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# Gait analysis

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• I have a question on this presentation. It states that, single stance is 40% and initial and final double stance is 20%. Can I kindly have any journals stating that? Pls help me.

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• sure, any thing Maram

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• plz can you help me

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### Gait analysis

1. 1. KKU_Biomech_M5_L1 Gait analysis Lesson (1)Dr / Shimaa EssaLecturer of physical therapy , faculty of community,King Khalid university
2. 2. Upon successful completion of this lesson you would be able to:1. Define gait cycle2. Distinguish between the phases of gait cycle3. Identify Spatial and temporal parameters of gait cycle4. Measure spatial and temporal components of gait cycle practically
3. 3. Gait analysis is used for clinical andlaboratory identification of deviations ofnormal gait. In order to conduct a gaitanalysis you should firstly learn about thenormal gait cycle and its spatial andtemporal components.
4. 4. Gait CycleNormal Gait definition:Is series of rhythmical , alternating movements of the trunk & limbs which result in the forward progression of the center of gravity and the body.
5. 5. Gait CycleGait Cycle = – Single sequence of functions by one limb – Begins when reference foot contacts the ground – Ends with subsequent floor contact of the same foot
6. 6. Prerequisites for normal gait 1- Maintenance of upright position of the HAT against gravity (H= head, A= arms, T= trunk). 2- Maintenance of body stability & balance. 3- Good foot control, to ensure safe foot clearance and gentle heel contact during gait.
7. 7. Gait cycle (one stride) Stance phase Swing phase Initial contact Initial swing (Acceleration)Loading response (foot flat) midswing (Toe off) Mid stance Terminal swing (Deacceleration)Terminal stance (heel off) Pre-swing (Toe off)
8. 8. Stance intervals 1- Initial double stance…… timing 10% 2- Single limb support…… timing 40% 3- Terminal double stance……… timing 10%
9. 9. Phases: (1) Stance Phase: 60% (2) Swing Phase: 40% reference limb reference limb in contact not in contact with the floor with the floor
10. 10. Support: (1) Single Support: only one foot in contact with the floor (2) Double Support: both feet in contact with floor
11. 11. - Subdivisions:A. Stance phase: 1. Heel contact: ‘Initial contact’ 2. Foot-flat: ‘Loading response’, initial contact of forefoot w. ground 3. Midstance: greater trochanter in alignment w. vertical bisector of foot 4. Heel-off: ‘Terminal stance’ 5. Toe-off: ‘Pre-swing’
12. 12. - Subdivisions:B. Swing phase: 1. Acceleration: ‘Initial swing’ 2. Midswing: Swinging limb overtakes the limb in stance 3. Deceleration: ‘Terminal swing’
13. 13. • Time frame A. Stance vs. Swing: • Stance phase = 60% of gait cycle • Swing phase = 40% B. Single vs. Double support: • Single support = 40% of gait cycle • Double support= 20%
14. 14. • With increasing walking speeds: • Stance phase: decreases • Swing phase: increases • Double support: decreases• Running: • By definition: walking without double support • Ratio stance/swing reverses • Double support disappears. ‘Double swing’ develops
15. 15. Gait analysis Gait analysis Kinematic analysis Kinetic analysis 1) Distance (spatial) & time (temporal) variables. 2) Measurement of joint angles of lower and upper extremities. 3) Descriptive components of gait (determinants of gait).
16. 16. 1) Distance (spatial) & time (temporal)variables A) Distance variables 1- Step length. 2- Stride length. 3- Width of walking base 4- Foot angle (degree of toe out or angle of gait).
17. 17. 1) Distance (spatial) & time (temporal)variables 1) Step Length = – Distance between corresponding successive points of heel contact of the opposite feet. – Rt step length = Lt step length (in normal gait).
18. 18. 1) Distance (spatial) & time (temporal)variables 2) Stride Length = – Distance between successive points of heel contact of the same foot – Double the step length (in normal gait)
19. 19. 1) Distance (spatial) & time (temporal)variables 3) Walking Base = – Side-to-side distance between the line of the two feet – Also known as ‘stride width’
20. 20. 1) Distance (spatial) & time (temporal)variables 4) Degree of toe out= it represents the angle of foot placement and may be found by measuring the angle formed by each foots line of progression and a line intersecting the center of the heel and the second toe. The angle for men is about 7°. The degree of toe out decreases as the speed of walking increases in normal men.
21. 21. 1) Distance (spatial) & time (temporal)variables B- Time variables 1) Step time 2) Stride time 3) Stance time 4) Single limb time 5) Double limb time 6) Swing time 7) Cadence 8) speed
22. 22. 1) Distance (spatial) & time (temporal)variables Step time: It is referred to the amount of time spent during single step. It is the time between heel strike of one leg and heel strike of the contra-lateral leg. Stride time: It is referred to the amount of time it takes to complete one stride. Stride duration and gait cycle duration are the same.
23. 23. 1) Distance (spatial) & time (temporal)variables Stance time: It is the amount of time that passes during the stance phase of one extremity in a gait cycle. It includes single support and double support. Swing time: It is the amount of time that passes during the swing phase of one extremity in a gait cycle. If the stride time of the gait cycle is one second, the stance time is 0.6 second and swing time is 0.4 second.
24. 24. 1) Distance (spatial) & time (temporal)variables Single limb time: It is the amount of time that passes during the period when only one extremity is on the supporting surface in a gait cycle. Double limb time: It is the amount of time that a person spends with both feet on the ground during one gait cycle. The percentage of time spent in double support decreases as the speed of walking increases.
25. 25. 1) Distance (spatial) & time (temporal)variablesCadence = – Number of steps per unit time – Normal: 100 – 115 steps/min – Cultural/social variationsSpeed (Velocity)=  Distance covered by the body in unit time  Usually measured in m/s  Instantaneous velocity varies during the gait cycle  Average velocity (m/min) = step length (m) x cadence (steps/min). Average walking speed= 80m/minute.
26. 26. Summary of Gait analysis
27. 27. o Normal Gait Is series of rhythmical , alternating movements of the trunk & limbs which result in the forward progression of the center of gravity and the body.o Gait Cycle = – Single sequence of functions by one limb – Begins when reference foot contacts the ground – Ends with subsequent floor contact of the same footo Gait cycle is divided into two phases, Stance phase &Swing phase o Gait analysis is divided into Kinematic & Kinetic analysis o Kinematic gait analysis is concerned by the description of gait components. That include temporal and spatial variables of gait cycle.