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618.01 grp7ppt (1)

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  • http://www.chinalaborwatch.org/en/web/article.php?article_id=50010
  • http://www.chinalaborwatch.org/en/web/article.php?article_id=50064, translated by China labor Watch10-26-04; http://www.jus.uio.no/lm/china.labor.law.1994/doc.html#114
  • http://www.chinalaborwatch.org/en/web/article.php?article_id=50064, translated by China labor Watch10-26-04; http://www.jus.uio.no/lm/china.labor.law.1994/doc.html#114
  • http://www.chinalaborwatch.org/en/web/article.php?article_id=50064, translated by China labor Watch10-26-04; http://www.jus.uio.no/lm/china.labor.law.1994/doc.html#114
  • http://www.chinalaborwatch.org/en/web/article.php?article_id=50064, translated by China labor Watch10-26-04; http://www.jus.uio.no/lm/china.labor.law.1994/doc.html#114
  • Transcript

    • 1. The Role of IHRM in Cross-Cultural Ethnical Issues and Corporate Social Responsibility <ul><li>Group Members: </li></ul><ul><li>Q iuyi Huang, Shaorong Liao, Juan Kwang Li, </li></ul><ul><li>Wen Qiao Li, Yuen Kwun </li></ul>
    • 2. <ul><li>Yuen Kwun Wong (Joyce.W) </li></ul><ul><li>-- Profile of U.S.A. China and Thailand </li></ul><ul><li>-- Nike Overview of in the U.S.A. and Asian Pacific Region </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Shaorong Liao (Michelle) </li></ul><ul><li>--Subcontracting in IHRM and related issues </li></ul><ul><li>--Nike business standard </li></ul><ul><li>-- Critiques </li></ul><ul><li>Juan Kwang Li (Joyce.K) </li></ul><ul><li>--Case study: Yu Yuen factory in China </li></ul><ul><li>Qiuyi Huang (Ivy) </li></ul><ul><li>--Case study: MSP Sportswear in Thailand </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Wen Qiao Li (Lily) </li></ul><ul><li>--Recommendation </li></ul><ul><li>--Conclusion </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
    • 3. U.S.A. Profile (PCN)
    • 4. U.S.A. Profile (PCN) <ul><li>Government Type: Constitution-Based Federal Republic </li></ul><ul><li>Political Parties: Democratic Party, Republican Party </li></ul><ul><li>President: George W. Bush </li></ul><ul><li>(Central Intelligence Agency) </li></ul>
    • 5. U.S.A. Profile <ul><li>Labor Force: 147.4 Million </li></ul><ul><li>GDP Purchasing Power Parity - $40,100 </li></ul><ul><li>Investment (gross fixed): 15.7% of GDP </li></ul><ul><li>Export: 795 Billion </li></ul><ul><li>Import: 1.476 Trillion </li></ul><ul><li> (Central Intelligence Agency) </li></ul>
    • 6. U.S. A. Business Sector (Central Intelligence Agency)
    • 7. U.S. A. Profile (cont.) <ul><li>Literacy rate: 97% </li></ul><ul><li>Long-term problems </li></ul><ul><li>-- High medical and pension cost </li></ul><ul><li>-- Trade and budget deficits </li></ul><ul><li> (Central Intelligence Agency) </li></ul>
    • 8. China Profile
    • 9. Culture Description in China <ul><li>Important Business Concept : </li></ul><ul><li>“ GuanXi ” = Relationship </li></ul><ul><li>“ GuanXi ” definition: </li></ul><ul><li>Networking of relationships among various parties that cooperate together and support one another </li></ul><ul><li>(Export Information Organization) </li></ul>
    • 10. Culture Description in China (cont.) <ul><li>“ GuanXi” in Chinese culture </li></ul><ul><li>-- Legalized </li></ul><ul><li>-- Not relate to bribery </li></ul><ul><li>-- Quotation: “Connections are more important than strategy for a company to succeed in Asia” </li></ul><ul><li>(Export Information organization) </li></ul>
    • 11. Social Description In China (cont.) <ul><li>Population </li></ul><ul><li>--1.3 Billion </li></ul><ul><li>Literacy Rate : 86% </li></ul><ul><li>Problem: Drug Abuse, Corruption ,Violation of Property Rights and Pollution </li></ul><ul><li> (Central Intelligence Agency) </li></ul>
    • 12. Economic Description In China <ul><li>Labor Force: 778.1 Million </li></ul><ul><li>GDP: </li></ul><ul><li>-- Real Growth Rate: 9.1% </li></ul><ul><li>-- Per Capita: Purchasing Power Parity - $5,600 </li></ul><ul><li>Investment (gross fixed): 46% of GDP </li></ul><ul><li>Exports: 194.7 Billion </li></ul><ul><li>Imports: 158.8 Billion </li></ul><ul><li>(Central Intelligence Agency) </li></ul>
    • 13. Business Sector in China (Central Intelligence Agency)
    • 14. Political Description In China <ul><li>Government type: Communism </li></ul><ul><li>Political parties: Chinese Communist Party, 66.35 million members; 8 minor parties under communist supervision </li></ul><ul><li>President: Hu Jin Tao </li></ul><ul><li>(Central Intelligence Agency) </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
    • 15. Important Recent Changes in China <ul><li>1989: Student Movement in Tiananmen Square </li></ul><ul><li>2001: Joined the World Trade Organization </li></ul><ul><li>2003: General Secretary Hu Jin Tao was elected as President </li></ul><ul><li>(Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs) </li></ul>
    • 16. Challenges to the Chinese Expatriate and IHRM <ul><li>Corruption </li></ul><ul><li>Intellectual Property Rights </li></ul><ul><li>Crimes </li></ul><ul><li>(Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs) </li></ul>
    • 17. Thailand Profile
    • 18. Culture Description In Thailand <ul><li>Important Business Concept: Cooperate Structure </li></ul><ul><li>-- Powerful connection is respected </li></ul><ul><li>-- Family comes first before business </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: Top management is often family </li></ul><ul><li>(FGI world) </li></ul>
    • 19. Social Description In Thailand <ul><li>Population: 65,444,371 </li></ul><ul><li>Literacy rate: 97.1% Male, 93.9% Female </li></ul><ul><li>Problem: AIDS </li></ul><ul><li>(Central Intelligence Agency) </li></ul>
    • 20. Economic Description In Thailand <ul><li>Labor Force: 34.9 Million </li></ul><ul><li>GDP </li></ul><ul><li>-- Real Growth Rate: 6.1% </li></ul><ul><li>-- Per Capita: Purchasing Power Parity - $ 8,100 </li></ul><ul><li>Investment (gross fixed) </li></ul><ul><li>--22.5% of GDP </li></ul><ul><li>Export: 75.99 Billion </li></ul><ul><li>Import: 65.3 Billion </li></ul><ul><li>(Central Intelligence Agency) </li></ul>
    • 21. Business Sectors In Thailand (Central Intelligence Agency)
    • 22. Political Description In Thailand <ul><li>Government type: C onstitutional monarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Political parties: Multi-party system and Communist Party is prohibited </li></ul><ul><li>Executive-king: Phumiphon Adunyadet </li></ul><ul><li>(Central Intelligence Agency) </li></ul>
    • 23. Important Changes in Thailand Recent History <ul><li>1988: Chatichai Choonavan , the leader of the Thai Nation Party (democratic party) was first elected as prime minister </li></ul><ul><li>1996: Chuan formed a coalition government </li></ul><ul><li>2001: Telecommunications multimillionaire Thaksin Shinawatra and his Thai Rak Thai (TRT) party won victory on platform of economic growth and development. </li></ul><ul><li>(Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs) </li></ul>
    • 24. Challenges to the Expatriate and IHRM In Thailand <ul><li>Language Barriers </li></ul><ul><li>Religion Issue </li></ul><ul><li>Thai People Are Not Organized </li></ul><ul><li>Strict Custom </li></ul><ul><li> (FGI World) </li></ul>
    • 25. Culture Gap Between U.S.A. (PCN) and China &amp; Thailand (HCN)   (FGI World) 56 34 64 64 20 Thailand 118 39 85 70 25 China 29 62 46 40 91 United States Long-Term Orientation Assertiveness Uncertainty Avoidance Power Distance Individualism
    • 26. Nike In The U.S.A. <ul><li>Contract Factory </li></ul><ul><li>-- 109 apparel contract factories </li></ul><ul><li>--12 equipment contract factories </li></ul><ul><li>14% of Nike apparel was made in the U.S. Cole Haan, Hurley and Converse are subsidiaries in us region. </li></ul><ul><li>Store: More than 80 stores </li></ul><ul><li>(Nike) </li></ul>
    • 27. Asia Pacific Region Of Nike <ul><li>Employees: 3,000 </li></ul><ul><li>First subcontracted factories are in Taiwan and Korea (1977) </li></ul><ul><li>Nike Office: Australia, China, Hong Kong, Japan, Korea, New Zealand, Southeast Asia (Singapore, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand), and Taiwan. </li></ul><ul><li>Factory: 150 </li></ul><ul><li>(Nike) </li></ul>
    • 28. Subcontracting In IHRM <ul><li>Implementations on monitoring subcontractor </li></ul><ul><li>--Assign expatriate staff in host country </li></ul><ul><li>--Hire country-based investigator to monitor implementation of the company’s code of conduct </li></ul><ul><li>--Use inspector from the company headquarter </li></ul><ul><li> (IHRM, 2005) </li></ul>
    • 29. Nike Code of Conduct <ul><li>Management practices that respect the rights of all employees, including the right to free association and collective bargaining </li></ul><ul><li>Minimizing our impact on the environment </li></ul><ul><li>Providing a safe and healthy work place </li></ul><ul><li>Promoting the health and well-being of all employees </li></ul><ul><li>(Nike) </li></ul>
    • 30. Specific Standard Of Conduct <ul><li>Forced Labor </li></ul><ul><li>Child Labor </li></ul><ul><li>Compensation </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Hours of Work/Overtime </li></ul><ul><li>Environment, Safety and Health </li></ul><ul><li>Documentation and Inspection </li></ul><ul><li>(Nike) </li></ul>
    • 31. Specific Standard Of Conduct (cont.) <ul><li>Compensation </li></ul><ul><li>--Provide at least the minimum wage or the prevailing industry wage, whichever is higher </li></ul><ul><li>--Provide each employee a clear, written account for ever pay period </li></ul><ul><li>--Eliminate deduction on employee pay for disciplinary infractions </li></ul><ul><li>(Nike) </li></ul>
    • 32. Specific Standard Of Conduct (cont.) <ul><li>Hours of Work/Overtime </li></ul><ul><li>--Comply with legally mandated work hours </li></ul><ul><li>--Compensate overtime fully according to local law </li></ul><ul><li>--Inform employee if mandatory overtime is a condition of employment at the time of hiring </li></ul><ul><li>--Provide one day off in seven, no more then 60 hours per week, or complies with local limits if they are lower </li></ul><ul><li> (Nike) </li></ul>
    • 33. Subcontracting Issues in IHRM <ul><li>Not enough implementation on monitoring </li></ul><ul><li>Local buying agents and quality control representatives to do the monitoring </li></ul><ul><li>The code of conduct is not really being enforced by the subcontractors </li></ul><ul><li>--Subcontractors would further subcontract to other local firms </li></ul><ul><li>--The foreign-owned contractor and its expatriates impose their own work practices upon the host country workforce </li></ul><ul><li>(IHRM, 2005) </li></ul>
    • 34. Subcontractor in South China <ul><li>Yue Yuen Industrial Holdings Co. Ltd. </li></ul><ul><li>--Locates in Dongguan </li></ul><ul><li>--Established in 1989 </li></ul><ul><li>--Belongs to the Taiwanese shoe company, Pao Chen Cooperative </li></ul><ul><li>--Produces for Nike, Reebok, Adidas, Clarks and new Balance </li></ul><ul><li>--Employs total 140,000 workers and 12,000 are producing for Nike </li></ul><ul><li>(China Labor Watch) </li></ul>
    • 35. Nike’s Subcontractor in China
    • 36. Yue Yuen Shoes Factory <ul><li>A giant shoe manufacturer branch under BaoCheng Group </li></ul><ul><li>A giant shoe manufacturer branch under BaoCheng Group </li></ul><ul><li>Location: Gaobu Town, Dongguan City, Guangdong Province, China </li></ul><ul><li>Labor Force:12,000 workers </li></ul>
    • 37. Ethnical Issues in Yue Yuen Factory <ul><li>Contract </li></ul><ul><li>Discrimination </li></ul><ul><li>Work hours &amp; Overtime </li></ul><ul><li>Compensation </li></ul>
    • 38. Discrimination <ul><li>Since 1999, the factory has adopted a policy of mainly employing female workers </li></ul><ul><li>The factory only employs female workers aged from 18 to 25. </li></ul><ul><li>Male workers are only employed with the specific approval of section managers; Ratio: 1 of 15 </li></ul>
    • 39. Why is discrimination an issue? <ul><li>China’s Labor Law: Laborers shall not be discriminated against in employment due to their nationality, race, sex, or religious belief. </li></ul><ul><li> (China Labor Law, Ch.2, Article 12) </li></ul><ul><li>Nike’s Code of Conduct: There shall be no discrimination based on race, creed, gender, marital or maternity status or political beliefs, age or sexual orientation. </li></ul><ul><li>(Nike) </li></ul>
    • 40. Contract <ul><li>Nike’s Code of Conduct : N/A </li></ul><ul><li>China’s Labor Laws : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An employees’ probation period should not exceed six months. Moreover, if a worker accumulates ten years service at his or her place of employment, the employer is obliged to sign a long-term contract with the employer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(China Labor Laws, Ch.3, article 20) </li></ul></ul>
    • 41. Contract (Cont.) <ul><li>China’s Labor Laws : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The draft collective contract shall be submitted to the workers representative assembly or all the employees for discussion and passage. Collective contracts shall be signed by and between the labor union on behalf of the employees and the employer. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(China Labor Laws, Ch.3, article 33) </li></ul></ul>
    • 42. Why is contract an issue? <ul><li>Only “group leaders” sign the collective contracts in the name of the workers </li></ul><ul><li>The workers never see the contract and not aware of the details of the contract </li></ul><ul><li>Many workers have been working at the factory for over ten years, but remain employed on annual basic </li></ul>
    • 43. Work Hours &amp; Overtime <ul><li>Through its private connections, the factory was granted permission by Dongguan Labor Department to have the workers work as many as 82 hours of overtime. </li></ul><ul><li>Workers have to work 8 hours on Saturdays, the legal rest days. </li></ul>
    • 44. Work Hours &amp; Overtime (Cont.) <ul><li>7:30 to 11:30a.m. Working </li></ul><ul><li>11:30 to 1:00p.m. Lunch </li></ul><ul><li>1:00 to 5:00p.m. Working </li></ul><ul><li>5:00 to 6:00p.m. Dinner </li></ul><ul><li>6:00 to 8:30p.m. Overtime </li></ul><ul><li>Work hrs: 10.5 hrs/day (M-F) </li></ul><ul><li>Saturday: 8 hrs/day overtime </li></ul><ul><li>Total: 60.5 hrs/wk; 242 hrs/mo. </li></ul><ul><li> (China Labor Watch) </li></ul>
    • 45. Why is working hours an issues? <ul><li>Nike’s Code of Conduct: The contractor complies with legally mandated work hours; No more than 60 hours of work per week on a regularly scheduled basis, or complies with local limits if they are lower. </li></ul><ul><li>(Nike) </li></ul><ul><li>China’s Labor law: The state shall practice a working hour system wherein laborers shall work for no more than eight hours a day and no more than 44 hours a week. The work time to be prolonged shall not exceed, however, 36 hours a month. </li></ul><ul><li> (China’s Labor Laws, Ch.4, article 36 &amp; 41) </li></ul>
    • 46. Compensation <ul><li>Nike’s Code of Conduct : The contractor provides each employee at least the minimum wage, or the prevailing industry wage, which is higher. </li></ul><ul><li>(Nike) </li></ul><ul><li>China’s Labor Law: The employer shall pay laborers wages no lower than local standards on minimum wages. (Dongguan:RMB 450/mo.) </li></ul><ul><li>(China’s Labor Laws, Ch.5, Article 48) </li></ul>
    • 47. Compensation (Cont.) <ul><li>No less than 150 per cent of their wages if the laborers are asked to work longer hours </li></ul><ul><li>No less than 200 per cent of their wages if no rest can be arranged afterwards for the laborers asked to work on days of rest </li></ul><ul><li>No less than 300 per cent of their wages if the laborers are asked to work on legal holidays </li></ul><ul><li>(China’s Labor Laws, Ch.5, Article 44 ) </li></ul>
    • 48. Why is compensation an issue? <ul><li>Reality: Monthly wage RMB 512/mo. Including overtime paid (U.S. $62.4) </li></ul><ul><li>Should: </li></ul><ul><li>Monthly minimal: $54.8/mo. </li></ul><ul><li>Weekdays overtime:$23.50/mo. </li></ul><ul><li>Saturdays overtime: $19.84/mo. </li></ul><ul><li>Total minimum wage: $98.14/mo. </li></ul><ul><li>(China Labor Watch) </li></ul>
    • 49. The Fact <ul><li>Assume one pair of Nike Jordan sells for $130…. How much money goes to the workers who made the shoes? </li></ul><ul><li>Answer: $1.5 </li></ul><ul><li>(China Labor Watch) </li></ul>
    • 50. Nike Subcontractor in Thailand <ul><li>MSP Sportswear Co, Ltd. </li></ul><ul><li>-- Locating in Huatalea Moung, Nakornrachaseama </li></ul><ul><li>-- Managing by the Austrian director </li></ul>
    • 51. Nike Subcontractor In Thailand <ul><li>Owner: Mr. Peter Krautler </li></ul><ul><li>Location: Huatalea Nakornrachaseama </li></ul>
    • 52. Why Forming an Union? <ul><li>Increasing quota without increasing pay </li></ul><ul><li>Compulsory overtime </li></ul><ul><li>Poor quality of drinking water </li></ul><ul><li>Verbal abuse and body searches </li></ul><ul><li>Forming an union on 9 November 2003 </li></ul>
    • 53. History of Union Organizers’ Dismissal <ul><li>Samai Kongtaler was dismissed a ‘reduction in orders’ </li></ul><ul><li>On 24 November 2003,Ms Atchara Sophon and Kongtalei were dismissed </li></ul><ul><li>submitting worker’s demands to management </li></ul><ul><li>On 12 October 2004, the union was registered, but when the union launched a campaign for new members on 29 the same month, three union </li></ul><ul><li>executives were dismissed the company believed that the union </li></ul><ul><li>would destroy the company ‘-a totally unfounded claim. </li></ul><ul><li>(Clean Clothes Campaign) </li></ul>Due to Due to Due to
    • 54. Urged them to discuss The matter directly with CLIST and the fired workers On November 23,04 Informing Of The Matter With Relevant Associations (Clean Clothes Campaign) Center for Labor Information Service and Training NIKE Faire Labor Association
    • 55. Initial Negotiation Between Representatives From Each Group <ul><li>On 14 December 2004 </li></ul><ul><li>Attendants: a conciliator from the Welfare and Labor Protection Department of the Ministry of Labor Thailand , two company representatives, three dismissed workers, CP Nothong Union and Nike representatives </li></ul><ul><li>Conciliator: the company has clearly violated the right to organize, and attempted to destroy the labor union </li></ul><ul><li>The owner: Mr. Peter Krautler no intention to rehire the dismissed workers </li></ul><ul><li>The mother of one of the union activists who was dismissed to be a continuation of the company’s intimidation tactics </li></ul>stated stated appeared
    • 56. Respond From Nike <ul><li>On the 23rd of December </li></ul><ul><li>Nike informed CLIST-They had requested the conciliator to identify the appropriate next steps </li></ul><ul><li>After getting in touch with CLIST, conciliator provided two options for union dismissed workers: </li></ul><ul><li>Higher compensation </li></ul><ul><li>Follow the standard legal procedure based on the Labour relations committee </li></ul><ul><li> (Clean Clothes Campaign) </li></ul>
    • 57. Union’s Executive and CLIST Disappointed at Nike’s Respond <ul><li>If at the end of the day workers get referred back to the existing legal procedures then what is the use of having a Code of Conduct? </li></ul><ul><li>If this means that Nike’s Code of Conduct has no relevance if the legal procedure is followed, then why bother having a code at all? </li></ul><ul><li>(Clean Clothes Campaign) </li></ul>
    • 58. Updated Negotiation Between Representatives From Each Group On February 16th Met in Bangkok Three union activities dismissal not related To the quality of their work The company believed that “the union would destroy the company-a totally unfounded claim THE DISMISS WORKERS AMRC ACILS FLA NIKE CLIST MSP UNION DISMISSAL
    • 59. Result of Negotiation <ul><li>On March 18th,2005 </li></ul><ul><li>CLIST and Nike have been reached the agreement with three dismissal workers: all three workers will be rehired, including full back pay to the date of dismissal for two of the workers (the third one accepted settlement money which came to a higher amount). </li></ul><ul><li> (Clean Clothes Campaign) </li></ul>
    • 60. Critiques <ul><li>Lack of monitoring to its subcontractors </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of training on code of conduct in its subcontractor </li></ul><ul><li>--To the management &amp; workers </li></ul>
    • 61. Nike Monitoring System (cont.) <ul><li>Fair Labor Association  Oversight of the monitoring </li></ul><ul><li>--Selected and paid for by Nike </li></ul><ul><li>--Only 10% of Nike factories selected to the assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Global Alliance for Workers and Communities </li></ul><ul><li>-- A partnership between Nike, the World Bank and the International Youth Foundation </li></ul><ul><li>--Whether any particular standards are being met? </li></ul><ul><li>-- “Monitoring” to protect workers human rights? </li></ul><ul><li> (Clean Clothes Campaign, 2000) </li></ul>
    • 62. Nike Monitoring System <ul><li>Expatriate product manager  Site visits on a yearly basis </li></ul><ul><li>(Nike) </li></ul><ul><li>PriceWaterhouseCoopers  “Independent” monitoring </li></ul><ul><li>--Announced </li></ul><ul><li>--Selected workers to speak </li></ul><ul><li>(Clean Clothes Campaign, 2000) </li></ul>
    • 63. Training On Code Of Conduct <ul><li>Are the workers be trained or informed of the code of conduct? </li></ul><ul><li>Are managements of the subcontracting firms receiving enough training of conduct? </li></ul><ul><li>Do the subcontracting firms implement the code of conduct? </li></ul><ul><li>Does the IHRM of Nike implement its conduct enough overseas? </li></ul>
    • 64. Recommendations on Nike’s HR <ul><li>Nike should explain and enforce the Code of Conduct aggressively. </li></ul><ul><li>-- Education of Code of Conduct </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasize the importance of Nike’s “Code” as covenant </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Display Nike’s “Code” in public places in clear language </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>-- Training on Code of Conduct </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hold training sessions on the Code of Conduct every three months </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All workers in the training will receive a card with the Code of Conduct in their local language </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> (Andrew Young Report, 1997) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 65. Recommendations on Nike’s HR (cont.) <ul><li>Nike should improve their Monitoring System. </li></ul><ul><li>-- Form a monitoring team within the HR department for internal monitoring </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conducts periodic “checking” visits </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oversees external monitors and auditors where used </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(IHRM, 2005, Chapter 8) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>-- External monitoring </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Ombudsman” model </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li> (Andrew Young Report, 1997) </li></ul>
    • 66. Recommendations China Case <ul><li>Being knowledgeable about Code of Conduct and sensitive to local law. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For example: Compensation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pay Legal Minimum Hourly Wage RMB $2.70 (US $0.33) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reward those who meet expectations to motivate the workers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stop disciplinary fines to avoid discouraging the workers </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 67. Recommendations Thailand Case <ul><li>PCN or HCN should respect the rights of employees to have free association </li></ul><ul><li>Promote the development of “Worker representatives” </li></ul>
    • 68. Conclusion: <ul><li>Multinationals should learn lessons from Nike </li></ul><ul><li>Be careful to enforce their Code of Conduct </li></ul><ul><li>Minimize ethical issues. </li></ul>
    • 69. Thank You Questions?

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