Pomology Plant: Apple Tree Term: Pomes
Apple tree: Malus domestica
- Mature size is 10 – 40 ft, but many dwarf and columnar varieties are available
- Grows in any slightly acidic, well-drained soil
- Blooms in Mid-spring, fruit production mid-summer to mid fall depending on variety
- A fleshy fruit, such as an apple, pear, or quince, having several seed chambers and an outer fleshy part largely derived from the hypanthium
- How many can you think of
Most common Virginia Apples
- Red Delicious, Cortland, Gala,
- Golden Delicious, Paula Red, Crispin,
- Jonagold Jonamac, Jonathan
- Arkansas Black York, Redfree,
Rootstock 2-3 Good 4 – 8 35% Mark or M9 2-4 Poor 8-12 50 M26 3-4 Fair 10-14 70 M7a 3-4 Excellent 12-16 80 MM.106 4-6 Excellent 14-18 85 MM.111 6 - 10 Excellent 15-18 100 Seedling Years to production Anchorage Spacing Tree size % Rootstock
Central Leader Form
- Apple blossoms form in Spring (May)
- Cross pollinated by bees.
- Ovules within the ovary become apple seeds.
- The petals from the blossoms fall off & the ovary starts growing.
- The ovary is surrounded by a thin protective layer. This layer eventually becomes the apple core.
- The outer layer surrounding the ovary becomes the exocarp, or the eating part of the apple.
- The calyx, stamens, and pistils become the dry, hairy part at the bottom of the apple.
- Order trees from nurseries.
- Begin pruning apple trees.
- Apply fertilizer 4 to 6 weeks before bloom.
- Apply dormant oil spray , green tip, prepink, and pink spray s for insects and diseases.
- Measures to control weeds should begin early in the season.
- Install rodent guards around trunk of newly planted trees.
- Thin fruit with chemicals or by hand.
- Apply petal fall and first cover spray.
- Remove fireblight strikes.
- Discourage deer from eating young shoots by using commercially available repellents.
- Apply second and third cover sprays.
- Harvest early summer varieties.
- Apply forth & fifth cover sprays.
- Irrigate when soil is dry
- Harvest summer varieties.
- Apply sixth & seventh cover spray.
- Irrigate when soil is dry.
- Harvest early fall varieties.
- Take soil samples to determine next year's fertilizer needs.
- Remove fruit as they fall to ground. Remove and dispose of decaying, hanging fruit.
- Check the ground around trees for mouse activity and take control measures
- Apply lime if soil tests indicate a need.
- Cover trunks and lower branches of young trees with white latex paint to reduce winter injury.
- Update your record book for application dates for fertilizer and pesticides.
- Apple trees are normally pruned as central leader trees
Types of pruning cuts
- Get new growth at the tips
- Cut whole branches to the stem or trunk
- Get more vigorous growth on the remaining branches
Where to cut
How to cut large branches