NEPHRECTOMY• One kidney may be • Incision used- oblique removed provided that the lumbar incision other is healthy. • Latissimus dorsi and• Reasons for removal are external oblique mainly cuts tumor, infection, pyonephro and traverses, internal sis, tuberculosis, multiple oblique and lumbar fascia calculi or hydronephrosis. also cuts.• Problems that may occur with long-term decreased kidney function include: – High blood pressure (hypertension) – Chronic kidney disease
CYSTOSTOMY AND URETERO-COLIC ANASTOMOSIS• Reasons are malignant • Incision used- pfannentiel disease of incision. bladder. • requires partial or• After removal of the compete transaction of bladder the ureters are the rectus abdominis transplanted into the muscle. sigmoid colon.• The terminal part of the ureter is in an oblique tunnel in the bowel wall.
URETEROSTOMY• creation of a new outlet for a ureter.• Indications : removal of the bladder, congenital defect or absence of portions of the urinary tract, and neurogenic bladder
TRANSURETHRAL BLADDER RESECTION• This is used both to diagnose bladder cancer and to remove cancerous tissue from the bladder.• Complication : – Urinary tract or bladder infection – bladder cancer can come back after this surgery – Difficulty passing urine
BLADDER AUGMENTATION• Known as augmentation • During a bladder cystoplasty augmentation procedure, an• Is reconstructive surgery to incision is made in the increase the reservoir capacity abdomen to expose the of the bladder. intestines and bladder• Bladder augmentation is used • complications : cardiovascular, to treat irreversible forms of thrombo-embolic (blood clot), incontinence and to protect gastrointestinal, and the upper urinary tract (kidney respiratory complications function) from reflexia (urine back up to the kidneys).• some patients recover spontaneous voiding function.
PROSTATECTOMY• After the age of fifty, it is • Incision used- midline common for the prostate incision. gland become enlarged. • requires partial or compete• 42% in men 45 to 49 years transaction of the rectus of age and 18% in men 50 abdominis muscle. to 54 years of age. • this condition, by• The main symptom is suprapubic operation difficult micturition with involving the bladder, or by frequency due to pressure rectopubic operations, in on the urethra. which the prostate is• Retention of the urine may enucleated from its capsule. occur, necessitating urgent • Complications: phlebo- operation. thrombosis
ARTIFICIAL SPHINCTER INSERTION• The implantation of an • Men have incontinence artificial valve in the rates that are much genitourinary tract, as lower than "gatekeeper" control. women, with a range of• Severe incontinence 1.5–5%, compared to due to lack of muscle women with rates of contraction by the 50%. urethral sphincter pelvic fracture; urethral reconstruction; prostate surgeries
NEEDLE BLADDER NECK SUSPENSION• Known as needle suspension, • passage of a needle from the or paravaginal surgery suprapubic area to the vagina• This is performed to support with multiple sutures through the hypermobile, or moveable looping urethra using sutures to attach it to tissues covering the pelvic floor.• According to a recent report, a study of the effects of needle suspension found only a 67% cure, with delayed failures of sutures in a very high percentage (33-80%) of cases
PRE-OPERATIVE PHYSIOTHERAPY• Postural drainage: If there are lung secretion should be cleared, postural drainage should be use several times a day. – The sputum should be measured carefully and the surgeon informed when the amount is minimal, as the patient will ready for operation.• Breathing exercises• Coughing: which can bring up mucus• Arm exercises: the prayer position is best, the palm being held, flat together, finger pointing upwards, then straightened until the upper arm are against the ear.
PRE-OPERATIVE PHYSIOTHERAPY• Leg exercises: toe and ankle movements are taught in full range, also static contraction of quadriceps and glutei. All these movement should be done rhythmically and repeated at frequent intervals, e.g. for five minute in every hour. – Also be shown how to flex hip and knee, keeping heel on the floor, so that the minimum of lifting strain is put on the abdominal muscle.• Posture correction: the patient should be taught to sit equally on both buttocks, arms hanging to sides, lie equally outside hips, shoulder should be in level.• Static abdominals: 10 repetitions, 5sec hold each• Pelvic floor exercises:
POST-OPERATIVE PHYSIOTHERAPY• Immediately after surgery, watch blood pressure, electrolytes and fluid balance. These body functions are controlled in part by the kidneys. most likely have a urinary catheter (tube to drain urine) in bladder for a short time during recovery. discomfort and numbness (caused by severed nerves) near the incision area.• Encourage for plenty of fluid intake.• Strenuous activity and heavy lifting should be avoided for 6 weeks.
POST-OPERATIVE PHYSIOTHERAPY• Bed cradler: should be used to release tight or heavy bed cloths and facilitate leg movement.• Breathing: dressings are kept to minimum to avoid restriction, Elastoplast being use to secure dressing. – It is frequently easier to get maximum thoracic excursion and air interchange by lateral costal breathing. – Emphasis will be usually be placed on those part of the lungs needing specific attention. – Bilateral breathing exercise are best: – With a right side incision, because of the right arm will be painful to move, the right basal expansion must be encouraged. – Left side basal expansion may also be limited by patient have had a long term operation and patient may lying on that side to relieve pressure on right.
POST-OPERATIVE PHYSIOTHERAPY by B. SHOTTON – The best way to be sure that lung tissue is expanding satisfactory is by X-ray, – More simply findings : breath sounds are normal, percussion to detect collapse of lung tissue. – Another method is to ask the patient to hold his breath, he will find difficult if there is some collapse. – The pulse is taken at frequent intervals. – Frequently, rapid rise in pulse rate could indicate early collapse of lung, it can be detected before rise patient’s temperature.• Coughing : this can be aided by firm pressure over the wound by the therapist or by patient him self. – Relaxant drugs are now in frequent use because, normal muscle tone dose note always reappear until several days after operation, so it is difficult for the patient to produce a strong cough.
POST-OPERATIVE PHYSIOTHERAPY by B. SHOTTON• Leg exercise : test for Homan’s sign – Foot exercise and static quadriceps and glutei are safe in upper abdominal operations. – In lower abdominal operations, start exercise when surgeon allow for movements, start with hip and knee flexion and heel on the floor, Progressed by lifting the heel, then straight leg raising. – Early ambulation being allow 1 or 2 days after operation. – Prolong sitting in chair should be avoided, this position causes pressure on the veins of the leg.
POST-OPERATIVE PHYSIOTHERAPY by B. SHOTTON• Posture : – back needs firm support, – Best taught for flatten the lumbar hollow, at the same time drawing his pubic symphysis and his sternum closer together. – Trunk movement usually be started on the forth day, before that they were use trunk movement for bed mobility and toilet purposes.• WARD CLASSSES – Once out of bed and ambulant, exercise can be continued in small groups. – Except in specific cases, physiotherapy should no longer be needed after the 10th day.