds for tissue engineering applications. Biopolymers:heparin and heparin-like polysaccharides, proteoglycans, chemically modifiedglycosaminoglycans. Design and production of biomaterials as biosensors. Nanoscale biosensors. 08 HoursTEXT/REFERENCE BOOKSMolecular Cell Biology by H. Lodisch et al W.H.Freeman and Co., 2004. 63
    • Enzyme Kinetics, by I.H.Segal Wiley Interscience, 1993.Comphrehensive Enzyme Kinetics by V. Leskovac Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, 2003.Thermodynamics and Kinetics For the Biological Sciences By G.G. Hammes, WileyInterscience, 2000. ELECTIVE E ENVIRONMENTAL BTSub. Code : 06BT-841 I.A Marks : 25Hours/week : 04 Exam Hrs. : 03Total Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100 PART AUNIT 1. MICROORGANISMSOverview of microorganisms, Microbial flora of soil, growth, ecological adaptations, interactionsamong soil microorganisms, biogeochemical role of soil microorganisms. 02 HoursUNIT 2. BIOACCUMULATION OF TOXICANTSCharacteristics of Xenobiotics, Relationship of Bioaccumulation with Chemical Structure,Ecophysiology of Bioaccumulation, Process of toxicants uptake, Factors affectingbioaccumulation, measurement of bioaccumulation. 04 HoursUNIT 3. BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF WASTE WATERWaste water characteristics, Waste water treatment, unit operations, design and modeling ofactivated - sludge process, Microbial Process for wastewater treatment, BOD, COD, Secondarytreatment, Microbial removal of phosphorous and Nitrogen, Nutrient removal by Biomassproduction. Industrial waste treatment opportunities for reverse osmosis and ultra filtrationl.Wastewater treatment of food processing industries like sugar factories, vegetable oil industries,potato processing industries, dairy industries, beverages industries, dairy industry and distilleries. 10 HoursUNIT 4. SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENTBasic aspects, general composition of urban solid wastes, aerobic treatment, anerobic treatment,biogass generation; Solid waste management through Biotechnological processes involvingHazardous wastes, Biomedical wastes, Dairy wastes, Pulp industry wastes, Textile industrywastes, leather industry wastes and pharmaceutical industry wastes, petroleum wastes treatment. 10 Hours PART BUNIT 5. BIOFUELSRenewable and non-renewable resources. Conventional fuels and their environmental impacts.Animal oils. Modern fuels and their environmental impacts. Biotechnological inputs inproducing good quality natural fibres. Plant sources like Jetropha, Pongamia etc. Waste as anenergy core, energy recovery systems for urban waste, technology evaluation, concept ofgasification of wastes with molten salt to produce low-BTU gas; pipeline gas from solid wastesby syngas recycling process; conversion of feedlot wastes into pipeline gas; fuels and chemicalsfrom crops, production of oil from wood waste, fuels from wood waste, methanol productionfrom organic wastes. 10 HoursUNIT 6. BIOLEACHING & BIOMININGMicrobes in Bioleaching, Metal Recovery, Microbial recovery of phosphate, microbial extractionof petroleum, microbial production of fuels. 04 Hours 64
    • UNIT 7. BIOFERTILIZERSBiofertilizers Nitrogen fixing microorganisms enrich the soil with assimilable nitrogen. Majorcontaminants of air, water and soil, Biomonitors of environment (Bioindicators), Bioremediationusing microbes, Phytoremediation, Treatment of distillery effluents, Biofilms. 06 HoursUNIT 8. BIOTECHNOLOGY IN BIOIVERSITY CONSERVATIONValue of biodiversity, threats to biodiversity, Biosphere reserves and Ecosystem Conservation,Approaches to Bioresource conservation programme, Biotechnological processes for bioresourceassessment, BT in ex situ conservation of Biodiversity, BT and its role in utilization ofBiodiversity, International initiatives for biodiversity management. 06 HoursTEXT BOOKSEnvironmental Biotechnology by Foster C.F., John ware D.A., Ellis Horwood Limited,1987.ENVIRONMENTAL BIOTECHNOLOGY by INDU SHEKHAR THAKUR (2006), IKPublishers.Industrial Microbiology : L.E. Casida, Willey Eastern Ltd., 1989.Industrial Microbiology : Prescott & Dunn, CBS Publishers, 1987.REFERENCE BOOKSFuels from Waste by Larry Anderson and David A Tillman. Academic Press, 1977.Bioprocess Technology- fundamentals and applications, S O Enfors & L Hagstrom (1992),RIT, Stockholm.Comprehensive Biotechnology Vol. 1- 4 : M.Y. Young (Eds.), Pergamon Press.Biotechnology, Economic & Social Aspects : E.J. Dasilva, C Ratledge & A Sasson,Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge.Environmental Biotechnology by Pradipta Kumar Mahopatra.QUESTION PAPER PATTERNFor every 6-7 Hours of teaching One Question to be Set. Eight questions to be set (four fromeach part) out of which five full questions (considering at least two from each part) to beanswered. METABOLIC ENGINEERINGSub. Code : 06BT-842 I.A Marks : 25Hours/week : 04 Exam Hrs. : 03Total Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100 PART AUNIT 1. INTRODUCTIONBasic concept of metabolic engineering overview of metabolism. Different models for cellularreactions, Mutation, mutagens mutation in metabolic studies. 04 HoursUNIT 2. METABOLIC REGULATIONAn overview of Cellular Metabolism, Transport Processes, Passive Transport, FacilitatedDiffusion, Active Transport, Fueling Reactions, Glycolysis, Fermentative Pathways, TCA Cycleand Oxidative Phosphorylation, Anaplerotic Pathways, Catabolism of Fats, Organic Acids, andAmino Acids, Biosynthetic Reaction, Biosynthesis of Amino Acids, Biosynthesis of NucleicAcids, Fatty Acids, and Other Building Blocks, Polymerization, Growth Energetics. 10 HoursUNIT 3. UNIT 3. METABOLIC FLUXMetabolic flux analysis and its application, Methods for experimental determination ofmetabolic flux by isotope dilution method. 04 Hours 65
    • UNIT 4. APPLICATIONS OF METABOLIC FLUX ANALYSISAmino Acid Production by Glutamic Acid Bacteria, Biochemistry and Regulation of GlutamicAcid Bacteria, Calculation of Theoretical Yields, Metabolic Flux Analysis of LysineBiosynthetic Network in C. glutamicum, Metabolic Flux Analysis of Specific Deletion Mutantsof C. glutamicum, Metabolic Fluxes in Mammalian Cell Cultures, Determination of IntracellularFluxes, Validation of Flux Estimates by 13 C Labeling Studies, Application of Flux Analysis tothe Design of Cell Culture Media. 08 Hours PART BUNIT 5. REGULATION OF METABOLIC PATHWAYSRegulation of Enzymatic Activity, Overview of Enzyme Kinetics, Simple Reversible InhibitionSystems, Irreversible Inhibition, Allosteric Enzymes: Cooperativity, Regulation of EnzymeConcentration, Control of Transcription Initiation, Control of Translation, Global Control:Regulation at the Whole Cell Level, Regulation of Metabolic Networks, Branch PointClassification, Coupled Reactions and the Role of Global Currency Metabolites. 06 HoursUNIT 6. METABOLIC ENGINEERING IN PRACTICEEnhancement of Product Yield and Productivity, Ethanol, Amino Acids, Solvents, Extension ofSubstrate Range, Metabolic Engineering of Pentose Metabolism for Ethanol Production,Cellulose-Hemicellulose Depolymerization, Lactose and Whey Utilization, Sucrose Utilization,Starch Degrading Microorganisms, Extension of Product Spectrum and Novel Products,Antibiotics, Polyketides, Vitamins, Biopolymers, Biological Pigments, Hydrogen, Pentoses:Xylitol, Improvement of Cellular Properties, Alteration of Nitrogen Metabolism, EnhancedOxygen Utilization, Prevention of Overflow Metabolism, Alteration of Substrate Uptake,Maintenance of Genetic Stability, Xenobiotic Degradation, Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs),Benzene, Toluene, P-Xylene Mixtures (BTX). 10 HoursUNIT 7. BIOSYNTHESIS OF METABOLITESPrimary metabolites: Alteration of feed back regulation, limiting of accumulation of endproducts, resistant mutants. Secondary metabolites: Precursor effects, prophage, idiophaserelationship, enzyme induction, feedback repression, catabolic repression, Important groups ofsecondary metabolic enzymes, phosphotransferase, ligases oxido reductases, oxygenases,carboxylases. 06 HoursUNIT 8. BIOCONVERSIONSAdvantages of bioconverstions, specificity, yields. Factors important to bioconversionsregulation of enzyme synthesis, permeability co metabolism, convertion of insoluble substrates. 04 HoursTEXT BOOKSMetabolic Engineering – Principles and Methodologies by Gregory N. Stephanopoulos, AristosA. Aristidou, Jens NielsenP.F. Stanbury and A. Whitkar. Principle of Fermentation Technology, Pergammon pressJohnson and Thrins – Scaleup Methods in Chemical EngineeringREFERENCE BOOKSM.L. Shuler and Kargi “Bioprocess Engineering basic concepts”A.C. Bowden and M.L. Cardens “control of metabolic process” Plenum Publisher.Wang D I C Cooney C I Demain, A L “Fermentation and enzyme Technology” John WilleyT. Roberts “Metabolism of Agrochemicals in Plants” Willey Int. 66
    • QUESTION PAPER PATTERNFor every 6-7 Hours of teaching One Question to be Set. Eight questions to be set (four fromeach part) out of which five full questions (considering at least two from each part) to beanswered. MEDICAL INFORMATICSSub. Code : 06BT-843 I.A Marks : 25Hours/week : 04 Exam Hrs. : 03Total Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100 PART AUNIT 1. INTRODUCTIONAim and scope, historical perspectives, concepts and activities in medical informatics, definitionof medical informatics, online learning, introduction to the application of informationtechnology to integrated hospital information systems and patient-specific information; nursing,radiology, pathology, and pharmacy services, Future trends, research in medical informatics,training and opportunities in medical informatics. 07 HoursUNIT 2. HOSPITAL MANAGEMENT AND INFORMATION SYSTEMSHospital Management and Information Systems (HMIS), its need, benefits, capabilities,development, functional areas. Modules forming HMIS, HMIS and Internet, Pre-requisites forHMIS, why HMIS fails, health information system, disaster management plans, advantages ofHMIS. Study of picture archival & communication systems (PACS), PACS Administrator,PACS Technology overview, PACS Administration: The Business Perspective. 06 HoursUNIT 3. PATIENT DATA MODULESStructuring medical records to carry out functions like admissions, discharges, treatment historyetc. Central Registration Module, OPD / Consultant Clinic / Polyclinic Module, Indoor WardModule, Patient Care Module, Procedure Module, Diet Planning Module, MLC RegisterModule. Medical Examination, Account Billing, 07 HoursUNIT 4. ELECTRONIC HEALTH RECORDSPathology Laboratory Module, Blood Bank Module, Operation Theatre Module, Medical StoresModule, Pharmacy Module, Inventory Module, Radiology Module, Medical Records IndexModule, Administration Module, Personal Registration Module, Employee Information Module,Financial modules, Health & Family Welfare, Medical Research, Communication, GeneralInformation. 06 Hours PART BUNIT 5. KNOWLEDGE BASED EXPERT SYSTEMSAI, expert systems, materials and methods, applications of ES, Introduction to computer basedpatient record, development tools, intranet, CPR in radiology, legal security and private issues,application service providers. Critical medical issues: security, confidentiality, privacy, accuracyand access. 06 HoursUNIT 6. COMPUTER ASSISTED MEDICAL EDUCATIONComputer Assisted Medical Education & Surgery (CAME), Education software, Tele-education,Tele-mentoring, CAPE, patient counselling software. Limitation of conventional surgery,computer assisted surgery (CAS), 3D navigation system, intra-operative imaging for 3Dnavigation system, merits and demerits of CAS. Computer support collaborative learning,Future of Computer Aidede Learning (CAL). 07 Hours 67
    • UNIT 7. SURGICAL SIMULATION AND VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTNeed, technology, volume image data file, human resources, interface and applications. Virtualenvironment (VE), technology, applications of VE, advantages of simulators and after effects ofVE participation. Millirobotics for remote surgery, Telesurgery, and endoscopy 05 HoursUNIT 8. TELEMEDICINEHistory and advances in telemedicine, Benefits of telemedicine, Communication infrastructurefor telemedicine - LAN and WAN technology. Satellite communication. Mobile hand helddevices, Internet technology and telemedicine using world wide web (www). Video and audioconferencing. Medical information storage and management for telemedicine- patientinformation medical history, test reports, medical images diagnosis and treatment. Hospitalinformation-Doctors, paramedics, facilities available. Pharmaceutical information, Security andconfidentially of medical records and access control, Cyber laws related to telemedicine,Telemedicine access to health care services, health education and self care. 08 HoursTEXT BOOKSMedical Informatics, a Primer by, Mohan Bansal, TMH publicationsMedical Informatics: Computer applications in health care and biomedicine by E.H.Shortliffe, G.Wiederhold, L.E.Perreault and L.M.Fagan, Springer Verlag, 2000Handbook of Medical Informatics by J.H.Van Bemmel, Stanford University Press.Biomedical Information Technology by David D Feng, Elseview, 2007.Biomedical Information Technology by David Feng, 2008.QUESTION PAPER PATTERNFor every 6-7 Hours of teaching One Question to be Set. Eight questions to be set (four fromeach part) out of which five full questions (considering at least two from each part) to beanswered. TISSUE ENGINEERINGSub. Code : 06BT-844 I.A Marks : 25Hours/week : 04 Exam Hrs. : 03Total Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100 PART AUNIT 1: CELL AND TISSUE BIOLOGYIntroduction to cell – biology and biochemistry. Tissue development and organization. Stem cells(embryonic), Stem cells (adult). Introduction to cell adhesion, Adhesion Receptors in TissueStructures, Cell Adhesion to Biomaterials, Measurement of Cell Adhesion, Effect of Biomaterialon Physiological Behavior. Introduction to cell migration, Characteristics of Mammalian CellMigration, Regulation of Cell Movement, Cell Migration Assays, Mathematical Models for CellMigration and Tissue Growth. 08 HoursUNIT 2. EXTRACELLULAR MATRIXIntroduction, ECM and Functional Integration of Implanted Materials, Basement Membranes andFocal Adhesions, Focal Adhesions as Signaling Complexes, ECM and Skeletal Tissues, Sourcesof ECM for Tissue Engineering Applications, Properties of ECM , Mining the ECM forFunctional Motifs, Summary of Functions of ECM Molecules, Polymeric Materials and theirSurface Modification, Formation of Gradient Structures, Delivery of Growth Factors. 08 Hours 68
    • UNIT 3. BIOMATERIALSIntroduction to synthetic polymers, Biodegradable materials vs permanent materials, Naturalbiopolymers and hydrogels, Mechanical properties of biomaterials, Surface modification andcharacterization of polymers, Immune response to biomaterials, In vitroassessment/biocompatibility/protein adsorption. Polymeric scaffolds for tissue engineeringapplications. 06 HoursUNIT 4. DRUG AND GROWTH FACTOR DELIVERYDrug delivery, Mechanisms of Drug Delivery, Protein-Drug Properties, Drug Delivery in TissueEngineering, Introduction to growth factors, Polymer scaffold delivery systems, Polymerhydrogel delivery systems, Polymer microsphere technology. 04 Hours PART BUNIT 5. TISSUE ENGINEERING BIOREACTORSIntroduction, Most common Bioreactors in Tissue Engineering, Cell Seeding in Bioreactors,Bioreactor Applications in Functional Tissues, Design Considerations, Challenges in BioreactorTechnologies. 08 HoursUNIT 6. SCAFFOLD DESIGN AND FABRICATIONTissue Biomechanics, Scaffold design and fabrication, Natural Polymers for ScaffoldFabrication, Synthetic Polymers for Scaffold Fabrication, Scaffold Design Properties. 06 HoursUNIT 7. CLINICAL IMPLEMENTATIONTissue Engineering of Skin, Bone Tissue Engineering, Cartilage Tissue Engineering, NeuronalTissue Engineering, Cardiovascular Tissue Engineering, Musculoskeletal Tissue Engineering(tendon/ligament/muscle), Adipose Tissue Engineering. 06 HoursUNIT 8. THE REGULATION OF ENGINEERED TISSUESIntroduction, FDA Regulation, Regulation of Pharmaceutical / Medical Human Tissue Productsin Europe, Regulation of Pharmaceutical / Medical Human Tissue Products in Japan, Otherconsiderations Relevant to Engineered Tissues. 06 HoursTEXT / REFERENCE BOOKSTissue Engineering by John P. Fisher, A G Mikos & Joseph D. Bronzino, CRC Press, 2007.Methods of Tissue Engineering by Anthony Atala & P Lanza, Academic Press Elsevier 2006.Biocatalytic Membrane Reactor by Drioli, Taylor & Francis, 2005QUESTION PAPER PATTERNFor every 6-7 Hours of teaching One Question to be Set. Eight questions to be set (four fromeach part) out of which five full questions (considering at least two from each part) to beanswered. 69
    • FACILITATION, VALIDATION & QCSub. Code : 06BT-845 I.A Marks : 25Hours/week : 04 Exam Hrs. : 03Total Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100 PART AUNIT 1. INTRODUCTIONValidation and Regulatory Affairs in Bio (Pharmaceutical) Manufacturing: An Introduction toFDA Operations & Industry Compliance Regulations, The Fundamentals of RegulatoryCompliance with respect to Good Clinical Practice (GCP), Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP)& Good Laboratory Practice (GLP). An Introduction to the Basic Concepts of Process Validation& how it Differs from Qualification (IQ, OQ & PQ) Procedures, A Review of Prospective,Concurrent, Retrospective Validation & Revalidation including the use of Statistical ProcessControl (SPC) Techniques 08 HoursUNIT 2. PLANNINGISO 9000 Series & International Harmonization & their effect upon GMPs, planning &Managing a Validation Program including Change Control, Scale-Up and Post-ApprovalChanges (SUPAC), PAI & Technology Transfer Issues. 04 HoursUNIT 3. VALIDATIONValidation of Water & Thermal Systems, including HVAC Facilities & Cleaning Validation.Validation of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs) & Aseptic Processes. Validation of Non-Sterile Processes (used in the manufacture of Solids, Liquids, & Semisolid Dosage Forms).Overview of method evolution, FDA and ICH guidelines, Development and validation, Basicstatistical concepts, Outliers, Specificity: sample preparation, Specificity: separations,Specificity: detectors, Linearity, Accuracy, Precision, Limits of detection (LOD) andquantification (LOQ), Minimum detectable amount (MDA), Sample stability and methodrobustness, Window diagrams, System suitability, Statistical process control for HPLC,Sustainable validation, Troubleshooting out-of-control systems, Case studies. 08 HoursUNIT 4. GAMPMedical Device, In-Vitro Diagnostics & Packaging Validation Issues, Validation of AnalyticalMethods, Computerized & Automated Systems under 21 CFR Part 11 & the Influence of GoodAutomated Manufacturing Practice (GAMP); The FDAs Approach to GMP Inspections ofPharmaceutical Companies. 06 Hours PART BUNIT 5. STANDARDSIntroduction, ISO 9000 Series of Standards, Management Responsibility, Quality System,Contract Review, Design Control, Document and Data Control, Preservation and Delivery,Control of Quality Records, Internal Quality Audits, Training, Servicing, Statistical Techniques,ISO-9001-2000, Scope, Normative Reference, Terms and Definitions, Quality Management,System, Documents Requirements, Managements Responsibility, Resource Management,Infrastructure, Product Realization, Measurement, Analysis and Improvement, ISO-14001 -Environmental Management Systems. 05 HoursUNIT 5. IMPLEMENATIONQuality System, Contract Review, Design Control, Document and Data Control, Purchasing,Control of Customer Supplied Product, Product Identification and Traceability, Process Control,Inspection and Testing, Final Inspection and Testing, Control of Inspection, Measuring and TestEquipment, Inspection and Test Status, Control of Nonconforming Product, Corrective and 70
    • Preventive Action, Handling, Storage, Packaging, Preservation and Delivery, Control of QualityRecords, Internal Quality Audits, Training, Servicing, Statistical Techniques. 05 HoursUNIT 7. QUALITYTerminology Relating to Quality, Quality Requirement, Customer Satisfaction, Capability;Terms Relating to Management, Management System, Quality Management System, QualityPolicy, Quality Objectives, Quality Planning, Quality Control, Quality Assurance, QualityImprovement, Continual Improvement, Effectiveness, Efficiency; Relating to Process andProduct, Process, Product, Procedure; Terms relating to Characteristics, Quality Characteristics;Terms Relating to Conformity, Non-Conformity, Defect, Preventive Action, Corrective Action,Correction, Rework, Repair, Scrap, Concession, Deviation Permit, Release; Terms Relating toDocumentation, Information, Document, Specification, Quality Manual, Quality Plan, Record;Terms Relating of Examination, Objective Evidence, Inspection, Test, MetrologicalConfirmation. 08 HoursUNIT 8. QUALITY MANAGEMENTThe development of regulatory requirements for validation, The V model and Life Cycle modelapproach to validation and documentation, Risk Analysis Techniques: Impact Assessment;Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA), Validation Master Plans, Commissioning andQualification, Process Validation, Routine validation and revalidation, Contamination Control,Risk Management in the Pharmaceutical Industry, Solid Dose Manufacture Principles andPractices, Liquid and Cream Manufacture Principles and Practices, Good Laboratory Practices(for Non-Clinical Laboratories), Computer Systems Validation Principles and Practices, GoodAseptic Practices and Sterile Products, Clinical Trials Quality Assurance Management, GxP andQuality Auditing Practices, Pharmaceutical Engineering – Facility, Equipment and ProcessDesign, Fundamentals of Process Analytical Technology, Quality and Continuous Improvementin the Pharmaceutical Industry. 08 HoursTEXT/REFERENCE BOOKSPharmaceutical Process Validation, 3rd Edition, Edited by Robert Nash and Alfred Wachter, MarcelDekker, 2003Good Manufacturing Practices for Pharmaceuticals: A Plan for Total Quality Control From Manufacturerto Consumer, Sidney J. Willig, Marcel Dekker, 5th Ed., 2000, 723 pp.,Validation of Pharmaceutical Processes: Sterile Products, Frederick J. Carlton (Ed.) and James Agalloco(Ed.), Marcel Dekker, 2nd Ed., 1998.Validation Standard Operating Procedures: A Step by Step Guide for Achieving Compliance in thePharmaceutical, Medical Device, and Biotech Industries, Syed Imtiaz Haider, Saint Lucie Press, 2002,496.Pharmaceutical Equipment Validation: The Ultimate Qualification Handbook, Phillip A. Cloud,Interpharm Press, 1998.Commissioning and Qualification, ISPE Pharmaceutical Engineering Baseline Guides Series, 2001.QUESTION PAPER PATTERNFor every 6-7 Hours of teaching One Question to be Set. Eight questions to be set (four fromeach part) out of which five full questions (considering at least two from each part) to beanswered. 71