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Variables Influencing Individual Behavior P The Person• Skills & abilities E The Environment • Personality • Organization • Perceptions • Work group • Attitudes • Job •Values • Personal life • Ethics B Behavior B = f(P,E)
Propositions of Interactional Psychology Behavior—function of a continuous, multi-directional interaction between person and situation Person—active in process Changed by situations Changes situations People vary in many characteristics Two situational interpretations The objective situation Person’s subjective view of the situation
Definition of PersonalityPersonality - A relatively stable set of characteristics that influences an individual’s behavior
Personality TheoriesTrait Theory - understand individuals by breaking down behavior patterns into observable traitsPsychodynamic Theory - emphasizes the unconscious determinants of behaviorHumanistic Theory - emphasizes individual growth and improvementIntegrative Approach - describes personality as a composite of an individual’s psychological processes
Big Five Personality TraitsExtraversion Gregarious, assertive, sociableAgreeableness Cooperative, warm, agreeableConscientiousness Hardworking, organized, dependableEmotional stability Calm, self-confidant, coolOpenness to Creative, curious,experience cultured Sources: P. T. Costa and R. R. McCrae, The NEO-PI Personality Inventory (Odessa, Fla.: Psychological Assessment Resources, 1992); J. F. Salgado, “The Five Factor Model of Personality and Job Performance in the European Community,” Journal of Applied Psychology 82 (1997): 30-43.
Personality Characteristics in Organizations Locus of Control Internal External I control what People andhappens to me! circumstances control my fate!
Personality Characteristics in OrganizationsSelf-Efficacy - beliefs and expectations about one’s ability to accomplish a specific task effectivelySources of self-efficacy Prior experiences and prior success Behavior models (observing success) Persuasion Assessment of current physical & emotional capabilities
Personality Characteristics in Organizations Self-Esteem Feelings of Self WorthSuccess tends Failure tendsto increase to decreaseself-esteem self-esteem
Personality Characteristics in Organizations Self-MonitoringBehavior based on cues from people & situations High self-monitors Low self-monitors flexible: adjust behavior act from internal states according to the rather than from situation and the situational cues behavior of others show consistency can appear less likely to respond to unpredictable & work group norms or inconsistent supervisory feedback
Who Is Most Likely to . . .Low-self High-selfmonitors monitors Get promoted Accomplish tasks, meet other’s expectations, seek out central positions in social networks Change employers Self-promote Make a job-related geographic move Demonstrate higher levels of managerial self-awareness; base behavior on other’s cues and the situation
Personality Characteristics in OrganizationsPositive Affect - an individual’s tendency to accentuate the positive aspects of oneself, other people, and the world in generalNegative Affect - an individual’s tendency to accentuate the negative aspects of oneself, other people, and the world in general
Personality Characteristics in Organizations A strong situation can overwhelm the effects of individual personalities by providing strong cues for appropriate behavior
Personality Characteristics in Organizations Strong personalities will dominate in a weak situation
How is Personality Measured?Projective Test - elicits an individual’s response to abstract stimuliBehavioral Measures - personality assessments that involve observing an individual’s behavior in a controlled situationSelf-Report Questionnaire - assessment involving an individual’s responses to questionsMyers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) - instrument measuring Jung’s theory of individual differences.
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Based on Carl Jung’s work People are fundamentally different People are fundamentally alike People have preference combinations for extraversion/introversion, perception, judgment Briggs & Myers developed the MBTI to understand individual differences
MBTI Preferences Preferences RepresentsExtraversion Introversion How one re-energizes Sensing Intuiting How one gathers information Thinking Feeling How one makes decisions Judging Perceiving How one orients to the outer world
Social Perception Barriers• Selective perception • Projection• Stereotyping • Self-fulfilling prophecies• First-impression error Social Perception - interpreting information about another person
Social PerceptionPerceiver Characteristics Target Characteristics• Familiarity with target • Physical appearance• Attitudes/Mood • Verbal communication• Self-Concept • Nonverbal cues• Cognitive structure • Intentions Social Perception - interpreting information about another person Barriers Situational Characteristics • Interaction context • Strength of situational cues
Impression ManagementImpression Management - process by which individuals try to control the impression others have of them Name dropping Appearance Self-description Flattery Favors Agreement with opinion
Attribution TheoryAttribution theory - explains how individuals pinpoint the causes of their own behavior or that of othersInformation cues for attribution information gathering consensus distinctiveness consistency
Attribution BiasesFundamental Attribution Error - tendency to make attributions to internal causes when focusing on someone else’s behaviorSelf-serving Bias - tendency to attribute one’s own successes to internal causes and one’s failures to external causes