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Hoofed mammals 1
Hoofed mammals 1
Hoofed mammals 1
Hoofed mammals 1
Hoofed mammals 1
Hoofed mammals 1
Hoofed mammals 1
Hoofed mammals 1
Hoofed mammals 1
Hoofed mammals 1
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Hoofed mammals 1

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  • 1. Hoofed Mammals Introduction and Terms
  • 2. Terms <ul><li>Ungulates – Mammals with hooves </li></ul><ul><li>Cloven hoof – Hoof is divided into two parts </li></ul><ul><li>Ruminant – animals whose stomach is divided into 4 compartments that allow them to digest fibrous foods such as grasses, twigs &amp; leaves </li></ul>
  • 3. Ruminant Digestion <ul><li>Bacteria have a symbiotic relationship with the ruminant </li></ul><ul><li>Bacteria in the rumen break cellulose &amp; lignin down into simple carbohydrates that can be absorbed in the intestine </li></ul><ul><li>Ruminants “chew their cud” – regurgitate food and chew it further to aid digestion. </li></ul>
  • 4. Ruminant digestive system <ul><li>Reticulum – First compartment is connected to the rumen. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Microbial digestion of foods begin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dense food particles are trapped and held until the breakdown </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rumen </li></ul><ul><li>Omasum </li></ul><ul><li>Abomasum </li></ul>In Out
  • 5. Ruminant digestive system <ul><li>Reticulum </li></ul><ul><li>Rumen – largest section </li></ul><ul><ul><li>two sacs functions as a fermentation vat for bacteria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Releases gases from bacterial digestion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Omasum </li></ul><ul><li>Abomasum </li></ul>In Out Rumen
  • 6. Ruminant digestive system <ul><li>Reticulum </li></ul><ul><li>Rumen </li></ul><ul><li>Omasum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>sieves large particles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>regulates passage of feed to the abomasum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>begins water absorption.  </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Abomasum </li></ul>In Out Rumen
  • 7. Ruminant digestive system <ul><li>Reticulum </li></ul><ul><li>Rumen </li></ul><ul><li>Omasum   </li></ul><ul><li>Abomasum – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The true stomach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secretes digestive enzymes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Begins absorption of nutrients </li></ul></ul>In Out Rumen
  • 8. Horns &amp; Antlers <ul><li>Horns do not shed annually </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Except in pronghorns </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Horns have two layers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interior layer of bone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exterior layer of protein like fingernails </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Can be found on males &amp; females </li></ul><ul><li>Antlers are shed each year </li></ul><ul><li>They are true bone and are a single structure </li></ul><ul><li>Usually found on males </li></ul><ul><li>Antlers are covered with velvet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a covering of skin and hair that has a network of blood vessels </li></ul></ul>
  • 9. North American Ungulates <ul><li>Pronghorns </li></ul><ul><li>Moose </li></ul><ul><li>Elk </li></ul><ul><li>Caribou </li></ul><ul><li>Deer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>White-tailed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Black-tailed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bison </li></ul><ul><li>Musk Ox </li></ul><ul><li>Sheep </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bighorn </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dall’s </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mountain Goats </li></ul><ul><li>Peccary </li></ul><ul><li>Horses – not native </li></ul><ul><li>Burros – not native </li></ul>
  • 10. Virginia Ungulates <ul><li>White-tailed Deer </li></ul><ul><li>Elk – being reintroduced in Southwest Va </li></ul><ul><li>Horses – range limited to coastal islands </li></ul>

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