• Management is a process by which
organizational goals are achieved through the
use of resource (people, money, energy,
m...
Information, Decisions and
Management
• Managers three basic roles (Mintzberg 1973)
• Interpersonal roles figurehead,
leader, liaison
• Informational roles moni...
• Decision refers to a choice that individuals
and group make among two or more
alternatives.
• Decision making is a syste...
• A key to good decision making is to explore
and compare many relevant alternatives. The
more alternatives that exist, th...
• It is usually necessary to conduct a
sophisticated analysis in order to make a good
decision. Such analysis requires the...
Information systems that provide
support for managerial decision-
making (i.e. decision support
systems (DSSs), group DSS...
• Decision support systems (DSSs) provide
support primarily to analytical, quantitative
types of decisions.
• Executive su...
A Framework for Computerized
Decision Analysis
 Structured:
◦ Common decisions
◦ Procedures to make the decision are known in advance
◦ Routine an repetitive
 Unstruct...
• The second dimension of decision support deals with
the nature of decisions
• operational control – executing specific t...
• The decision matrix consists of the 3 primary
classes of problem structures and the 3 broad
categories of the nature of ...
Definition:
• Computer-based information systems that provide
interactive information support to managers and
business pro...
• DSSs can examine numerous alternatives very
quickly.
• DSSs can provide a systematic risk analysis.
• DSSs can be integr...
• Data management subsystem contain all the data
that flow from several sources.
• Model management subsystem contains com...
Definition:
• Information systems that provide top
executives, managers, analysts, and other
knowledge workers with immedi...
• Information presented in forms tailored to the
preferences of the executives using the
system
• Customizable graphics di...
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ITFT_Decision support System

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Manager and Decision Making

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Transcript of "ITFT_Decision support System"

  1. 1. • Management is a process by which organizational goals are achieved through the use of resource (people, money, energy, materials, space, time). • These resources are considered to be inputs; • The attainment of the goals is viewed as the output of the process; • The ratio between inputs and outputs is an indication of the organization’s productivity.. Managers and Decision Making
  2. 2. Information, Decisions and Management
  3. 3. • Managers three basic roles (Mintzberg 1973) • Interpersonal roles figurehead, leader, liaison • Informational roles monitor, disseminator, spokesperson • Decisional roles entrepreneur, disturbance handler, resource allocator, negotiator. The Manager’s Job & Decision Making
  4. 4. • Decision refers to a choice that individuals and group make among two or more alternatives. • Decision making is a systematic process composed of three major phases: intelligence, design and choice (Simon 1977) • Implemetation phase was added later. The Manager’s Job & Decision Making (Continued)
  5. 5. • A key to good decision making is to explore and compare many relevant alternatives. The more alternatives that exist, the more computer-assisted search and comparison are needed. • Typically, decisions must be made under time pressure. Frequently it is not possible to manually process the needed information fast enough to be effective. Why Managers Need IT Support
  6. 6. • It is usually necessary to conduct a sophisticated analysis in order to make a good decision. Such analysis requires the use of modeling. • Decision makers can be in different locations and so is the information. Bringing them all together quickly and inexpensively may be a difficult task. Why Managers Need It Support (Continued)
  7. 7. Information systems that provide support for managerial decision- making (i.e. decision support systems (DSSs), group DSSs, organizational DSSs, executive information systems). Information systems that actually make a decision (i.e. expert systems). Managerial Support Systems (MSSs)
  8. 8. • Decision support systems (DSSs) provide support primarily to analytical, quantitative types of decisions. • Executive support systems (ESSs) support the informational roles of executives. • Group decision support systems (GDSSs) supports managers and staff working in groups. What Information Technologies are available to support Managers?
  9. 9. A Framework for Computerized Decision Analysis
  10. 10.  Structured: ◦ Common decisions ◦ Procedures to make the decision are known in advance ◦ Routine an repetitive  Unstructured ◦ Procedures to make the decision cannot be specified in advance ◦ Less common decisions ◦ Fuzzy problems without obvious solutions  Semi-structured ◦ In between Structured versus Unstructured Decisions
  11. 11. • The second dimension of decision support deals with the nature of decisions • operational control – executing specific tasks efficiently and effectively; • management control – acquiring and using resources efficiently in accomplishing organizational goals; • strategic planning – the long range goals and policies for growth and resource allocation. The Nature of Decisions
  12. 12. • The decision matrix consists of the 3 primary classes of problem structures and the 3 broad categories of the nature of decisions combined in a matrix. • Computer support for structured decisions is for each structured decision, prescribed solutions have been developed through the use of mathematical functions. This approach is called management science or operations research. Computerized Decision Analysis
  13. 13. Definition: • Computer-based information systems that provide interactive information support to managers and business professionals during the decision-making process using the following to make semi-structured or unstructured business decisions • Analytical models • Specialized databases • A decision maker’s own insights and judgments • An interactive, computer-based modeling process Decision Support Systems (DSS)
  14. 14. • DSSs can examine numerous alternatives very quickly. • DSSs can provide a systematic risk analysis. • DSSs can be integrated with communications systems and databases. • DSSs can be used to support group work. • DSSs can perform these functions at relatively low cost. DSSs (Continued)
  15. 15. • Data management subsystem contain all the data that flow from several sources. • Model management subsystem contains completed models and the building blocks necessary to develop DSS applications. (often referred to as “model base”) • User interface covers all aspects of the communications between a user and the DSS. • Users are the persons faced with the problem or decision that the DSS is designed to support. • Knowledge-based subsystems provide the required expertise for solving some aspects of the problem. Structure and Components of DSSs
  16. 16. Definition: • Information systems that provide top executives, managers, analysts, and other knowledge workers with immediate and easy access to information about a firm’s key factors that are critical to accomplishing an organization’s strategic objectives Executive Information Systems (EIS)
  17. 17. • Information presented in forms tailored to the preferences of the executives using the system • Customizable graphics displays • Exception reporting • Trend analysis • Drill down capability Features of an EIS
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