Habitat Fragmentation
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Transcript

  • 1. Wildlife - habitat Term: Habitat Fragmentation
  • 2. Fragmentation
    • Habitats which were once continuous become divided into separate fragments.
    • The separate fragments tend to be very small islands isolated from each other by crop land, pasture, pavement, or even barren land.
    • Major habitat problem for wildlife in Fauquier County
  • 3. Fragments
    • Population problems
    • No immigration or emigration
    • Reduced reproductive pool
    • Decreasing species diversity
    • Increased edge to core ratio
  • 4. Edge
    • At the forest edge, wind and sun light result in dryer conditions than are found in the interior of the forest patch.
    • Forest edges are also more accessible to predators and parasites that may occur in adjacent fields or developed areas
    • Interior Species can only live in the core of a forest
  • 5. Arrangement
    • Fragments
    • Corridors
  • 6. Wildlife Corridors
    • Provide a covered route between fragmented habitats
    • Unknown effectiveness
    • Low tech best
  • 7. Riparian Buffers improve habitat by:
    • Functioning as wildlife corridors
    • Provides cover for animals to move from one area to another.
  • 8. Provide cover & edge habitat
    • Provides food, cover, & nesting sites
    Edge No edge
  • 9.
    • Trees & shrubs provide roosting sites for birds
    • Increased humidity provides habitat for amphibians, snakes, & turtles
  • 10. Shade
    • Supplies cover and cool temperatures for fish and aquatic insects
  • 11. Habitat Requirements of Wildlife
    • Food
    • Cover
    • Water
    • Space (Range)
    • Arrangement
  • 12. Food
    • Quality & Quantity
    • Seasonality
      • Not just during hunting season
    • Supplementation
      • Plantings
      • Trees
  • 13. Cover
      • From elements
      • From predators
      • Edge
  • 14. Water
    • Flowing water
    • Standing water
    • Dew
    • Temperature
    • Sedimentation
  • 15. Space or Range
    • Bears: 10 miles
    • Crayfish: 2 feet
    • Adaptations
      • Deer will live in a very small range
      • Bears ranges getting smaller
  • 16. Niche & Habitat
    • Habitat
      • Place in nature
      • Where
      • Biological & physical resources
      • Flora & Fauna
      • Climate
      • Terrain
      • Applies to all species
    • Niche
      • Role in nature
      • What & how
      • Position in the foodweb
      • Physiological & behavioral adaptations
      • Unique to each species
  • 17. Habitat & Niche work together
    • Biological Need:
      • Female ducks need to supply all fat, minerals & protein needed in egg w/in 24 hours
      • Niche:
        • Ducks usually eat seeds – lower protein, higher fat
        • During laying ducks eat invertebrates – high protein
      • Habitat:
        • Ducks seek shallow wetlands because they warm quickly in the spring & provide abundant invertebrates
  • 18. Habitat Project
    • Select and describe an ecosystem from the guide
    • Describe the management activities needed to create or improve its wildlife habitat
    • Include a section on management of invasives
    • Supplement with management strategies for one other (non-avian) wildlife species.
    • Make a powerpoint to display your results.
    • Have a spokesperson present your management strategies to the class on Wed.
  • 19. Habitats
    • Agricultural
    • Grasslands
    • Shrubland
    • Forest
    • Savanna
    • Wetland
    • Developed
    • No more than 2 people per group
  • 20. Catfish
    • Feed fish at 3% of body weight
    • Table 4-2 in book, relates length to weight
    • 5” = 35.3 lbs/1000
    • We have 200, how much do they weigh?
    • What is 3% of that?
    • How much is that?