Central Processing Unit

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  • 1. CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT (CPU)
  • 2. What is cpu? • The function of any computer revolves around a central component known as CPU. • CPU known as the “Central Processing unit” is called the “BRAIN OF THE COMPUTER”. • CPU is responsible for processing the data inside the computer system.It is also responsible for controlling all other components of the system.
  • 3. CPU The central processing unit (CPU) of a computer is the main unit that dictates the rest of the computer organization 1. Register set: Stores intermediate data during the execution of instructions; 2. Arithmetic logic unit (ALU):Performs the required micro-operations for executing the instructions 3. Control unit: supervises the transfer of information among the registers and instructs the ALU as to which operation to perform by generating control signals. Control Unit Arithmetic Logic Unit Registers
  • 4. Simple Model Computer block diagram control bus address bus CPU data bus Arithmetic and logic unit Control unit Memory unit Input/ output unit
  • 5. Arithmetic and logic unit 1 Arithmetic and Logical operations are performed in the ALU 2 ALU consists of an ALU accumulator (ACC), a set of logic circuits, and a status register (SR). SR ACC
  • 6. Control unit 1 Control Unit controls the overall operations of the computer. Instruction decoder PC 2 IR Control Unit Consists of the program Counter (PC), the instruction register (IR) and the instruction decoder.
  • 7. Memory Unit 1 address decoder main memory 1 Memory unit consists of the main store, the memory data register (MDR), the memory address register (MAR), and the address decoder. 2 Main store is composed of a large number of memory locations. MAR MDR
  • 8. MOORE’S LAW • The law is named after Intel co-founder Gorden-E-Moore. • It is the observation that “over the history of computing hardware, the number of transistors on integrated circuits double approximately every two years”. • The Period is often quoted as “6 months”. • The law is now used in the SemiConductor industry to guide long-term planning and to set targets for research & development.
  • 9. 4004 8008 8080 8086 286 386 486 Pentium Pentium 2 Pentium 3 Pentium 4 100,000,000 10,000,000 1,000,000 100,000 10,000 1,000 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005
  • 10. MICROPROCESSOR It`s a multipurpose, programmable device that accepts digital data as input, processes it according to instructions stored in its memory & provides results as output. Microprocessors operate on numbers and symbols. General-purpose microprocessors in personal computers are used for computation, text editing, multimedia display, and communication over the Internet.  Many more microprocessors are part of embedded systems, providing digital control of a myriad of objects from appliances to automobiles to cellular phones and industrial process control. On the basis of instruction set, these`re classified into CISC & RISC.
  • 11. BLOCK DIAGRAM
  • 12. MICROPROCESSOR FAMILIES
  • 13. MICROPROCESSOR FAMILIES NAME BRIEF HISTORY INTEL American multinationalsemiconductor chip maker."Intel Inside" advertising campaign made it and its Pentium processor household names.. Founded by Robert Noyce, Gordan Moore, Andrew in 1968. CELERON AMD Celeron is a brand name given by Intel Corp. to a number of different x86 computer microprocessor models. Introduced in April 1988. Advanced Micro Devices, Inc.(AMD )`s an American multinational semiconductor company based in Sunnyvale, California. main products include microprocessors, motherboard chipsets.
  • 14. NAME ATHLON BRIEF HISTORY Athlon is the brand name applied to a series of x86-compatible microprocessors designed and manufactured by Advanced Micro Devices (AMD). The Athlon made its debut on June 23, 1999. Athlon is the ancient Greek word for "Champion/trophy of the games" MOTOROLA The Motorola 68000 is a 16/32-bit CISC microprocessor core designed and marketed by Freescale Semiconductor (formerly Motorola Semiconductor Products Sector). Introduced in 1979.
  • 15. THE 8 BIT PROCESSORS THE 16 BIT PROCESSORS THE 32 BIT PROCESSORS THE 64 BIT PROCESSORS INTEL 4004 INTEL 8008 INTEL 8086 INTEL 30386 INTEL CORE 2 INTEL 4040 INTEL 8080 INTEL 8088 INTEL 30486 INTEL CORE i3 INTEL 8085 INTEL 80186 INTEL PENTIUM INTEL CORE i5 INTEL 80188 INTEL PENTIUM PRO INTEL CORE i7 INTEL 80286 INTEL PENTIUM II INTEL PENTIUM II XEON INTEL PENTIUM IV, DUAL CORE
  • 16. 4 BIT MICROPROCESSORS Year of Introduction Clock rate Intel 4004 1971 108 kHz to 740 kHz Intel 4040 1974 500 kHz to 740 kHz No. of transistors Instructions per second 2,300 46300 to 92600 $50 60,000 $75 3,000 Cost
  • 17. 8 BIT MICROPROCESSORS Year of Introduction Clock rate No. of transistors Instructions per second Intel 8008 1972 500 KHz 3,500 Intel 8080 1974 2MHz 6000 5,00,000 $360 Intel 8085 1976 2MHz 6500 7,69,230 $240 50,000 Cost $180
  • 18. 16 BIT MICROPROCESSORS Year of Introduction Clock rate Intel 8086 1978 4.77MHz with 0.33 MIPS…. 8 MHz with 0.66 MIPS…. 10 MHz with 0.75 MIPS…. Intel 8088 From 1979 to 1990s 4.77 MHz with 0.33 MIPS…. 8 MHz with 0.75 MIPS…. No. of Instructi transistor ons per s second 20,000 29,000 2.5 million 2.5 million Cost $100 $124.80
  • 19. 16 BIT MICROPROCESSORS No. of Instructions Year of Clock rate transistors per second Introduc tion Cost INTEL 80186 & 80188 1982 INTEL 80286 1982 6 MHz 6 MHz with 0.9 MIPS…. 8 MHz, 10 MHz with 1.5 MIPS…. 12.5 MHz with 2.66 MIPS… 16 MHz, 20 MHz and 25 MHz available 1,00,000 1 million $202 1,34,000 4 million $210
  • 20. 32 BIT MICROPROCESSORS Year of Introduction Clock rate No. of Instructions Transistor per second -s Intel 80386 1986 2,75,000 Intel 80486 1989 16-100 MHz Intel Pentium 1993 66 MHz Intel Pentium Pro 1995 Intel Pentium II 1997 233-500 MHz 333 million Intel Pentum IV 2000 1.3 GHz-3.8 48 million 1.2 million 110 million 5.5 million
  • 21. 64 BIT MICROPROCESSORS Name & Yr of Intro No. of cores Features Intel Core 2 (2006) 2 Clock speed: 1.2 GHz to 3 GHz. 291 million transistors.. Launched in three different versions: Intel Core 2 Duo Intel Core 2 Quad Intel Core 2 Extreme Intel Core i3 2 Physical Cores clock speed: 2.93 GHz to 3.33 GHz Intel Core i5 4 Physical Cores Clock speed: 2.40 GHz to 3.60 GHz. 781 million transistors. Intel Core i7 (2008) 4 Physical Cores Clock rate: 2.66 GHz to 3.33 GHz.
  • 22. FEATURES CPU TYPE CPU SPEED (MHz) MOTHERBOARD SPEED(MHz) PENTIUM 60 60 PENTIUM PRO 166 66 CELERON 400 66 PENTIUM II/ XEON 400 100 PENTIUM 3/XEON 500 100 ATHLON 550-700 DURON 550-700
  • 23. MICROPROCES SOR CLOCK SPEED (MHz) ADDRESSABLE MEMORY FEATURES INTEL 8086 4.77/8 1 MB SEGMENTED 16 BIT SUCCESSOR TO 8080/8085 MOTOROLA 68000 4-12.5 16 MB, LINEAR FIRST WITH 32 BIT PROGRAMMER`S VIEW MOTOROLA 68020 16.67 4 GB 3-STAGE PIPELINE, INSTRUCTION CACHE
  • 24. FREQUENTLY USED TERMS: CLOCK RATE:Typically refers to the frequency at which a CPU is running. It uses the SI unit Hertz. TRANSISTOR: A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify and switch electronic signals and electrical power. The transistor is the fundamental building block of modern electronic devices, and is ubiquitous in modern electronic systems. BIT:It`s the basic unit of a memory.
  • 25. • CACHE MEMORY: High speed memory present b/w RAM & CPU. Inc. the processing speed. • MULTI CORE PROCESSING:A multi-core processor is a single computing component with two or more independent actual central processing units (called "cores"), which are the units that read and execute program instructions. • THERMAL DESIGN POWER: The thermal design power (TDP), refers to the maximum amount of power the cooling system in a computer is required to dissipate.
  • 26. • DATA BUS: In computer architecture, a bus is a subsystem that transfers data between CPU & Memory, I/O Devices. • CONTROL BUS: Specifies whether the data`s to be read or written to the memory. • ADDRESS BUS: An address bus is a computer bus (a series of lines connecting two or more devices) used to specify a physical address.
  • 27. CISC VS RISC CISC Processors RISC Processors 1. Complex Instruction Set Computer (CISC) processors has a bigger instruction set with many addressing modes. 1.Reduced Instruction Set Computers (RISC) processors have a smaller instruction set with few addressing modes. 2. It has to use a separate microprogramming unit with a control memory to implement complex instructions. 2.It has a hard-wired programmedunit without a control memory, and separate hardware to implement each and every instruction. 3. An easy compiler design 3. A complex compiler design. 4. The calculations are slower and 4The calculations are faster and precise precise 5. Decoding is complex of instruction 5. Decoding of instruction is simple 6.The Execution time is very high. 6. It takes very less execution time.
  • 28. CISC Processors RISC Processors 7. They frequently need the external 7. Since they use a hardwired model, memory access to make calculations. they take the external memory access for calculations. 8. Pipelining does not function correctly 8. Pipelining is not a major problem and here because of complexity in this option speeds up the processors. instructions. 9. These processors often stall because of 9. Since the instructions are pipelining problem. complex, stalling is mostly reduced. not 10. Code Expansion is not a problem in 10. Code expansion can be a problem in CISC processors. some cases for RISC processors. 11. Disc space is wasted. 11. Disc space is saved. 12. Used in low end applications such us 12. Used in High end applications such us Security systems, home automation video processing, telecommunications, image processing
  • 29. APPLICATIONS OF A MICROPROCESSOR Instrumentation: Frequency counters, function generators, frequency synthesizers, spectrum analyses and many other instruments are available , where microprocessors are used as controller. Also used in medical instrumentation. Control : Microprocessor based controllers are available in home appliances, such as microwave oven, washing machine etc. Communication : Digital telephone sets. The use of microprocessor in television, satellite communication have made teleconferencing possible. Railway reservation and air reservation system also uses this technology. LAN and WAN for communication of vertical information through computer network. Office Automation and Publication : Microprocessors based systems are being used for word processing, spread sheet operations, storage etc. Consumer : The use of microprocessor in toys, entertainment equipment and home applications is making them more entertaining and full of features.
  • 30. BENEFITS & LIMITATIONS • BENEFITS: Microprocessors make quick decisions and handle multiple instructions based on those quick decisions. • LIMITATIONS: Sometimes, they get over-heated, and restriction inflicts on size of data.
  • 31. What features should one consider about the processor while purchasing a computer?!!? a) The clock speed of the processor. The more the speed, the faster`s the processor. b) The bus speed. High bus speeds will increase the performance of computer operations that are RAMintensive, such as video and audio editing and coding programs, or high-end 3D games. c) Number of "Cores". More cores, faster CPU. d) Cache memory of the CPU. The more it is, the faster`s the computer.
  • 32. THANK YOU