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La5 Basicelement
La5 Basicelement
La5 Basicelement
La5 Basicelement
La5 Basicelement
La5 Basicelement
La5 Basicelement
La5 Basicelement
La5 Basicelement
La5 Basicelement
La5 Basicelement
La5 Basicelement
La5 Basicelement
La5 Basicelement
La5 Basicelement
La5 Basicelement
La5 Basicelement
La5 Basicelement
La5 Basicelement
La5 Basicelement
La5 Basicelement
La5 Basicelement
La5 Basicelement
La5 Basicelement
La5 Basicelement
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La5 Basicelement

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  • 1. Basic Element 1 – Constant 2 – Variable 3 - Data Type In programming 4 – Operator 5 – Control Structure Prepared by : Norhasimah Mohamed – ICt Teacheri SMK Sungai Pusu Gombak Selangor. 12042008
  • 2. Basic Element In Programming <ul><li>Learning Outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>5.1.5.1 Differentiate between constants and variables </li></ul><ul><li>5.1.5.2 Differentiate between data types: Boolean, integer, double, string and </li></ul><ul><li>date. </li></ul><ul><li>5.1.5.3 Differentiate between mathematical and logical (Boolean) operators. </li></ul><ul><li>5.1.5.4 Differentiate between sequence control structure and selection control </li></ul><ul><li>structure. </li></ul>
  • 3. Basic element in programming 5 1 2 3 4 5
  • 4. <ul><li>CONSTANTS AND VARIABLES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Constants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Constant is a data container that stores information. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The value that do not change during program execution. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They can be of type integer, character or floating-point. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Const n As Integer = 10 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Variables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Variable is a data container that stores information. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The value inside may change at any time during the course of a program. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When create variables, the declaration gives them a symbolic name and definition reserves memory for them. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Once defined, variable are used to hold the data that required by program from its operation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Dim mark as integer </li></ul></ul>Basic Element In Programming
  • 5. <ul><li>CONSTANTS AND VARIABLES </li></ul>Basic Element In Programming
  • 6. Differences between constants and variables
  • 7. Basic Element In Programming <ul><ul><ul><li>DATA TYPES, OPERATOR AND CONTROL STRUCTURES </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 8. <ul><li>DATA EXAMPLES FOR DIFFERENT DATA TYPES </li></ul><ul><li>Data type determines the type of data a variable can store, for example a number or a character. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of data types are integer, double, string, date and boolean. </li></ul>Basic Element In Programming
  • 9. <ul><li>MATHEMATICAL, RELATIONAL AND LOGICAL OPERATORS </li></ul><ul><li>Operator is a symbol or notation that tells a computer to perform certain actions or operations. </li></ul><ul><li>An example: the plus (+) notation will tell the computer to perform the &quot;add&quot; operation. </li></ul>Basic Element In Programming
  • 10. <ul><li>MATHEMATICAL, RELATIONAL AND LOGICAL OPERATORS </li></ul><ul><li>Let's look at some examples of Mathematical Operators. </li></ul>Basic Element In Programming
  • 11. <ul><li>MATHEMATICAL, RELATIONAL AND LOGICAL OPERATORS </li></ul><ul><li>Let's look at some examples of Relational Operators. </li></ul>Basic Element In Programming
  • 12. <ul><li>MATHEMATICAL, RELATIONAL AND LOGICAL OPERATORS </li></ul><ul><li>Let's look at some examples of Logical Operators. </li></ul>Basic Element In Programming
  • 13. Differences in mathematical and logical operator Mathematical operators perform mathematical operations such as plus or substract. Relational operators perform element-by-element comparisons between two arrays. Logical operators perform logical operations such as checking the condition of two Boolean values.
  • 14. <ul><li>Control structure is a structure of statements in programming that allows the programmer to control the flow of a program. </li></ul><ul><li>Control structure can be divided into sequence , selection and repetition control structures. </li></ul>Control Structure
  • 15. <ul><li>SEQUENCE CONTROL </li></ul><ul><li>Sequence control refers to the linear execution of codes within a program. </li></ul><ul><li>In sequence control, the statements are executed one by one in consecutive order. </li></ul>Control Structure
  • 16. <ul><li>SELECTION CONTROL </li></ul><ul><li>There are times when you want your program to make a decision based on the situation given. </li></ul><ul><li>For example, a program that stores student’s marks may respond differently to different marks. Or maybe a simple mathematical program will display its result as odd or even, based on the result. </li></ul><ul><li>Selection control enables the programmer to assign different events for different situations. </li></ul><ul><li>An example of selection control is “If...Then...Else” statement. </li></ul>Control Structure
  • 17. Differences between sequence and selection control
  • 18. <ul><li>Pseudo code is text only sentences that describe the logic and program flow of a computer program. Pseudo code esembles plain English. </li></ul><ul><li>It usually does not have any specific programming language syntax and grammar. </li></ul><ul><li>Pseudo code is directly linked to the computer codes because each pseudo code statement can often be converted into the programming language virtually line by line. </li></ul><ul><li>There are no set rules for writing pseudo code. </li></ul><ul><li>A programmer can have his or her personalised pseudo code. </li></ul><ul><li>He or she must use consistent language and syntax in the pseudo code, so that he or she can understand it at a later stage. </li></ul>PSEUDO CODES
  • 19. <ul><li>A flow chart is a diagram using symbols to show the step-by-step sequence of procedures in a program. A flow chart describes the logic and program flow of a computer program graphically. </li></ul><ul><li>We have five main elements in a flow chart. </li></ul><ul><li>Terminator shows the beginning or end of a program. </li></ul><ul><li>Flowline and arrowhead use to connect symbols and indicate the sequences of operation. </li></ul><ul><li>Input or output shows either an input operation (e.g. an INPUT from the user) or an output operation (e.g. PRINT some messages). </li></ul><ul><li>Process shows a process to be carried out (e.g. calculation). </li></ul><ul><li>Decision shows a decision (or choice) to be made. The program should continue along one of two routes (e.g. if...else). </li></ul>FLOW CHART 1 2 3 4 5
  • 20. Complete the handout given Task for today
  • 21. It’s not about a technology… it’s about people ! ‘ Educating the -Generation’ e
  • 22. It’s not about a technology… it’s about learning ! ‘ Educating the -Generation’ e
  • 23. Don’t start with technology, but learning via technology. ‘ Educating the -Generation’ e
  • 24. see
  • 25. end Thank you Prepared by : Norhasimah Mohamed –ICT Teacher SMK Sungai Pusu Gombak Selangor.

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