Hoofed mammals 1
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Hoofed mammals 1

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    Hoofed mammals 1 Hoofed mammals 1 Presentation Transcript

    • Hoofed Mammals Introduction and Terms
    • Terms
      • Ungulates – Mammals with hooves
      • Cloven hoof – Hoof is divided into two parts
      • Ruminant – animals whose stomach is divided into 4 compartments that allow them to digest fibrous foods such as grasses, twigs & leaves
    • Ruminant Digestion
      • Bacteria have a symbiotic relationship with the ruminant
      • Bacteria in the rumen break cellulose & lignin down into simple carbohydrates that can be absorbed in the intestine
      • Ruminants “chew their cud” – regurgitate food and chew it further to aid digestion.
    • Ruminant digestive system
      • Reticulum – First compartment is connected to the rumen.
        • Microbial digestion of foods begin
        • Dense food particles are trapped and held until the breakdown
      • Rumen
      • Omasum
      • Abomasum
      In Out
    • Ruminant digestive system
      • Reticulum
      • Rumen – largest section
        • two sacs functions as a fermentation vat for bacteria
        • Releases gases from bacterial digestion
      • Omasum
      • Abomasum
      In Out Rumen
    • Ruminant digestive system
      • Reticulum
      • Rumen
      • Omasum
        • sieves large particles
        • regulates passage of feed to the abomasum
        • begins water absorption. 
      • Abomasum
      In Out Rumen
    • Ruminant digestive system
      • Reticulum
      • Rumen
      • Omasum  
      • Abomasum –
        • The true stomach
        • Secretes digestive enzymes
        • Begins absorption of nutrients
      In Out Rumen
    • Horns & Antlers
      • Horns do not shed annually
        • Except in pronghorns
      • Horns have two layers
        • Interior layer of bone
        • Exterior layer of protein like fingernails
      • Can be found on males & females
      • Antlers are shed each year
      • They are true bone and are a single structure
      • Usually found on males
      • Antlers are covered with velvet
        • a covering of skin and hair that has a network of blood vessels
    • North American Ungulates
      • Pronghorns
      • Moose
      • Elk
      • Caribou
      • Deer
        • Mule
        • White-tailed
        • Black-tailed
      • Bison
      • Musk Ox
      • Sheep
        • Bighorn
        • Dall’s
      • Mountain Goats
      • Peccary
      • Horses – not native
      • Burros – not native
    • Virginia Ungulates
      • White-tailed Deer
      • Elk – being reintroduced in Southwest Va
      • Horses – range limited to coastal islands