Ecology Review The branch of Biology that describes relationships between organisms and the environments in which they live
Principles <ul><li>The law of conservation of matter: </li></ul><ul><li>Matter can be changed from one form to another  </...
1 st  law of energy <ul><li>Energy cannot be created or destroyed but can be converted from one form to another </li></ul>...
2 nd  law of energy <ul><li>Every time energy is converted from one form to another, energy is lost in the form of heat </...
Energy Cycle <ul><li>The fundamental source of energy in almost all ecosystems is radiant energy from the sun </li></ul><u...
Primary Production <ul><li>Photoautotrophic production of organic matter represents the first energy transfer in ecosystem...
2 nd  Trophic Level <ul><li>Consumption of a plant by a herbivore is the second energy transfer,  </li></ul><ul><li>Herbiv...
Consumers <ul><li>Consumer organisms that are one, two, or three transfers from autotrophs are classified as primary, seco...
Energy Loss <ul><li>Moving through a food web, energy is lost during each transfer as heat, as described by the second law...
Energy Loss <ul><li>Consequently, the total number of energy transfers rarely exceeds  four or five ;  </li></ul><ul><li>w...
Cycles <ul><li>Carbon Cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrogen Cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Water Cycle </li></ul>
Ecological Classifications <ul><li>Organism – individual plant or animal </li></ul><ul><li>Population – groups of similar ...
 
Balance <ul><li>Ecosystems are balanced when living organisms equal the available resources </li></ul><ul><li>Unbalanced e...
Succession <ul><li>Primary succession – occurs where living organisms have not lived before – rare in nature – ie lava flo...
Habitat & Niche <ul><li>A habitat is the environment where plants and animals live.  A place </li></ul><ul><li>Niche is th...
Competitive Advantage <ul><li>When one organism is better able to survive in a environment than another </li></ul><ul><li>...
Range of tolerance <ul><li>The ability of an organism to survive change in its environment </li></ul><ul><li>The greater t...
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Ecology review 2

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Ecology review 2

  1. 1. Ecology Review The branch of Biology that describes relationships between organisms and the environments in which they live
  2. 2. Principles <ul><li>The law of conservation of matter: </li></ul><ul><li>Matter can be changed from one form to another </li></ul><ul><li>but it cannot be created or destroyed </li></ul>
  3. 3. 1 st law of energy <ul><li>Energy cannot be created or destroyed but can be converted from one form to another </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Radiant energy – sun </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical energy – photosynthesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kinetic energy – animal movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thermal energy – creating heat </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. 2 nd law of energy <ul><li>Every time energy is converted from one form to another, energy is lost in the form of heat </li></ul>
  5. 5. Energy Cycle <ul><li>The fundamental source of energy in almost all ecosystems is radiant energy from the sun </li></ul><ul><li>energy and organic matter are passed along an ecosystem's food chain. </li></ul><ul><li>Organisms are classified based upon the number of energy transfers through a food web </li></ul>
  6. 6. Primary Production <ul><li>Photoautotrophic production of organic matter represents the first energy transfer in ecosystems </li></ul>
  7. 7. 2 nd Trophic Level <ul><li>Consumption of a plant by a herbivore is the second energy transfer, </li></ul><ul><li>Herbivores occupy the second trophic level, </li></ul><ul><li>also known as secondary production. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Consumers <ul><li>Consumer organisms that are one, two, or three transfers from autotrophs are classified as primary, secondary, and tertiary consumers. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Energy Loss <ul><li>Moving through a food web, energy is lost during each transfer as heat, as described by the second law of thermodynamics. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Energy Loss <ul><li>Consequently, the total number of energy transfers rarely exceeds four or five ; </li></ul><ul><li>with energy loss during each transfer, little energy is available to support organisms at the highest levels of a food web. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Cycles <ul><li>Carbon Cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrogen Cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Water Cycle </li></ul>
  12. 12. Ecological Classifications <ul><li>Organism – individual plant or animal </li></ul><ul><li>Population – groups of similar organisms in a defined area </li></ul><ul><li>Community – All of the populations of organisms in a defined area </li></ul><ul><li>Ecosystem – All of the communities of living organisms plus the abiotic – rocks, water, soil, </li></ul>
  13. 14. Balance <ul><li>Ecosystems are balanced when living organisms equal the available resources </li></ul><ul><li>Unbalanced ecosystems occur when a organism or organisms over consume the available resources </li></ul><ul><li>If an ecosystem becomes unbalanced, an adaptation must occur to rebalance it </li></ul>
  14. 15. Succession <ul><li>Primary succession – occurs where living organisms have not lived before – rare in nature – ie lava flow </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary succession – an ecosystem is damaged or partly destroyed – remnants of the community still exist </li></ul>
  15. 16. Habitat & Niche <ul><li>A habitat is the environment where plants and animals live. A place </li></ul><ul><li>Niche is the function that an organism has in its ecosystem. A role </li></ul>
  16. 17. Competitive Advantage <ul><li>When one organism is better able to survive in a environment than another </li></ul><ul><li>Competitive exclusion: when two or more species cannot co-exist in an area with limited resource </li></ul>
  17. 18. Range of tolerance <ul><li>The ability of an organism to survive change in its environment </li></ul><ul><li>The greater the range of tolerance for an organism, the greater its ability to survive </li></ul><ul><li>Largely determined by its inherited ability to adapt to new environmental conditions </li></ul>
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