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Different Ethnolinguistic Groups in the Philippines
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Different Ethnolinguistic Groups in the Philippines


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  • 1. Philippine Civilization History and Government Different Ethnoliguistic Groups in the Philippines Submitted by: Fernandez, RoidenFredrich M. (I-Diamond) Submitted to: Reciña, Byron B.
  • 2. Christians 1. Capiznons- Folk history recorded in the Maragtas by pedroMonteclaro says ten Borneardatu landed at a site now known as San Joaquin town in Iloilo province. They purchased Panay from the Aeta, cultivated the land, and renamed the island Madya-as. They divided it into three communities: Irong-irong, Akean (which includes the Capiz area), and Hamtik. These were loosely united under a government called the Confederation of Madya-as. Beliefs of Capiznons The early Panayanon believed in many gods. Bulalakaw, a bird which looked like a peacock and could cause illness, was said to live in the island's sacred mountain called Madya-as. A chief goddess was believed to reside in the mountain of the nearby island of Negros Occidental. Shw was called Laon, after whom Mt. Kanlaon is named. Mediators to the gods, also said to be the first priests, were: Bangutbanwa, who prayed for good harvests and an orderly universe; Mangindalon, who interceded for sick persons and prayed for the punishment of enemies; and Soliran and Solian, who performed marriage ceremonies. Manunubo was the good spirit of the sea. Arts of Capiznons The traditional weaving method of pina is called pili or sinuksuk. This is a floating weft technique accomplished after cloth weaving. A typical design is a
  • 3. cluster of five-petal flowers surrounding a butterfly. This is repeated in a series along the borders of the cloth. 2. Cebuano- "Cebuano" comes from the root word "Cebu," the Spanish version of the original name "Sugbo," which most probably comes from the verb "sugbo," meaning "to walk in the water." In the old days, the shores of the Cebu port were shallow, so travellers coming from the sea had to wade in the water to get to dry land. The term is suffixed with "-hanon" to refer to the language, culture, and inhabitants of Cebu; hence "Sugbuhanon" or "Sugbuanon." The Spaniards later modified Sugbuhanon to "Cebuano" and the early Americans to "Cebuan." Today Cebuano may also refer to the speaker of the language no matter where he comes from. Beliefs of Cebuano Many Cebuano, especially the less Westernized and the rural ones, continue to be firm believers in the existence of spirits. Despite the fact that this belief stem from pre- Christian animist tradition, they persist to this day, and are very blended with Catholicism. There is strong belief in spiritual beings who are capable of assuming any form and causing illness to those who offend them. The evil spells they cast on people can be driven away by performing rituals, reciting prayers in Spanish or Latin, making offerings, using the crucifix and holy water. Often times the folk healers or mediums like the babaylan, tambalan, and Sinulog Festival
  • 4. mananapit are asked to perform rituals to drive away the spirits. Spirits may appear as: the tamawo, a fairy that dwells in big trees, and occasionally falls in love with mortals, who upon death enters the spiritual world of the tamawo; the tumao, the creature with one eye in the middle of its face that goes out only during new moon; the cama-cama, a mountain gnome of light brown color, whose great strength may cause great pain on all mortals who displease it; and the aswang, an evil spirit which can be disguised as a man or a woman at night, helped by its agents like the tictic and silic-silic birds. Arts of Cebuano Rarely can a Visayan be found, "unless he is sick, who ceases to sing except when he is asleep"- thus remarked 17th century Jesuit chronicler Francisco Alzina on the prodigious activity of Visayans in the field of music. He noted, with much amazement, not only the fact that Visayans seemed to be singing all the time but that they played musical instruments with such dexterity, they could-by just playing such instruments as the kudyapi (guitar of lute) and korlong (fiddle)- "speak and make love to one another" ((Alzina 1668, III:64, 678- 69). 3. Bicolano- the Bicol region was known as ibalon, variously interpreted to derive from ibalio, “to bring to the other side”, ibalon, “ people from the other side or “ people who are hospitable and give visitors gifts to bring home. The region was also called “Los Camarines” after the huts found by the Spaniard inBicol Penafrancia Festival
  • 5. Camalig, Albay. Beliefs of Bicolano Bicol religiosity is deeply rooted. Sometimes Christian faith is expressed through indigenous forms, and cycle, talismans, and divination survive in the consciousness of the contemporary Bicol, even educated. Arts of Bicolano Paracale, “ the golden country” in Camarines Norte, has grown to be center of jewelry making tradition. Although the art has declined since colonial times, some antique styles have survived the centuries like that agrimon. 4. Palawan- They live in the southern part, starting from the breach in the mountain range between Quezon and Abo-Abo. The tagbanua live in the central part, concentrated in the Aborlan area, but are also present in northern Cuyo archipelago. They lives in the forest farther north, between Puerto Princesa and Roxas Beliefs of Palawan In Palawan cosmogony Ampu, the Master, wove the world and created several kinds of humanity, hence he is called Nagsalad, the Weaver. He is the supreme deity in a system of religious thought that can be qualified as “theist” and animist”. He is protective watching
  • 6. presence, always invisible to tawbanan or the real people. This is diwata, a mediator between humans and Ampu. Arts of Palawan For daily uses the Palawan make functional objects which are delicate and simple. The works, made of rattan, wood, bamboo and leaves, emanate form nature and integrate into it. There is no violent contrast of colors, but a variation of greens and yellows. 5. Subanon- History has better words to speak for Misamis Occidental. Its principal city was originally populated by the Subanon, a cultural group that once roamed the seas in great number, the province was an easy prey to the marauding sea pirates of Lanao whose habit was to stage lightning forays along the coastal areas in search of slaves. As the Subanon retreated deeper and deeper into the interior, the coastal areas became home to inhabitants from Bukidnon who were steadily followed by settlers from nearby Cebu and Bohol. The name Subanon, "which is derived from the word suba, "river," means a river people. Beliefs of Subanon In sharp contrast to the surrounding peoples who have adopted Christianity or Islam, the Subanon cling to their ancient polytheistic religion. They believe that man shares the universe with a variety of gods, spirits, demons, and ghosts. These supernatural forces are Subanon Festival
  • 7. said to have the ability to harm humans. However, humans supposedly have the power to harm them as well. At various times of the year, the Subanon give offerings of rice, meat, and wine to the gods and ancestral spirits. Witch doctors, or shamans, play a large role in Subanon religion. The people depend on the shamans to hear and understand the wishes of the gods and ancestral spirits. Arts of Subanon The dances and rituals now found among Filipinos in the hinterlands suggest that indigenous drama had begun to evolve from attempts to control the environment. Muslims 1. Yakan- refers to the majority Muslim group in Basilan, an island just south of Zamboanga province in Mindanao. The Spaniards called them Sameacas and considered them an aloof and sometimes hostile hill people (Wulff 1978:149; Haylaya 1980:13). Beliefs of Yakan A combination of Islamic principles and traditional beliefs -- best describes the Yakan belief system. The belief in saytan, the various spirits in heaven and in the natural environment, indicates the lingering influence of pre-Islamic religious beliefs. Yakan pre- Islamic practices are also combined with Islamic rituals, for example, in the planting rituals, death rituals, spirit worship, and ancestral offerings. As Muslims, theYakan believe in the
  • 8. five pillars of Islam: the sahada, which says that there is no other God but Allah and that Muhammad is his prophet; the salat or prayer; puasse or fasting during the month of Ramadan; pitla or charity to the poor; zacat or tithes to Muslim religious leaders; and the maghadji or pilgrimage to the holy city of Mecca. Arts of Yakan The Yakan have a rich musical tradition, which may be broadly divided into instrumental and vocal. Yakan musical instruments are made of bamboo, wood, and metal. Their musical instruments also demonstrate the influence of the traditional cycle of rice production in their lives. 2. Tausugs- “Tausug" derives from tau meaning "man" and sug meaning "current," and translates into "people of the current." It refers to the majority Islamized group in the Sulu archipelago, their language, and culture. The Tausug, numbering around 502,918 (NCCP-- PACT) in 1988 are predominant in the northern part of Sulu province, i.e., Jolo Island and the neighboring islands of Pata, Marunggas, Tapul, and Lugus, and to a lesser extent in Siasi and Pangutaran (Arce 1963:3). The province of Sulu derives its name from "sulug" or "sug" which in Tausug means "ocean current," while Sulu's capital Jolo is the Spanish corruption of Sulu. Beliefs of Tausug The Tausugfollow standard Islamic beliefs and practices. The Quran is considered by all Muslims as the words of Allah (God), revealed to the prophet Muhammad through
  • 9. archangel Gabriel, and as the source of all Islamic Law, principles and values. Aside from the Quran and the Sunnah and Haddith (literally, "a way, rule, or manner of acting"), other Islamic sources of law include Ijtihad (independent judgment) and Qiyas (analogy). Arts of Tausug Tausug visual arts are represented by carvings, metalworks, woodworks, tapestry and embroidery, mat making and basketry, textile and fashion, pottery, and other minor arts (Szanton 1963). In general, Tausug visual arts follow the Islamic prohibition of representing human or animal forms. 3. Maguindanawon- TheMaguindanao, literally, “people of the flood plains”, ocuppy the basin of Pulangi river. The southern fork of the river towards to Illana Bay. In the past Maguindanawons settled along the banks and in the valley of regions in the river. Beliefs of Maguindanawons Most Maguindanawons follow standard Islamic Beliefs and Practices. The Quran is considered by all Muslims as the words of Allah( God), revealed to Prophet Muhammad through Archangel Gabriel, and as the source of all Islamic principles. Arts of Maguindanawons
  • 10. As Muslims lowlanders, the Maguindanawons possess a strong weaving and carving tradition. As with all other Muslim groups, the Maguindanawons are prohibited from representing animal or human forms in art. 4. Maranao- The people (mostly muslims), who live in the provinces of Lano del Norte and Lanao del Sur on the island of Mindanao are usually referred to us “Maranaws” or “Maranaos”. The term means “people of the lake area,” and they are given this name because their greatest concentration is around Lake Lanao Beliefs of Maranaos The Islamic religion is well entrenched in Mindanao society and this may be gleaned from the presence of mosque every village. This is also readily seen in their customs. Every Maranaw whether he be a boy, a girl, a woman, or a man--- wears a white headgear has undertaken a pilgrimage to Mecca. Arts of Maranaos Maranao art is very distinctive. Mats and cloth from Lanao are decked in flamboyant colors. Intricate traditional designs grace the people’s gleaming brassware and handicraft. The Maranao’s weave not only cloth and mats but also bags, centerpieces, placemats, and unique necklaces.
  • 11. 5. Mansaka- The term "Mansaka" derives from "man" meaning "first" and "saka" meaning "to ascend," and means "the first people to ascend the mountains or go upstream." The term most likely describes the origin of these people who are found today in Davao del Norte, specifically in the Batoto River, the Manat Valley, the Marasugan Valley, the Hijo River Valley, and the seacoasts of Kingking, Maco, Kwambog, Hijo, Tagum, Libuganon, Tuganay, Ising, and Panabo (Fuentes and De La Cruz 1980:2). The Mansaka are generally fair with bridged noses, brown hair, and oval faces. Beliefs of Mansaka Mansakamanaog or domestic gods are represented by wooden statues standing on a parangka (pedestal). Manaog have sexes which can be discerned on the sculpture and ornaments on the statues. Offerings are given to the manaog after rice planting, harvest, and before death. The rituals can be either indoor or outdoor. If indoor, the balian places humay, wine, manok, lime, tobacco, and betel nut on a siklat (a square bamboo platform suspended from the ceiling). If outdoor, the balian constructs a siklat with the use of four 1 m wooden poles arranged like an Indian teepee skeleton. Arts of Mansaka The Mansaka possess a wide array of musical instruments, giving life to their songs and dances. Examples of Mansaka musical instruments include the agong or round brass
  • 12. percussion instrument; a larger version of the agong is the tarabon, which was used to give war signals. Cultural Communities 1. Bukidnon- is a province on a rich tableland in Central Mindanao which rises abruptly to a height of 900 ft above sea level. It is composed of seven plateaus of varying heights separated by seven deep canyons and three valleys. It encompasses a total area of 8,293.78 km2 or 955,455 hectares of land. The climate of Bukidnon is cool and invigorating with an annual mean temperature of 74? F or 23.85? C. The provincial capital is the little town of Malaybalay which is 800 km by air from Manila. Beliefs of Bukidnon The Bukidnon people believe in one god, Magbabaya (the Ruler of All) who has minor gods and goddesses beneath him to do specific jobs and take care of certain things. Thus, the Bukidnon farmers pray to Ibabasok who watches over their crops and their growth in a simple ceremony at the center of the rice field. But they worship the deity Dagingon in an elaborated celebration complete with songs and dances which will last for nine nights during planting and after harvest seasons. The spirit called
  • 13. Bulalakaw watches the rivers and takes care of the fishermen's catch while TumpaaNanapiyaw or Intumbangol watches the base of the earth night and day lest it crumbles. Persons of both sexes may become baylan, religious specialists who divine the cause of illnesses, recover lost souls, and officiate at major events where the spirits are summoned. One becomes baylan by personal choice and subsequent apprenticeship to an established practitioner. Belief in multiple "souls", gimokod, some of which can leave the body temporarily, causing illness. At death, the body is wrapped in a mat and carried on a bier to the place of burial, where it is interred in a bamboo-lined grave. The spirit of the deceased is fed for a few days after burial, after which it goes to live on Mount Balatocan. The mourning period for a widow may last for a year or more. Arts of Bukidnon The Bukidnon people have their own musical instruments, the dayuray or dayuday, the kutyapi or kudyapi, the pulala (the bamboo flute) and the small gong called salambing. They make geometric designs on their bags, mats and baskets. They call these designs lugo. Among the many kinds of lugo are: the binabangon, the kinabuka and the binituon. They embroider on clothing too, and this process they call panulaw. The embroidered cloth is called pinanulawan.
  • 14. 2. Aeta- "Aeta," "Ayta," "Agta," "Atta (Ata)," "Ati," and "Ita"- these probably derive from the root word "it," which in various Philippine languages means "black" as inferred from the Tagalog term itim and the Visayan term itom. "Negrito" or "little black one" is a Spanish term coined from the word "negro." The Aeta are a mountain people who are dark skinned, short, small of frame, kinky haired, snub nosed, and with big black eyes. Beliefs of Aeta There are divergent views on the dominant character of the Aeta religion. Those who believe they are monotheistic argue that various Aeta tribes believe in a supreme being who rule over lesser spirits or deities. The Mamanua believe in the supreme Magbabaya while the Pinatubo Aetaworship Apo Namalyari. According to anthropologist E. Arsenio Manuel, the Agta believe in a supreme being named Gutugutumakkan. Manuel notes other lesser deities of the Agta; Kedes, the god of hunting; Pawi, the god of the forest; and Sedsed, the god of the sea. Arts of Aeta The most common form of Aeta visual art is the etching found in their daily tools and implements. This is done on the outer surfaces of various household containers/utensils and ornaments. Bamboo combs are decorated with incised angular patterns. Geometric designs are etched on arrow shafts (Noval-Morales and Monan 1979:115).
  • 15. 3. Ifugao- The origin of the Ifugaos is derived from the term Ipugo which means “from the hill”. According to Ifugao mythology, however, the name “Ifugao” is derived from Ipugo which refers to the rice grain given to them by their god Matungulan. Until the present day, this kind of rice grain is cultivated by the Ifugaos. The generic name Ygolote, Igolot, or Igorrote was used by the Spanish conquistadores and missionaries in their writing about all the various mountain people. Later in the 1900’s, the American writers popularized the name Igorot. According to the eminent Filipino scholar Trinidad H Pardo de Tavera, the word Ygolote is derived from the Tagalog term golot meaning “mountain” and the prefix “I,” meaning “people of.” Beliefs of Ifugao Ifugao religious beliefs are expressed in the numerous rites and prayers (baki) that comprise the main body of Ifugao myths. The myths and folktales tell of their gods and goddesses, related supernatural beings, their ancestors and the forces of nature. The Ifugaos, aside from being deity worshipers, are nature worshipers and ancestor worshipers. Arts of Ifugao Weaving is the exclusive task of Ifugao women. Traditionally, weaving is done for the family’s needs, but it is only done for commercial purposes. Girls learn to weave by helping their mother or elder sister, and by actual practice under elder women. Weaving instruments
  • 16. such as the loom sticks, the spindle, the apparatus for fluffing, skeining, and winding are made by the menfolk. 4. Talaandig- The Talaandig are one of the indigenous groups in the province of Bukidnon, Mindanao Philippines who has continued to preserve and promote its indigenous customs, beliefs and practices despite the strong influx of modernization and change. The Talaandig population is roughly estimated to be at about 100,000 people or more. The members of the group are found in barangays and municipalities surrounding the mountain of Kitanglad, the historic domain of the Talaandig people Beliefs of Talaandig The belief on the existence of the highest God called Magbabaya and the spirits who guard and protect nature is manifested in the social, economic and political aspects of the life of the Talaandig. Thus, when the Talaandig establishes a farm, he performs the Talabugta and Ibabasuk rituals, after harvest, he performs the Pamamuhandi for the thanksgiving, for the recognition of the superior leadership, he performs the Panagulambung, when he goes hunting, the Punaliket and palayag, and for a higher form of socio-economic and political activity, the Talaandig performs the Kaliga ceremony.
  • 17. Arts of Talaandig The Talaandig learning system is embodied in various forms of oral tradition. These tradition includes the narratives called Nanangen, epic called Ulaging, poetic songs called sala and songs called IdangdangLimbay are particular songs about animals. 5. Higaonon- TheHigaonon is one of the least known ethnolinguistic groups that inhabit North-Central Mindanao. They occupy the mountainous regions of Misamis Oriental, Bukidnon plateau, the mountain borders of the provinces of Agusan and Lanao in the east and west, respectively. Beliefs of Higaonon The indigenous religion of the Hiagonon no longer exists. Vestiges of this still remain with the older generation. Even when already Christianized, no one is against the recounting of stories concerning their traditional religion. Marriages, baptisms and other sacraments are done in churches administered by the Catholic priest or Protestant minister, respectively. Arts of Higaonon The Higaonon have their own system of writing. Their myths and legend speak of a great ancestor named "Suwat" who kept a list of the people who were living and dead during the great flood that took place long ago.