Tropical Cyclone – is a storm system
characterized by counter clockwise rotating
air mass around a central part called core.
Another term for Core is called “Eye” and
300 km of central part of the eye.
Troposphere – the lowest layer of the earth
-75-80 % of the mass of
• Air pressure and Density of the air are also
high and decreasing at high altitudes.
•Troposphere is rich in water vapor and dust
Tropopause- the boundary between the
troposphere and the next atmospheric layer.
- it has 20 km above the sea
level near the equator.
Jet Streamy – it is beneath the tropopause,
the river of air that zooms along at the
speed of 400 km per hour.
o Conduction and Convection- the earth is
primarily warmed by the sun’s radiation
and the energy transferred to one another.
o Convection- warm, moist of air mixes with
•Tropical Cyclone originates in the oceans
about 300 miles or 500 km away from the
•Another term for Tropical Cyclone.
- Typhoon or Hurricane
Hurricane – is at east of 160 degrees
Typhoon – is on the west of the
They are also the same phenomena.
•The word Typhoon comes from the word
- it means “Great or Big wind”.
•Hurricane comes from the word “Huracan”.
- it means “Storm”.
2 words of Typhoon
•Typhoons in the Philippines is called Bagyo.
•The majority of tropical cyclone formation
form between June and November and
minimum between December to May.
- one source of tropical cyclone formation is
the ITCZ located around the equator.
ITCZ – Intertropical Convergence Zone.
Formation and Development of
•A tropical cyclone can generate winds by
feeding moisture and heat to the eye.
•Moisture and heat come from the air
updrafts that rise rapidly.
Six main requirements for a typhoon to form
1.Abundance of warm water
2.Ocean water temperature of 26.5 degree
celsius (79.7 degrees fareinheight)
3. Spanning from the surface up to a depth
of at least 50 m(160 ft.)
4. High humidity
5. Low vertical wind shear
6. Optimal location for a typhoon
•Typhoons are also affected by the condition of the
land mass and the topography of the area where
Other factors that can affect the typhoons:
Condition of land forms and seas
Weather Forecast – it is based on the observed
temperature, pressure, relative humidity, wind
direction and precipitation of the preceding 24
Weathers are changes from day to day.
Materials for predicting the weather:
•Modern equipment, precise instruments,
weather satellites and improve techniques of
monitoring, gathering and interpreting
•Weather radar is commonly used.
- used for microwave radiation pulses
to detect various degrees and forms of
precipitation including light rain, heavy rain,
snow and hailstones.
•Station model – using symbols and the data
8 symbols of station mode;
Air pressure, temperature ,cloud or sky
cover, wind speed, wind direction, dew point,
current weather, pressure tendency.
•Air pressure – is a measure of the force
exerted by air on all objects.
•Temperature – measure of the current.
•Cloud or Cover sky – amount of the circle at
the center of the station model is filled in
reflects the approximate amount of the sky.
•Wind speed and wind direction – are
represented on the station model by a
combination of a wind arrow.
•PAGASA- Philippine Atmospheric,
Geophysical and Astronomical Services
- it is a national institution tasked by
the government to monitor and provide
typhoon warnings, public weather forecast
and advisories, meteorological, astronomical
Meteorologist- are the person who assigned
by collecting the data.
•Weather map- it gives the summary of the
weather condition all over the country.
•All depressions, storms, and typhoons
- are being closely observed and
monitored by PAGASA within the PAR.
PAR – Philippine Area of Responsibility.
PSWS- Public Storm Warning Signals.
- responsible for releasing tropical
SIGNAL # 1.
SIGNAL # 2.
SIGNAL # 3.
SIGNAL # 4.