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  • 1. Chapter 3 Nelson & Quick Personality, Perception, and AttributionCopyright ©2005 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.
  • 2. Variables Influencing Individual Behavior P The Person• Skills & abilities E The Environment • Personality • Organization • Perceptions • Work group • Attitudes • Job •Values • Personal life • Ethics B Behavior B = f(P,E)
  • 3. Propositions of Interactional Psychology Behavior—function of a continuous, multi-directional interaction between person and situation Person—active in process  Changed by situations  Changes situations People vary in many characteristics Two situational interpretations  The objective situation  Person’s subjective view of the situation
  • 4. Definition of PersonalityPersonality - A relatively stable set of characteristics that influences an individual’s behavior
  • 5. Personality TheoriesTrait Theory - understand individuals by breaking down behavior patterns into observable traitsPsychodynamic Theory - emphasizes the unconscious determinants of behaviorHumanistic Theory - emphasizes individual growth and improvementIntegrative Approach - describes personality as a composite of an individual’s psychological processes
  • 6. Big Five Personality TraitsExtraversion Gregarious, assertive, sociableAgreeableness Cooperative, warm, agreeableConscientiousness Hardworking, organized, dependableEmotional stability Calm, self-confidant, coolOpenness to Creative, curious,experience cultured Sources: P. T. Costa and R. R. McCrae, The NEO-PI Personality Inventory (Odessa, Fla.: Psychological Assessment Resources, 1992); J. F. Salgado, “The Five Factor Model of Personality and Job Performance in the European Community,” Journal of Applied Psychology 82 (1997): 30-43.
  • 7. Personality Characteristics in Organizations Locus of Control Internal External I control what People andhappens to me! circumstances control my fate!
  • 8. Personality Characteristics in OrganizationsSelf-Efficacy - beliefs and expectations about one’s ability to accomplish a specific task effectivelySources of self-efficacy  Prior experiences and prior success  Behavior models (observing success)  Persuasion  Assessment of current physical & emotional capabilities
  • 9. Personality Characteristics in Organizations Self-Esteem Feelings of Self WorthSuccess tends Failure tendsto increase to decreaseself-esteem self-esteem
  • 10. Personality Characteristics in Organizations Self-MonitoringBehavior based on cues from people & situations High self-monitors  Low self-monitors  flexible: adjust behavior  act from internal states according to the rather than from situation and the situational cues behavior of others  show consistency  can appear  less likely to respond to unpredictable & work group norms or inconsistent supervisory feedback
  • 11. Who Is Most Likely to . . .Low-self High-selfmonitors monitors Get promoted Accomplish tasks, meet other’s expectations, seek out central positions  in social networks Change employers Self-promote  Make a job-related geographic move Demonstrate higher levels of managerial  self-awareness; base behavior on other’s cues and the situation
  • 12. Personality Characteristics in OrganizationsPositive Affect - an individual’s tendency to accentuate the positive aspects of oneself, other people, and the world in generalNegative Affect - an individual’s tendency to accentuate the negative aspects of oneself, other people, and the world in general
  • 13. Personality Characteristics in Organizations A strong situation can overwhelm the effects of individual personalities by providing strong cues for appropriate behavior
  • 14. Personality Characteristics in Organizations Strong personalities will dominate in a weak situation
  • 15. How is Personality Measured?Projective Test - elicits an individual’s response to abstract stimuliBehavioral Measures - personality assessments that involve observing an individual’s behavior in a controlled situationSelf-Report Questionnaire - assessment involving an individual’s responses to questionsMyers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) - instrument measuring Jung’s theory of individual differences.
  • 16. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Based on Carl Jung’s work  People are fundamentally different  People are fundamentally alike  People have preference combinations for extraversion/introversion, perception, judgment Briggs & Myers developed the MBTI to understand individual differences
  • 17. MBTI Preferences Preferences RepresentsExtraversion Introversion How one re-energizes Sensing Intuiting How one gathers information Thinking Feeling How one makes decisions Judging Perceiving How one orients to the outer world
  • 18. Social Perception Barriers• Selective perception • Projection• Stereotyping • Self-fulfilling prophecies• First-impression error Social Perception - interpreting information about another person
  • 19. Social PerceptionPerceiver Characteristics Target Characteristics• Familiarity with target • Physical appearance• Attitudes/Mood • Verbal communication• Self-Concept • Nonverbal cues• Cognitive structure • Intentions Social Perception - interpreting information about another person Barriers Situational Characteristics • Interaction context • Strength of situational cues
  • 20. Impression ManagementImpression Management - process by which individuals try to control the impression others have of them  Name dropping  Appearance  Self-description  Flattery  Favors  Agreement with opinion
  • 21. Attribution TheoryAttribution theory - explains how individuals pinpoint the causes of their own behavior or that of othersInformation cues for attribution information gathering  consensus  distinctiveness  consistency
  • 22. Attribution BiasesFundamental Attribution Error - tendency to make attributions to internal causes when focusing on someone else’s behaviorSelf-serving Bias - tendency to attribute one’s own successes to internal causes and one’s failures to external causes