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Ecology review 2
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  • 1. Ecology Review The branch of Biology that describes relationships between organisms and the environments in which they live
  • 2. Principles
    • The law of conservation of matter:
    • Matter can be changed from one form to another
    • but it cannot be created or destroyed
  • 3. 1 st law of energy
    • Energy cannot be created or destroyed but can be converted from one form to another
      • Radiant energy – sun
      • Chemical energy – photosynthesis
      • Kinetic energy – animal movement
      • Thermal energy – creating heat
  • 4. 2 nd law of energy
    • Every time energy is converted from one form to another, energy is lost in the form of heat
  • 5. Energy Cycle
    • The fundamental source of energy in almost all ecosystems is radiant energy from the sun
    • energy and organic matter are passed along an ecosystem's food chain.
    • Organisms are classified based upon the number of energy transfers through a food web
  • 6. Primary Production
    • Photoautotrophic production of organic matter represents the first energy transfer in ecosystems
  • 7. 2 nd Trophic Level
    • Consumption of a plant by a herbivore is the second energy transfer,
    • Herbivores occupy the second trophic level,
    • also known as secondary production.
  • 8. Consumers
    • Consumer organisms that are one, two, or three transfers from autotrophs are classified as primary, secondary, and tertiary consumers.
  • 9. Energy Loss
    • Moving through a food web, energy is lost during each transfer as heat, as described by the second law of thermodynamics.
  • 10. Energy Loss
    • Consequently, the total number of energy transfers rarely exceeds four or five ;
    • with energy loss during each transfer, little energy is available to support organisms at the highest levels of a food web.
  • 11. Cycles
    • Carbon Cycle
    • Nitrogen Cycle
    • Water Cycle
  • 12. Ecological Classifications
    • Organism – individual plant or animal
    • Population – groups of similar organisms in a defined area
    • Community – All of the populations of organisms in a defined area
    • Ecosystem – All of the communities of living organisms plus the abiotic – rocks, water, soil,
  • 13.  
  • 14. Balance
    • Ecosystems are balanced when living organisms equal the available resources
    • Unbalanced ecosystems occur when a organism or organisms over consume the available resources
    • If an ecosystem becomes unbalanced, an adaptation must occur to rebalance it
  • 15. Succession
    • Primary succession – occurs where living organisms have not lived before – rare in nature – ie lava flow
    • Secondary succession – an ecosystem is damaged or partly destroyed – remnants of the community still exist
  • 16. Habitat & Niche
    • A habitat is the environment where plants and animals live. A place
    • Niche is the function that an organism has in its ecosystem. A role
  • 17. Competitive Advantage
    • When one organism is better able to survive in a environment than another
    • Competitive exclusion: when two or more species cannot co-exist in an area with limited resource
  • 18. Range of tolerance
    • The ability of an organism to survive change in its environment
    • The greater the range of tolerance for an organism, the greater its ability to survive
    • Largely determined by its inherited ability to adapt to new environmental conditions